Skip to main content

Full text of "A rationale upon the Book of common prayer of the Church of England"

See other formats



£. -^-io -i-s 











1 1, 

M f^^K lA I'^l 




^^^^^h' "^'i 




The Litany to be said or sung in the midst of the 
<'iicitciia. The Priest goeth from out of his seat 
into the J*ody of the Chukch, and (at a low desk 
()efore the Chancel door, called the Fald-stoOT), 
kpeels, and says or sings the Litajsy. See the Prophet 
'ncl, chap. ii. 17. 

1 Iiijunct. Kliaal). XVllI., A.D. ISW; Sp«r. Artie, p. 83; CarilweU'« Doeulnenliiy 
il», X. p. W. vol. i. i Bishnp Anilrcwes' Notc» upon the Liturgy, p. 23, «t the end 
' ichols un the Commou Prayer. 

C) . _ — o 




dTlbtttcS of lEnglanlif. 






o o 







By the Right Reverend Father in God 


Lord Bishop of Exon. 


His CAUTION to his Diocese 

against False Doctrines. 

L O N D N, 
Printed for Blanche Pawlet, at the Sign 
of the Bible in Chancery -Lane, 
near Fleet-Street, 1684. 





Advent Sundays 90 

All Saints 190 

Ascension Day . 149 

Ash Wednesday 116 

Baptism 228 

Burial of the Dead 281 

Caution Sermon 341 

Chancels, Altars, Fashion of Chuiches. . . 299 

Christmas Day . 93 

Churching of "Women ...... 285 

Circumcision, Feast of. .... . 101 


Collects from Septuagesima to Easter 
Commemorations, Synodals, Pye, &c. 
Commination .... 
Communion Service 
of the Sick 


Conversion of St. Paul . . . . 

Daily saying Morning and Evening Prayers. 
Dedication of Churches and Chapels . 
Divine Service may be said privately 



o — o 



Easter 130 

Ember Week 118 

Epiphany 105 

Good Friday 127 

Gunpowder Treason 326 

Holy Days ........ 82 

King Charles' Birth 333 

Martyrdom 329 

Lent 113 

Matins, or Morning Service 12 

Matrimony ........ 254 

Maunday Thursday 1 25 

Ornaments to be used 310 

Priest, the word . . . • . . .312 

Private Baptism 242 

Purification of the Virgin Mary . . . .184 

Septuagesima Sunday Ill 

Sexagesima and Quinquagesima Sundays . .112 
St. Stephen, St. John, Innocents . . . .97 
St. Andrew . . . . . • . .183 

St. Philip and St. James 186 

St. John Baptist 189 

St. Michael 190 

Translation of Psalms 317 

Trinity Sunday 165 

Visitation of the Sick 262 

Whitsunday . . . « • • .157 

o -o 






@|)utcD of lEnglani) 


Dr. CRANMER, Arclibishop of Canterbury. 

Dr. GOODRICK, Bishop of Ely. 

Dr. skip, Bishop of Hereford. 

Dr. THIRLBY, Bishop of Westminster. 

Dr. day, Bishop of Chichester. 

Dr. HOLBECK, Bishop of Lincoln. 

Dr. RIDLEY, Bishop of Rochester. 

Dr. may, Dean of St. Paul's. 

Dr. TAYLOR, Dean of Lincoln. 

Dr. HEYNES, Dean of Exeter. 

Dr. REDMAN, Dean of Westminster. 

Dr. cox, King Edward's Almoner. 

Dr. M. ROBINSON, Archdeacon of L icester. 

Mense Maio, 1549. 
Anno Regni Edwardi Sexti tertio. 



" Hardly can the pride of those that study novelties 
allow former times any share or degree of wis- 
dom or godliness." — King Charles, Medita- 
tion xvi. upon the Ordinance against the Book 
of Common Prayer in his EIKilN BA2. p. 93. 





NTHONY SPARROW, Bishop suc- 
cessively of Exeter and Norwich, 
was bom at Depden in Suffolk, and was 
educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, of 
which Society he became Scholar and Fellow. 
In 1643 he was ejected, with the rest of 
the body, for their loyalty to King Charles 
in refusing the Covenant. Soon afterwards 
he accepted the Rectory of Hawkenden in 
his own county, but was again ejected, when 
he had held it only five weeks, for reading 



o ' 

viii editor's prefacb. 

the Common Prayer. It was during this 
sorrowful time, in the 3'ear 1657, when the 
enemies of the Church were triumphant, that 
he pubhshed the work now presented to the 
Christian Reader. On the Restoration, he 
was reinstated in his living, elected one of 
the Preachers at St. Edraond's Bury, and 
promoted to the Archdeaconry of Sudbury, 
and a Prebendal Stall in the Church of Ely. 
While in possession of his living he ex- 
pended a considerable sum of money upon 
it, and he resigned it, together with his 
Preachership, in 1662, on his being elected 
Master of Queen's College. On November 3, 
1667, he was consecrated Bishop of Exeter, 
and on the death of Dr. Reynolds, in 1676, 
was translated to the See of Norwich, where 
he died in 1688. Besides his Rationale, he 
is known as the Author of a Collection of 

o 6 

O — V 

editor's preface. ix 

Articles, Canons, &c. of the English Church, 
a work which made its first appearance in 

The present Edition is printed from that of 
1684, the last which appeared in the Author's 
lifetime ; in which, however, he did not think 
it necessary to alter the Rubrics and Collects 
as they stood when it was first published, 
according to the revised Prayer Book put 
forth by authority of Convocation in 1661. 
These necessary substitutions have here been 
made ; the older forms being added at the 
foot of the page. 

The references have all been verified with 
great care and exactness by the Rev. George 
Berkeley, of Pembroke College, and Curate 
of St. Aldate's, to whom the Edition is other- 
wise much indebted. 

C (J 

o o 

X editor's preface. 

The Reader will find one or two historical 
inaccuracies on the part of Bishop Sparrow 
in the course of the volume, which however 
are not of consequence enough to require 
more than this passing allusion ; such as the 
ascription of the Te Deum to St. Ambrose, 
the Creed of St. Athanasius to the Father 
whose name it bears. 


Oriel College, 
September 6, 1839. 

6 -o 




HE present age pretends so great 
love to reason, that this Rationale 
may, even for its name, hope for acceptation ; 
which it will the sooner have, if the Reader 
know that the Author vents it not for a 
full and just, much less a pubUc and au- 
thentic piece, but as his own private Essay 
(wholly submitted to the censure of our holy 
mother the Church, and the reverend Fathers 
of the same), and composed on purpose to 
keep some from moving that way, which, it 

o_ n 


is feared, some will say it leads to. The 
Author's design was not by rhetoric first to 
court the affections, and then by their help 
to carry the understanding; but quite con- 
! trary, by reason to work upon the judgment, 
and leave that to deal with the affections. 

The poor Liturgy suffers from two ex- 
tremes; one sort says it is old superstitious 
Roman dotage.; the other, it is schismatically 
new. This book endeavours to shew par- 
ticularly, what Bishop Jewel says in general* ; 
I. That it is agreeable to primitive usage, 
and so, not novel. II. That it is a reason- 
able SERVICE, and so not superstitious. As 
for those that love it, and suffer for the 
love of it, this will shew them reasons why 
they should suffer on, and love it still more 

• Juell. Apoll. p. 155. Lond. 1692. 

c o 

o o 

PREFACE. xiii 

and more. To end, if the Reader will cast 
his eye upon the sad confusions in point of 
prayer, (wherein are such contradictions made 
as God Almighty cannot grant,) and lay 
them as rubbish under these fundamental 
considerations ; first, how many set forms (of 
petition, blessing, and praise) be recorded in 
the Old and New Testament, used both in 
the Church mihtant and triumphant; secondly, 
how much of the Liturgy is very Scripture ; 
thirdly, how admirable a thing Unity, (unity 
in time, form, &c.) is ; fourthly, how many 
millions of poor souls are in the world, ig- 
norant, infirm by nature, age, accidents, (as 
bUndness, deafness, loss of speech, &c.) which 
respectively may receive help by set forms, 
but cannot so well (or not at all) by extem- 
porary voluntary effusions, and then upon all 
these will build what he reads in this book; 

6- o 

o P 


he will, if not be convinced to join in com- 
munion with, yet perhaps be so sweetened 
as more readily to pardon those who, still 
abiding in their former judgments, and being 
more confirmed hereby, do use the ancient 


c ^o 





13oofe of ©omnxon ^3cagcr. 

The Common Prayer Book contains in it many 
Holy Offices of the Cliurcli ; as Prayers, Confes- 
sion of Faith, Holy Hymns, Divine Lessons, Priestly 
Absolutions, and Benedictions ; all which are set 
and prescribed, not left to private men's fancies, to 
make or alter. So was it of old ordained*, " It 
is ordained that the prayers, prefaces, impositions 
of hands, which are confirmed by the Synod, be 
observed and used by all men." These and no 
other. So is our English canon »>. The council of 

» Con. Carth.Can. cvi. ap. Balsamon. p. 726. 

•> Can. xiii. Due celebration of Sundays and holydays. 



i o 



Milevis gives the reason of this constitution*, j 
" Lest through ignorance or carelessness, any thing ; 
contrary to the faith should be vented or uttered | 
before God, or offered up to Him in the church." 

And as these offices are set and prescribed, so 
are they moreover appointed to be one and the 
same throughout the whole national Church. So 
was it of old ordained''. " That all governors of 
Churches, and their people, should observe one 
and the same rite and order of service, which they 
knew to be appointed in the metropolitan see." 
The same is ordered in the 2nd Council of Braga*, 
and at the 4th Council of Toledo ^. " It is appointed 
that one and the same order of praying and singing 
be observed by us all ; and that there should not be 
variety of usages by them that are bound to the 
same faith, and live in the same dominion. This 
for conformity's sake, that according to Divine 
Canon, " we may with one mind and one mouth 
glorify Gods." 

<: Can. xii. torn. ii. p. 1540. "i Cone. Tolet. xi. Can. iii. 

torn. vi. p. 546. " Can. i. torn. v. p. 840. 

' Can. ji. torn. v. p. 1704. t Rom. xv. 6. 

G — — O 


iJK^orning ant> Icbcning Prater. 

All priests shall be bound to say daily the 
preface before the service, Rubric 2. 

So was it of old ordered in the Church of 
Christ'. And this is agreeable to God's own law. 
" Thou shalt offer upon the altar two lambs of the 
first year, day by day continually ; the one lamb in 
the morning, the other at evening''." Besides the 
daily private devotions of every pious soul, and 
the more solemn sacrifices upon the three great 
feasts of the year ; Almighty God requires a 
daily public worship, a continual burnt-offering, 
every day, morning and evening. " Teaching us 
by this," saith St. Chrysostom, " that God must be 
worshipped daily when the day begins, and when 

>■ And all Priests and Deacons are to say daily the Morning 
and Evening Prayer, either privately or openly, not being let by 
sickness, or some other urgent cause. 

i S. Chrysostom. Horn. vi. 1 Ep. ad Tim. cap. ii. torn. xi. p. 579. 
Clement. Constit. 1. II. cap. nxxix. Pat. Apost. Coteler. torn. i. 
p. 252. I" Exod. xxix. 38, 39. 



o o 


it ends, and every day must be a kind of holy day." 
Thus it was commanded under the law; and 
certainly we Christians are as much at least obliged 
to God, as the Jews were ; our grace is greater, 
our promises clearer, and therefore our righteous- 
ness should every way exceed theirs, our homage 
to Almighty God should be paid as frequ'-ntly at 
least. Morning and evening, to be sure, God 
expects from us as well as from the Jews, a public 
worship ; " a sweet savour," or, " savour of rest," 
as it is in the Hebrew ' ; without which God 
Almighty will not rest satisfied. 

This public service and worship under the law 
was appointed by God Himself, both for matter and 
manner of performance", but under the Gospel, 
our Lord hath appointed only the materials and 
essentials of His public worship : in general, 
prayers, thanksgivings, confessions, lauds, hymns, 
and eucharistical sacrifices are commanded to be 
offered up in the name of Christ ; in the virtue 
and merits of that Immaculate Lamb, whereof 
the other was but a type, and for whose sake alone 
that was accepted : but for the manner and order 
of His public worship, for the method of off"ering 
up prayers or praises, and the like, our Lord hath 
not so particularly determined how, but hath left 
that to be ordered and appointed by those to 
whom He said at His departure out of this world, 

' Num. xxviii. 6. °> Exod. xxix. 38. 

o o 

o o 


"As My Father sent Me, so send I you°," to govern 
the Church in His absence, viz. the Apostles, and 
their successors in the Apostolic Commission. And 
therefore, the public prayers of the Church are 
called the Apostles' Prayers. The disciples are 
commended there for " continuing in the Apo- 
stles' doctrine, fellowship, breaking of bread, and 
prayers"." And therefore St. Paul writes to Timothy, 
the bishop and governor of the Church of Ephesus, 
to take care that prayers and supplications be made 
for all men ; especially for kings, &c.p And 
concerning the manner of celebrating the holy 
Eucharist, St. Paul gives some directions, and 
adds, " The rest will I set in order when I comei." 
And, " let all things%" i. e. all your public services, 
for of those he treats in the chapter at large, 
" be done decently and Kurk rd^iv," according to 
Ecclesiastical Law and Canon. 

The service and worship of God thus prescribed, 
according to our Lord's general rules, by those to 
whom He hath left a commission and power to 
order and govern His Church, is the right public 
service and worship of God, commanded by Himself 
in His law : for though God hath not immediately 
and particularly appointed this public woi"ship, yet 
He hath in general commanded a public worship in 
the second commandment. For where it is said, 

"John XX. 21. "Actsii. 42. p 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. 

<! 1 Cor. xi. 34. ' 1 Cor. xiv. 40. 

o o 

o o 


" Thou shalt not bow down to them, nor worship 
them ;" by the rule of contraries, we are commanded 
to bow down to God, and worship Him. A public 
worship then God must have, by His own command; 
and the governors of the Church have prescribed 
this form of worship for that public service and 
worship of God in this Church, which being so pre- 
scribed, becomes God's service and worship by His 
own law, as well as the lamb was His sacriiicc. 

For the clear understanding of this, we must 
know that some laws of God do suppose some 
human act to pass and intervene, before they 
actually bind ; which act of man being once passed, 
they bind immediately. For example, " Thou shalt 
not steal," is God's law, which law cannot bind 
actually, till men be possessed of some goods and 
property ; which property is not usually determined 
by God Himself immediately, but by the laws of 
him, to whom He hath given authority to determine 
it. God hath given the earth to the children of 
men, as He gave Canaan to the Israelites in general ; 
but men cannot say this is mine, till human laws 
or acts determine the property ; as the Israelites 
could not claim a property on this or that side 
Jordan, till Moses had assigned them their several 
portions, but when their portions were so assigned, 
they might say This is mine, by God's as well as 
man's law; and he that took away their right, 

• Exod. xxix. 38, 39. 

o o 

o o 


sinned not only against man's, but God's law too, 
that says, " Thou shalt not steal." In like manner, 
God hath in general commanded a public worship 
and service, but hath not, under the Gospel, assigned 
the particular form and method ; that He hath left 
to His ministers and delegates, the governors of the 
Church, to determine agreeable to His general rules; 
which being so determined, is God's service and 
worship not only by human, but even by Divine 
law also : and all other public services whatsoever, 
made by private men, to whom God hath given 
no such commission, are strange worship*, because 
not commanded ; for example, as under the 
law, when God had appointed a lamb for a 
burnt offering", that alone was the right daily 
worship, the " savour of rest," because commanded, 
and all other sacrifices whatsoever, offered up in 
the place of that, though of far more value and 
price than a lamb, suppose twenty oxen, would 
have been strange sacrifice : so now the public 
worship of God prescribed, as we have said, by those 
to whom He hath given commission, is the only 
true and right public worship ; and all other forms 
and methods ofi'ered up instead of that, though 
never so exactly drawn, are strange worship, because 
not commanded. It is not the elegancy of the 
phrase, nor the fineness of the composition, that 
makes it acceptable to God, as His worship and 

o o 

o o 



service ; but obedience is the thing accepted. 
" Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to 
hearken than the fat of rams ^." 

This holy service offered up to God by the priest, 
in the name of the Church, is far more acceptable 
to Almighty God than the devotions of any private 

For, first, it is the service of the whole Church, 
which, every man that holds communion with that 
Church, hath consented to, and said. Amen : and 
agreed that it should be off'ered up to God by the 
priest in the name of the Church, and, " if what any 
two of you shall agree to ask upon earth, it shall 
be granted^;" how much more, what is asked 
of God or off'ered up to God by the common 
vote and joint desire of the whole body of the 
Church ! 

Besides, this public service and worship of God 
is commanded by God, i. e. by those whom He hath 
empowered to command and appoint it, to be offered 
up to Him in the behalf of the Church, and there- 
fore must needs be most acceptable to Him, which 
is so appointed by Him ; for what He commands 
He accepts most certainly. Private devotions and 
services of particular men, which are off'ered by 
themselves, for themselves, are sometimes accepted, 
j sometimes refused by God, according as the persons 
I are aff'ected to vice or virtue : but this public 

I ' 1 Sam. XV. 22. ' Matt, xviii. 19. 

o o 

o o 


worship is like that lamhy commanded to be offered 
by the priest for others, for the Church, and there- 
fore accepted, whatsoever the priest be that offers 
it up. And therefore King David prays, " Let the 
lifting up of my hands be an evening sacrifice^," 
i. e. as surely accepted as that evening sacrifice 
of the lamb, which no iudevotion or sin of the 
priest could hinder, but that it was most certainly 
accepted for the Church, because commanded to 
be offered for the Church*. 

This public service is accepted of God, not only 
for those that are present, and say Amen to it ; but 
for all those that are absent upon just cause, even 
for all that do not renounce communion with it 
and the Church ; for it is the common service of 
them all, commanded to be offered up in the names 
of them all, and agreed to by all of them to be 
oflfered up for them all, and therefore is accepted 
for all them, though presented to God by the priest 
alone, as the lamb offered up to God by the priest •> 
was the sacrifice of the whole congregation of the 
children of Israel, "a sweet smelling savour, a 
savour of rest," to pacify God Almighty daily, and 
to continue His favour to them, and make Him 
dwell with them"'. 

Good reason therefore it is, that this sweet 

y Exod. xxix. ' Psalm cxli. 2. 

» S. Chrysostom. Horn, in Psalm cxl. torn. v. p. 430. B.C.D. 

i" Exod. xxix. "^ Exod. xxix. 42, 45. 

o — — o 

o o 


smelling savour should be daily offered up to God 
morning and evening, whereby God may be 
pacified and invited to dwell amongst His people. 
And whatsoever the world think, thus to be the 
Lord's remembrancers, putting Him in mind of the 
people's wants'*, "being as it were the angels of 
the Lord," interceding for the people, and carrying 
up the daily prayers of the Church in their behalf, 
is one of the most useful and principal parts of the 
Priest's office. So St. Paul tells us, who in the 
1 Ep. to Tim. chap. ii. exhorts Bishop Timothy, 
that he should take care first of all that this holy 
service be offered up to God. " I exhort first of 
all, that prayers and supplications, intercessions 
and giving of thanks be made for all men ; for 
kings," &c. " What is the meaning," says St. Chry- 
sostom, " of this ' first of all ?' I will that this holy 
service be offered up daily, and the faithful know how 
we observe this rule of St. Paul, offering up daily this 
holy sacrifice morningand evenings" St. Paul in the 
first chapter of this Epistle, at ver. 18, had charged 
his son Timothy to " war a good warfare, to hold 
faith and a good conscience ;" and presently adds, " I 
exhort, therefore, that first of all, prayers, &c., be 
made." As if he had said, you cannot possibly hold 
faith and a good conscience in your pastoral office, 
unless "first of all," you be careful to make and offer 

"• Isaiah Ixii. 
; • S.Chrysostom. lEp.adTim. cap. ii. torn. xi.p.579.A. 

o 6 

o o 


up prayers, &c. For this is the first thing to be done, 
and most highly to be regarded by you. Preaching 
is a very useful part of the Priest's office ; and 
St. Paul exhorts Timothy to " preach the word, be 
instant in season, out of seasonV and the more 
because he was a Bishop, and to plant and water 
many Churches in the infancy of Christianity 
among many seducers and temptations: but yet 
" first of all" he exhorts, that this daily office of pre- 
senting prayers to the throne of grace in the behalf 
of the Church be carefully looked to. This charge 
of St. Paul to Timothy holy Church here lays 
upon all those that are admitted into that holy 
office of the ministry, that they should offijr up to 
God this holy sacrifice of prayers, praises, and 
thanksgivings ; this " savour of rest," daily, morn- 
ing and evening. And would all those whom it 
concerns look well to this part of their office, I 
should not doubt but that God would be as 
gracious and bountiful to us in the perfonnance 
of this service, as He promised to be to the Jews 
in the offering of the lamb morning and evenings. 
He would meet us and speak with us, that is, 
graciously answer our petitions ; He would dwell 
with us and be our God, and we should know, by 
comfortable experiments of His great and many 
blessings, that He is the Lord our God. 

f 2 Timothy iv. 2. g Exodus xxix. 43, 44. 

o o 












^fe OB <^ 

i^ornfng Sbttbice, 

The Matins and Evensong begin with one 
sentence'' of holy Scripture, after which follows 
the Exhortation, declaring to the people the end 
of their public meeting ; namely, to confess 


FORTH His praise, to hear His holy word, 


is to prepare their hearts, which it does most 
excellently, to the performance of these holy duties 
with devotion, according to the counsel of Ecclus. 
xviii. 23. " Before thou prayest prepare thyself, 
and be not as one that tempteth God." To which 
agrees that of Ecclesiastes v. 2. " Be not hasty to 
utter any thing before God ; for God is in heaven, 
and thou upon earth." 

The Priest and the people, being thus prepared, 
make their confession, which is to be done with 

•^ Some one or more of these sentences. 


o o 


AN HUMBLE VOICE, as it is in the exhortation. 
Our Church's direction in this particular is grave 
and conform to ancient rules. The 6th Council of 
Const, (in TrulloS) forbids all disorderly and rude 
vociferation in the execution of holy services ; and 
St. Cyprian'' advises thus; "Let our speech and 
voice in prayer be with discipline, still and modest: 
let us consider that we stand in the presence of 
God, who is to be pleased both with the habit and 
posture of our body, and manner of our speech : 
for as it is a part of impudence to be loud and 
clamorous, so on the contrary it becomes modesty 
to pray with an humble voice." 

We begin our service with confession of sins, and 
so was the use in St. Basil's time'. And that very 
orderly. For before we beg any thing else, or offer up 
any praise or lauds to God, it is fit we should con- 
fess and beg pardon of our sins, which hinder God's 
acceptation of our services. " If I regard iniquity 
in mine heart, the Lord will not hear me'"." 

" This confession is to be said by the whole con- 
gregation," says the Rubric. And good reason. For 
"could there be any thing devised better," says 
Hooker, " than that we all at our first access unto 
God by prayer, should acknowledge meekly our 
sins ; and that not only in heart but with tongue ; 
all that are present being made earnest witnesses, 

• Can. Ixxv. torn. vi. p. 1176. ' De Oiatione Dominica, p. 140. 
' Ep. ccvii. cap. 3. B. torn. iii. p. 311. "■ Psalm Ixvi. 18. 


O o 


even of every man's distinct and deliberate assent ■ 
to each particular branch of a common indictment i 
drawn against ourselves ? How were it possible I 
that the Church should any way else with such 
ease and certainty provide, that none of her children 
may, as Adam, dissemble that wretchedness, the 
penitent confession whereof is so necessary a pre- 
amble, especially to common prayer » ?" 

Next follows the Absolution, to be pronounced 
by the Priest alone, standing. For though the 
Rubric ° here does not appoint this posture, yet 
it is to be supposed in reason that he is to do it 
here, as he is to do it in other places of the service. 
And in the Rubric after the General Confession at 
the communion, the Bishop or Priest is ordered to 
pronounce the Absolution, standing. Besides, 
reason teaches that acts of authority are not to be 
done kneeling, but standing rather. And this 
Absolution is an act of authority, by virtue of a 


Ministers, as it is in the preface of this Absolu- 
tion. And as we read, " Whose soever sins ye remit, 
they are remitted p." And if our confession be 
serious and hearty, this Absolution is effectual | 

° Hooker's Eecles. Pol. vol. 2. b. v. ch. xxxvi. § 2. p. 200. 

° The absolution, or remission of sins, to be pronounced by | 

the priestalone, standing; the people still kneeling. > 

V John XX. 23. ! 

6 o 

o n 


as if God did pronounce it from heaven. So 
says the confession of Saxony i and Bohemia' ; 
and so says the Augustan Confession ' ; and, which 
is more, so says St. Chrysostom ', " Heaven waits 
and expects the Priest's sentence here on earth ; 
the Lord follows the servant, and what the 
sertant rightly binds or looses here on earth, that 
the Lord confinns in heaven." The same says St. 
Gregory the Great, in his Homily xxvi." upon the 
Gospels. " The Apostles, and in them all Priests, 
were made God's vicegerents here on earth in 
His name and stead to retain or remit sins." St. 
Augustine and Cyprian, and generally antiquity 
says the same ; so does our Church in many 
places, particularly in the fonn of Absolution 
for the sick : but above all, holy Scripture is clear, 
" ^\niose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted 
unto them "." Which power of remitting sins was 
not to end with the Apostles, but is a part of the 
ministry of reconciliation, as necessary now as it 
was then, and therefore to continue as long as the 
ministry of reconciliation, that is, to the end of the 
world ^. When therefore the Priest absolves, God 
absolves, if we be truly penitent. Now this remission 
of sins granted here to the Priest, to which God 
hath promised a confirmation in heaven, is not the 

1 De Poenitentia Syll.Conf. cap. xvi. p. 251.' ch. xiv. of the keys 
of Christ, p. 250. Prot.Conf. of Faith. • De Confessione, p. 163. et 
de Potest. Eceles.SyU.Conf. p. 188. 'Horn. v. Isa. vi.l.tom. 1. p. 
'H2.M. °tom.ui.p.82.F. 'Johnxx.23. "Ephes.iv.l2, 13. 

6 6 

o — o 


act of preaching or baptizing, or admitting men to 
the holy communion ; for all these powers were 
given before this grant was made, as you may see 
St. Matt. X. 7. " As ye go, preach, saying," &c. 
And St. John iv. 2. " Though Jesus baptized not, 
but His disciples." And 1 Cor. xi. 23. in the same 
night that He was betrayed. He instituted and 
delivered the Eucharist, and gave His Apostles 
authority to do the like : Do this, that I have done, 
bless the elements, and distribute them ; which is 
plainly a power of admitting men to the holy 
Eucharist. And all these powers were granted 
before our Saviour's resurrection. But this power 
of remitting sins '^, mentioned in St. John, was not 
granted (though promised y) till now, that is, after 
the resurrection ; as appears, first, by the ceremony 
of breathing, signifying that then it was given ; and, 
secondly, by the word " receive," used in that place^, 
which He could not properly have used, if they had 
been endued with this power before. Therefore the 
power of remitting, which here God authorizes, and 
promises certain assistance to, is neither preaching 
nor baptizing, but some other way of remitting ; 
namely, that which the Church calls Absolution. 
And if it be so, then to doubt of the effect of it, 
supposing we be truly penitent, and such as God will 
pardon, is to question the truth of God ; and he that 
under pretence of reverence to God, denies or despises 

» John XX. 23. y Matt. xvi. 19. ' John xx. 22. 

o 6 

o — o 


this power, does injury to God in slighting His 
commission, and is no better than a Novatian, says 
St. Ambrose'. 

After the Priest hath pronounced the Absolution, 
the Church seasonably prays, wherefore we 
BESEECH Him to grant us true repentance, 
AND His Holy Spirit, &c. For as repentance is 
a necessary disposition to pardon, so as that neither 
God will, nor man can, absolve those that are 
impenitent ; so is it in some parts of it a necessary 
consequent of pardon ; and he that is pardoned, 
ought still to repent, as he that seeks a pardon. 
Repentance, say divines, ought to be continual. 
For whereas repentance consists of three parts, as 
the Church teaches us in the Commination. I. 
Contrition or lamenting of our sinful lives; II. 
Acknowledging and confessing our sins ; III. An 
endeavour to bring forth fruits worthy of penance, 
which the ancients call satisfaction ; two of these, 
contrition and satisfaction, are requisite after 
pardon. The remembrance of sin though pardoned, 
must always be grievous to us. For, to be pleased 
with the remembrance of it, would be sin to us : 
and for satisfaction or amendment of life, and 
bringing forth fruits worthy of penance, that is not 
only necessary after pardon, but it is the more 
necessary, because of pardon, for divers reasons; 
as first, because immediately after pardon, the 
I » De Poenit. 1. i. cap. ii. torn. ii. p. 392. 

o o 

o o 


devil is most busy to tempt us to sin, that we may 
thereby lose our pardon, and he may so recover 
us again to his captivity, from which by pardon 
we are freed : and therefore in our Lord's Prayer, 
as soon as we have begged pardon, and prayed, 
" Forgive us our trespasses," we are taught to pray, 
" And lead us not into temptation," suffer us not 
to fall into sin again : which very method Holy 
Church here wisely intimates, immediately after 
pardon pronounced, directing us to pray for that 
part of repentance which consists in amendment of 
life, and for the grace of God's Holy Spirit enabling 
us thereunto. Again, repentance in this part of it, 
viz. an endeavour of amendment of life, is the 
more necessary upon pardon granted, because the 
grace of pardon is a new obligation to live well, 
and makes the sin of him that relapsed after pardon 
the greater ; and therefore the pardoned had need 
to pray for that part of repentance and the grace 
of God's Holy Spirit, that both his present service 
and future life may please God ; that is, that he 
may observe our Saviour's rule given to him that 
was newly cured and pardoned by Him, that he 
may go away and " sin no more, lest a worse thing 
happen to him**." 

There be three several forms of absolution in 
the service. The first is that which is used at 
morning prayer. Almighty God, the Father 

^ John V. 14. 

o o 

o o 


OF OUR Lord Jesus Christ, &c. And hath 


The second is used at the Visitation of the Sick. 
Our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath left power 
TO His Church to absolve all sinners who 
truly repent, OF His great mercy forgive 


The third is at the Communion. Almighty 
God our heavenly Father, who of His great 


All these several forms, in sense and viitue, are 
the same ; for as when a prince hath granted a 
commission to any servant of his, to release out of 
prison all penitent offenders whatsoever, it were all 
one in effect, as to the prisoners' discharge, whether 
this servant says. By virtue of a commission granted 
to me under the prince's hand and seal, which 
here I shew, I release this prisoner ; or thus, The 
prince who hath given me this commission, he 
pardons you; or lastly, The prince pardon and 
deliver you, the prince then standing by and 

o o 

o — o 


confirming the word of his servant : so is it here 
all one as to the remission of sins in the penitent, 
whether the Priest absolves him after this form ; 
Almighty God, who hath given me and all Priests 
power to pronounce pardon to the penitent, He 
pardons you ; or thus. By virtue of a commission 
granted to me from God, I absolve you ; or lastly, 
God pardon you, namely, by me His servant, 
according to His promise, " Whose sins ye remit, 
they are remitted." All these are but several 
expressions of the same thing, and are effectual to 
the penitent by virtue of that commission mentioned 
in St. John xx. " Whose sins ye remit, they are 
remitted." Which commission in two of these 
forms is expressed, and in the last, viz. that at the 
Communion, is sufficiently implied and supposed. 
For the Priest is directed, in using this form, to 
stand up and turn to the people. Rubric immedi- 
ately before it. Which behaviour certainly signifies 
more than a bare prayer for the people, for if it 
were only a prayer for the people, he should not 
be directed to stand and turn to the people when 
he speaks, but to God from the people ; this gesture 
of standing and turning to the people signifies a 
message of God to the people by the mouth of His 
Priest, a part of His ministry of reconciliation, 
a solemn application of pardon to the penitent by 
God's Minister, and is in sense thus much. Al- 
mighty God pardon you by me. Thus the Greek 

o ■ o 

o — o 


Church, from whom this form is borrowed, uses to 
express it and explain it : Almighty God pardon 
you by me. His unworthy servant ; or, Lord, 
pardon him, for Thou hast said, " Whose sins ye 
remit, they are remitted:" sometimes expressing, 
always including God's commission. So then in 
which form soever of these the Absolution be pro- 
nounced, it is in substance the same; an act of 
authority by virtue of Christ's commission, effectual 
to remission of sins in the penitent. 

Of all these fonns, the last, in the Communion 
service, was most used in primitive times by the 
Greek and Latin Church, and scarce any other 
form is to be found in their rituals or ecclesiastical 
history till about four hundred years since, say 
some learned men ; but what then ? is another form 
unlawful ? Hath not the Church power to vary the 
expression, and to signify Christ's power granted to 
her, provided the expression and words be agreeable 
to the sense of that commission ? But it may easily 
be shewn that those other forms are not novelties. 
For even of old in the Greek Church there was 
used as full a form as any the Church of England 
uses : it is true it was not wTitten, nor set down in 
their rituals, but delivered from hand to hand down 
to these times, and constantly used by them in 
their private absolutions. For when the penitent 
came to the spiritual man, (so they called their 
confessor,) for absolution, entreating him in their j 


o — — — — o 

22 THE lobd's prayer. 

vulgar language, UapaKdKw va nov (nryx«p^o'j?s, I 
beseech you, sir, absolve me : the confessor or 
spiritual man, if he thought him fit for pardon, 
answered, ^xo <Te {ruy/cex'^P'JM*'""'; I absolve thee. 
See Arcudius"^ and Goarin his Euchologion <», where 
you may find instances of fonns of Absolution as 
full as any the Church of England uses. 

Then follows the Lord's Prayer. The Church 
of Christ did use to begin and end her services 
with the Lord's Prayer, this being the foundation 
upon which all other prayers should be built, there- 
fore we begin with it ; that so the right foundation 
being laid, we may justly proceed to our ensuing 
requests * ; and it being the perfection of all prayer, 
therefore we conclude our prayers with it'. Let 
no man therefore quarrel with the Church's fre- 
quent use of the Lord's Prayer. For the Church 
Catholic ever did the same. Besides, if we hope 
to have our prayers accepted of the Father only for 
His Son's sake, why should we not hope to have 
them most speedily accepted, when they are offered 
up in His Son's own words ? 

Both in this place and other parts of the service 

' De Poenitentia, 1. iv. cap. ii. p. 370. 

■* Oratio super Poenitentes, p. 673. 

>= Tertullian. de Oratione, cap. ix. x. p. 152, 3. D. A. B. 

' S. August. Epist. cxlix. cap. ii. torn. ii. p. 509. C. 

o o 

o o 

THE lord's prayer. 23 

where the Lord's Prayer is appointed to be used, 
the Doxology, " For Thine is the kingdom" &o., is 
left out*f. The reason is given by learned men, 
because the Doxology is no part of our Lord's 
Prayer. For though in St. Matt. vi. 13, it be added 
in our usual copies, yet in the most ancient manu- 
scripts it is not to be found, no nor in St. Luke's 
copy?', and therefore is thought to be added by the 
Greek Church, who indeed use it in their Liturgies, 
(as the Jews before them did,) but divided from the 
prayer as if it were no part of it. The Latin Church 
generally say it as this Church does, without the 
Doxology, following St. Luke's copy, who setting 
down our Lord's Prayer exactly, with this introduc- 
tion. When you prJiy say, not " after this manner," 
as St. Matthew hath it, but say, " Our Father," &c., 
leaves out the Doxology, and certainly it can be no 
just matter of offence to any reasonable man, that 
the Church uses that fonn which St. Luke tells us 
was exactly the prayer of our Lord. 

In some places, especially among those Ejacula- 
tions which the Priest and people make in course, 
the people are to say the last words — " But de- 
liver us from evil, Amen." That so they may 
not be interrupted from still bearing a part, and 
especially in so Divine a prayer as this, thereby 
giving a fuller testification of their concunence 
I and communion. 

f In the present Book the Doxology is used here, y Luke xi. 

o o 

o o 

24 THE \'EBSES. 

Then follow the verses, 

" O Lord, open Thou our lips." 

"And our mouth shall shew forth Thy praise," &c. 

This is a most wise order of the Church in as- 
signing this place to these verses ; namely, before 
the Psalms, Lessons, and Collects, and yet after 
the Confession and Absolution ; insinuating that 
our mouths are silenced only by sin, and opened 
only by God. And therefore when we meet 
together in the habitation of God's honour, the 
Church, to be thankful to Him, and speak good 
of His name, we must crave of God Almighty first 
pardon of our sins, and then that He would put a 
new song in our mouths, that they may shew forth 
His praise. And because without God's grace we 
can do nothing, and because the devil is then most 
busy to hinder us, when we are most desirously 
bent to serve God : therefore follow immediately 
those short and passionate ejaculations : " O Lobd 
OPEN Thou oub lips, O God make speed to sa%'e 

" Which verses are a most excellent defence 
against all incursions and invasions of the devil, 
against all unruly affections of human nature ; 
for it is a prayer, and an earnest one, to God for 
His help, an humble acknowledgment of our own 
inability to live without Him a minute. O God 
make haste to help us ! If any be ready to faint 
and sink with sorrow, this raises him, by telling 

o o 

o o 


him that God is at hand to help us. If any be apt 
to he proud of spiritual success, this is fit to 
humble him, by minding him that he cannot live 
a moment without Him. It is fit for every man in 
every state, degree, or condition," says Cassianus *". 
The Doxology follows ; Gloky be to the 
Father, &c. which is the Christian's both hymn 
and shorter creed. For what is the sum of the 
Christian's faith but the mystery of the Holy 
Trinity, God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
which neither Jew nor Pagan, but only the 
Christian believes, and in this Doxology professes 
against all heretics old and new ? And as it is a 
short creed, so it is also a most excellent hymn ; 
for the glory of God is the end of our creation, and 
should be the aim of all our services ; whatsoever 
we do, should be done to the glory of that God the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost : and this is all that 
we can either by word or deed give to God, namely, 
Glory. Therefore this hymn fitly serves to close 
any of our religious services, our praises, prayers, 
thanksgivings, confessions of sins or faith. Since 
all these we do to glorify God, it cannot be 
unfitting to close with " Glory be to God the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." It cannot easily be 
expressed how useful this Divine hymn is upon all 
occasions. If God Almighty send us prosperity, 
what can we better return Him, than Glory ? If 

I" CoUatio, 1. X. cap. x. De Oratione, p. 541, 2. 

o o 

o- o 


He sends adversity, it still befits us to say, " Glory 
be to," &c. Whether we receive good, or whether 
we receive evil at the hands of God, we cannot 
say a better grace than " Glory be to the Father," 
&c. In a word, we cannot better begin the day 
when we awake, nor conclude the day when we 
go to sleep, than by " Glory be to the Father, and 
to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost." Then the 
Hallelujah, or Praise ye the Lord ; -of which 
St. Augustine says, " There is nothing that more 
soundly delights, than the praise of God, and a 
continual Hallelujah '." 

O come let us sing unto the Lord. 

This is an invitatory psalm ; for herein we do 
mutually invite and call upon one another being | 
come before His presence, to sing to the Lord, to I 
set forth His praises, to hear His voice, as with joy i 
and cheerfulness, so with that reverence that 
becomes His infinite Majesty, worshipping, falling 
down, and kneeling before Him, using all humble 
behaviour in each part of His service and worship 
prescribed to us by His Church. And needful it 
is that the Church should call upon us for this 
duty, for most of us forget the Psalmist's counsel, 

■ In Ps. cxlviii. torn. iii. p. 1672. et Horn, ccclxii. cap. xxviii. 
torn. V. p. 1435. 

c o 

o o 


"To give unto the Lord the glory due unto His 
Name^" Into His coiu'ts we come, before the 
presence of the Lord of the whole earth, and forget 
to worship Him in the beauty of holiness. 

The Psalms follow, which the Church appoints 
any other part of Holy Scripture : so was it of old 
ordained, saith St. Chrysostom. " All Christians 
exercise themselves in David's Psalms oftener than 
in any other part of the Old or New Testament. 
Moses the great lawgiver, that saw God face to 
face, and wrote a book of the creation of the 
world, is scarce read over once a year. The 
Holy Gospels, where the miracles of Christ are 
preached, where God converses with man, where 
death is destroyed, the devils cast out, the lepers 
cleansed, the blind restored to sight ; where the 
thief is placed in Paradise, and the harlot made 
purer than the stars, where the waters of Jordan 
are consecrated to the sanctification of souls, 
where is the food of immortality, the holy Eucha- 
rist, and the words of life, holy precepts, and 
precious promises, those we read over once 
or twice a week. What shall I say of blessed 

) Psalm xcyi. 8. 

o o 

o ^o 



Paul, Christ's orator, the fisher of the world, who 
by his fourteen Epistles, those spiritual nets, 
hath caught men to salvation, who was caught 
up into the third heaven, and heard and saw 
such mj'steries as are not to be uttered ? him we 
read twice in the week. We get not his Epistles 
by heart, but only attend to them while they are 
reading. But for holy David's Psalms, the grace 
of the Holy Spirit hath so ordered it, that they 
should be said or sung night and day. In the 
Church's vigils, the first, the midst, and the last, are 
David's Psalms : in the morning David's Psalms 
are sought for, and the first, the midst, and the last 
is David. And in funeral solemnities the first, 
the midst, and the last is David. In private 
houses where the virgins spin, the first, the midst, 
and the last is David : O thing unheard of! Many 
that know not a letter, can say David's Psalms 
by heart : in the monasteries, the quires of 
heavenly hosts, the first, the midst, and the last 
is David: in the deserts, where men that have 
crucified the world to themselves converse with 
God, the first, the midst, and the last is David. 
In the night, when men are asleep, David awakes 
them up to sing; and gathering the servants of 
God into angelical troops, turns earth into 
heaven, and makes angels of men, singing David's 
Psalms •'." The holy Gospels and Epistles contain 
' De Poenitentia, Horn. VI. torn. v. p. 85. ed. Lat. 

o o 

o ^ o 


indeed the words of eternal life, words by which 
we must be saved : and therefore should be sweeter 
to us than honey or the honey-comb, more precious 
than gold, yea than much fine gold ; but they are 
not of so continual use as David's Psalms, which 
are digested forms of prayers, thanksgivings, praises, 
confessions, and adorations, fit for every temper 
and every time. Here the penitent hath a form 
of confession ; he that hath received a benefit hath 
a thanksgiving ; he that is in any kind of need, 
bodily or ghostly, hath a prayer; all have lauds, 
and all may adore the several excellencies of 
Almighty God in David's forms : and these a man 
may safely use, being composed by the Spirit of 
God, which cannot err : whereas other books of 
prayers and devotions are, for the most part, 
composed by private men, subject to error and 
mistake, whose fancies, sometimes wild ones, are 
commended to us for matter of devotion, and we 
may be taught to blaspheme, while we intend to 
adore ; or at least, to abuse our devotion when we 
approach to the throne of grace, and offer up an 
unclean beast instead of a holy sacrifice. May 
we not think that this amongst others hath been a 
cause of the decay of right and true devotion 
in these latter days, namely, the neglect of this 
excellent book, and preferring men's fancies before 
it ? I deny not but that Collects and other parts 
of devotion which the consentient testimony and 

o 6 





constant practice of the Church have commended 
to us may, and especially the most Divine prayer 
of our Lord, ought to be used by us in our private 
devotion ; but I would not have David's Psalms 
disused, but used frequently, and made as they 
were by Athanasius and St. Jerome, a great, if not 
the greatest part of our private devotions, which 
we may offer up to God as with more safety, so 
with more confidence of acceptation, being the 
inspiration of that Holy Spirit of God, who, when 
we know not what to say, helps our infirmities both 
with words and affections ^. If any man thinks 
these Psalms too hard for him to imderstand, and 
apply to his several needs, let him make trial 
awhile, and spend that time in them, which he 
spends in human compositions ; let him study 
them as earnestly as he does books of less concern ; 
let him pray the Holy Spirit that made them, to 
open his eyes, to see the admirable use of them ; 
let him entreat holy and learned guides of souls to 
direct him in the use of them, and by the " grace 
of God, in the frequent use of them, he may attain 
to the primitive fervour, and come to be a man, as 
holy David was, after God's own heart." 

" In the morning," saith St. Jerome, " at the 
third, sixth, and ninth hour; in the evening at 
midnight David's Psalms are sung over in order. 

Eom. vlii. 26. 



o o 


and none of the sisters are suffered to be ignorant 
of David's Psalms ■"." 

The Psalms we sing or say by course, " The 
Priest one verse, and the people another ; or else 
one side of the quire one verse, and the other side 
another," according to the ancient practice of the 
Greek and Latin Church". And according to the 
pattern set us by the angels °, who sing one to another. 
Holy, Holy, Holy. These reasons may be given 
for this manner of singing by course. 

First, that we may thus in a holy emulation 
contend, who shaU serve God most affectionately, 
which our Lord seeing and hearing, is not a little 
pleased p. 

Secondly, that one relieving another we may not 
grow weary of our service q. 

When we say or sing these Psalms, we are wont 
to stand ; by the erection of our bodies expressing 
the elevation or lifting up of our souls to God, 
while we are serving Him in these holy employ- 

At the end of every psalm, and of all the hymns, 
(except Te Deum, which because it is nothing else 
almost, but this, " Glory be to the Father," &c. 

"' Ep. Ixxxvi. in Epitaph. Paul. torn. iv. pt. ii. p. 682. 

" Socr. Eccles. Hist. 1. vi. cap. viii. p. 313. D . . . . Theodoret. 
Eccles. Hist. 1. ii. cap. xxiv. p. 107. B . . . . S. Basil. Ep. ccvii. 
torn. iii. p. 311. B. 

" Isaiah vi. 3. 

I' TertuUian. ad Uxorem, 1. ii. cap. viii. p. 191. D. 

1 S. August. De Confess. 1. ix. cap. vii. torn. i. p. 162. F. | 

o o 

o o 


enlarged, hath not this Doxology added,) we say or 
sing, " Glory be to the Father, and to the 
Son, and to the Holy Ghost ;" which was the 
use of the ancient Church, never quarrelled at by 
any till Arius, who, being pressed with this usage 
as an argument against his heresy of mating the 
Son inferior to the Father, laboured to corrupt this 
versicle, saying, " Glory be to the Father by the 
Son in the Holy Ghost'." The Church, on the 
contrary, was careful to maintain the ancient usage, 
adding on purpose against Arius, " As ii was in 
the beginning, is now, and ever shall be».' 
Now if this joyful hymn of glory have any use 
in the Church of God, can we place it more fitly 
than where it now serves as a close and a conclu- 
sion to psalms and hymns, whose proper subject 
and almost only matter, is a dutiful acknowledg- 
ment of God's excellency and glory by occasion of 
special effects ? 

As a hymn of glory is fit to conclude the Psalms, 
so especially this Christian hymn, wherein as Chris- 
tians, not as Jews and Pagans, we glorify God the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; by which Christian 
conclusion of David's Psalms, we do, as it were, 
fit this part of the Old Testament for the service of 
God under the Gospel, and make them evangelical 

Theodoret. Hist. Eccles. L xi. cap. xxiv. p. 106. B. 
Cone. Vasio. ii. Can. v. torn. iv. p. 1680. 


o o 

After the Psalms follow two lessons, one out 
of the Old Testament, another out of the New. 
This was the ancient custom of all the Churches 
in Eg\pt ; Cassianus says it was not taught by 
men, but from heaven by the ministry of angels*. 
This choice may be to shew the harmony of them -. 
for what is the Law but the Gospel foreshewed ? 
What other the Gospel but the Law fulfilled ? 
That which lies in the Old Testament as under a 
shadow, is in the New brought out in the open 
sun : things there prefigured are here performed. 
Thus as the two seraphims cry one to another, 
"Holy, holy, holy"," so the two Testaments, Old 
and New, faithfully agreeing, convince the sacred 
truth of God. First, one out of the Old Testament, 
then another out of the New, observing the method 
of the Holy Spirit, who first published the Old, 
then the New ; first the precepts of the Law, then 
of the Gospel. " ^\^lich method of their reading 
eitlier purposely did tend, or at the leastwise doth 
fitly serve, that from smaller things the mind of the 
hearers may go forward to the knowledge of greater ; 
and by degrees climb up from the lowest to the 
highest things," says incomparable Hooker*. 

A wise constitution of the Church it is, thus to 

' L. ii. de nocturnis orationibus, cap. iv. p. 21. 

" Isaiah yi. 3. 

» Eccles. Pol. b. 5. ch. xx. 5 6. vol. ii. p. 96. 

o o 


mingle services of several sorts, to keep us from 
wearisomeness. For whereas devout prayer is joined 
with a vehement intention of the inferior powers of 
the soul, which cannot therein continue long without 
pain, therefore holy Church interposes still some- 
what for the higher part of the mind, the under- 
standing, to work upon, that both being kept in 
continual exercise with variety, neither might feel 
any Aveariness, and yet each be a spur to other. 
For prayer kindles our desire to behold God by 
speculation ; and the mind delighted with that 
speculation, takes every where new inflammations 
to pray ; the riches of the mysteries of heavenly 
wisdom continually stirring up in us correspondent 
desires to them ; so that he which prays in due sort, 
is thereby made the more attentive to hear, and he 
which hears, the more earnest to pray. 

The MixiSTEBy that heads the Lessons 


Rubric ii. before Te Deum. 

Turning himself so as he may be best heard of 
all, that is, turning towards the people, whereby 
it appears that immediately before the lessons he 
looked another way from the people, because here 
he is directed to turn towards them. This was 
the ancient custom of the Church of England, that 

y Instead of the word Minister, the present Rubric is, " he 
I that readeth." 

c o 

o o 


the priest who did officiate in all those parts of the 
service which were directed to the people, turned 
himself towards them as in the Absolution. See the 
Rubric before Absolution at the Communion, Then 


So in the Benediction, reading of the lessons, and 
holy commandments : but in those parts of the 
office which were directed to God immediately, as 
prayers, hymns, lauds, confessions of faith, or sins, 
he turned from the people ; and for that purpose in 
many parish churches of late, the reading-pew had 
one desk for the Bible, looking towards the people 
to the body of the church, another for the prayer- 
book looking towards the east or upper end of the 
chancel. And very reasonable was this usage ; for 
when the people were spoken to, it was fit to look 
towards them ; but when God was spoken to, it was 
fit to turn from the people. And besides, if there 
be any part of the world more honourable, in the 
esteem of men, than another, it is fit to look that 
way when we pray to God in public, that the turn- 
ing of our bodies towards a more honourable place, 
may mind us of the great honour and majesty of 
the Person we speak to. "And this reason St. Au- 
gustine « gives of the Church's ancient custom of 
turning to the east in their public prayers, because 
the east is the most honourable part of the world, 

' De serm. Dora, in montem, 1. ii. cap. 5. D. torn. iii. pt. 2. p. 207. 

c o 

o o 


being the region of light, whence the glorious sun 
arises." That this was the constant practice of 
the Church to turn toward the east in her public 
prayers, may sufficiently appear by St, Augustine", 
in the place last cited, where he says, " When we 
stand at our prayers, we turn towards the east." 
And by Epiphanius, who detests the madness of 
the impostor Elzseus, because that amongst other 
things he forbade praying towards the east**. And 
the Church of England, who professes to conform 
to the ancient practices, as far as conveniently she 
can, as may be seen in many passages of her canons 
and other places, did observe the same custom in 
her prayers, as appears by the placing of the desk 
for the prayer-book above mentioned, looking that 
way, and as may be collected from this Rubric, 
which directs the priest in the reading of the lessons 
to turn to the people, which supposes him, at prayer 
and the psalms, to look quite another way, namely, 
as in reason may be concluded, that way which the 
Catholic Church uses to do for divers reasons ; 
and amongst other, for that which St. Augustine 
hath given, because that was " the most worthy 
part of the world," and therefore most fit to be 
looked to, when we come to worship God in the 
beauty of holiness. Again, another reason may be 
given of turning from the people towards the upper 

' Cum ad orationes stamus, ad Orientem convertimur. 
■* Adv. Heer. 1. i. haer. xix. cap. iii. A. torn. li. p. 42. 

o o 

G O 


end of the chancel in our prayers, because it is fit 
in our prayers to look towards that part of the 
church or chancel, which is the highest and chief, 
and where God affords His most gracious and mys- 
terious presence, and that is the holy table and 
altar, which anciently was placed towards the upper 
or east end of the chancel. This is the highest 
part of the chancel, set apart to the highest of 
religious services, the consecration and distribution 
of the holy Eucharist ; here is exhibited the most 
gracious and mysterious presence of God that in 
this life we are capable of, the presence of His most 
holy Body and Blood. And therefore the altar was 
usually called the tabernacle of God's glory, His 
chair of state, the throne of God, the type of 
heaven, heaven itself. As therefore the Jews in 
their prayers looked towards the principal part of 
the temple, the mercy-seaf^ ; so the Christians in 
their prayers turned towards the principal part of 
the church, the altar, of which the mercy-seat was 
but a type. And as our Lord hath taught us in 
His prayer, to look up towards heaven when we 
pray, saying, " Our Father which art in heaven ;" 
not as if God were there confined, for He is every- 
where, in earth as well as in heaven, but because 
heaven is His throne, whereas earth is but His foot- 
stool; so holy Church by her practice teaches us 
in our public and solemn prayers to turn and look, 

' Psalm xxviil 2. 

C o 

l; O 


not towards the inferior and lower parts of the foot- 
stool, but towards that part of the church which 
most nearly resembles heaven, the holy table or 
altar. Correspondent to this practice was the 
manner of the Jews of old, for at the reading of 
the Law and other Scriptures, he that did minister, 
turned his face to the people, but he who read the 
prayers turned his back to the people, and his face 
to the ark**. 

For the choice of these lessons and their order, 
holy Church observes a several course. 

For the ordinary morning and evening prayers 
she observes only this : to begin at the beginning of 
the year with Genesis for the first lesson, and St. 
Matthew for the second in the morning: and 
Genesis again for the first, and St. Paul to the 
Romans for the second lesson at even, and so con- 
tinues on till the books be read over, but yet leaving 
out some chapters, either such as have been read 
already, upon which account she omits the Chro- 
nicles, being for the most part the same with the 
Book of Kings which hath been read already ; and 
some particular chapters in some other books, 
having been the same for the most part read either 
in the same book or some other ; or else such as are 
full of genealogies, or some other matter, which 
holy Church counts less profitable for ordinary 
hearers. Onlv in this she alters the order of the 

* Thorndyke, of Religious Assemblies, ch. vii. p. 231. 


c: o 


books, not reading the prophet Isaiah till all the 
rest of the books be done ; because the prophet 
Isaiah being the most evangelical prophet, most 
plainly prophesying of Christ, is reserved to be 
read a little before Advent. 

For Sundays somewhat another course is ob- 
served ; for then Genesis is begun to be read upon 
Septuagesima Sunday ; because then begins the 
holy time of penance and mortification, to which 
Genesis is thought to suit best, because that treats 
of our miseiy by the fall of Adam, and of God's 
severe judgment upon the world for sin ; then we 
read forward the books as they lie in order, yet not 
all the books, but only some choice lessons out of 
them. And if any Sunday be, as they call it, a 
privileged day ; that is, if it hath the history of it 
expressed in Scripture, such as Easter, Wliitsunday, 
^c, then there are peculiar and proper lessons 
appointed for it. 

For Saints' days we observe another order : for 
upon them, except such of them as are especially 
recorded in Scripture, and have proper lessons, 
the Church appoints chapters out of the moral 
books, such as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Ecclesiasticus, 
and Wisdom, for first lessons, being excellent in- 
structions of life and conversation, and so fit to be 
read upon the days of holy saints, whose exemplary 
lives and deaths are the cause of the Church's solemn 
commemoration of them, and commendation of them 



O O 


to US. And thougli some of these books be not in 
the strictest sense canonical, yet I see no reason but 
that they may be read publicly in the church, with 
profit and more safety than sermons can be ordi- 
naiily preached there. For certainly sermons are 
but human compositions, and many of them not so 
wholesome matter as these which have been viewed 
and allowed by the judgment of the Church for 
many ages past to be ecclesiastical and good, 
nearest to Divine of any writings. If it be thought 
dangerous to read them after the same manner and 
order that canonical Scripture is read, lest perhaps 
by this means they should grow into the same credit 
with canonical ; it is answered, that many Churches 
have thought it no great hurt if they should, but 
our Church hath sufficiently secured us against that 
danger, whatsoever it be, by setting diiferent marks 
upon them, styling the one Canonical, the other 
Apocryphal. As for the second lessons, the Church 
in them goes on in her ordinary course. 


After the lessons are appointed hymns ; the 
Church observing St. Paul's riile, " Singing to the 
Lord in psalms and hymns, and spiritual songs," 
every way expressing her thanks to God. 

The antiquity of hymns in the Christian Church 

o o 



doth sufficiently appear by that of our Saviour, 
"When they had sung an hymn they went out* ;" 
upon which place St. Chrysostom says, " They 
sung a hymn to teach us to do the like ^" " Con- 
cerning the singing of psalms and hymns in the 
Church, we have," says St. Austin, " both the pre- 
cepts and examples of Christ and His apostles^;" 
St. Paul ordered it in the Church of Colosse, 
" Singing to yourselves in psalms and hymns ''." 
Which we find presently after practised in the 
Church of Alexandria, founded by St. Mark*, where 
Philo reports that the Christians had in every place 
almost monasteries wherein they sang hymns to God 
in several kinds of metre and verse. St. Ambrose 
brought them into Milan, to ease the people's sad 
minds and to keep them from weariness, who were 
praying night and day for their persecuted Bishop, 
and from hence came all hymns almost to be called 
Ambrosiani, because that by him they were sprc ad 
over the Latin Church. " With the morning and 
evening hymns God is delighted," says St.Hierome. 
And Possidius, in the life of St. Augustine, tells 
us, that towards the time of his dissolution, " St. 
Augustine wept abundantly, because he saw the 
cities destroyed, the bishops and priests sequestered, 
the churches profaned, the holy service and sacra- 

» Matt. xxvi. 30. < Horn. LXXXII. torn. vii. p. 784. 

K Epist. LV. cap. xviii. torn. ii. p. 142. ^ Col. iii. 16. 

' Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. ii. cap. xvii. p. 55. 

o 6 

o o 


ments neglected, either because few or none desired 
them, or else because there were scarce any priests 
left to administer to them that did desire them ; 
lastly, because the hj'rans and lauds of God were 
lost out of the Church ''." 

These hymns are to be said or sung, but most 
properly to be sung ; else they are not so strictly 
and truly called hymns, that is, songs of praise ; 
and not only by the Chiu'ch of England, but by all 
Christian Churches of old, was it so practised : 
and so holy David directs, " sing praises, sing 
praises unto our God : O sing praises, sing praises 
unto our King'." The profit of which singing 
hymns is much many ways ; especially in this, that 
they kindle a holy flame in the minds and afiiections 
of the hearers. " O how I wept," says St. Augus- 
tine, " in the hymns and holy canticles, being 
enforced thereunto by the sweet voices of Thy 
melodious Church ! by reason of the proneness of 
our affections to that which delights, it pleased 
the wisdom of the Spirit to borrow from melody 
that pleasure, which, mingled with heavenly mys- 
teries, causes the smoothness and softness of that 
which touches the ear, to convey as it were by 
stealth the treasure of good things into men's 
minds : to this purpose were those harmonious 
tunes of psalms devised""." And St. Basil says, 

>> Cap. xxviii. F. torn. x. p. 277. • Psalm xlvii. 6. 

"> S. Austin. Confess. 1. x. cap. xxxiii. F. torn. i. p. 187. 

o o 

O- o 


"By pleasing thus the affections, and delighting 
the mind of man, music makes the service of God 
more easy." 

When we sing or say these hymns we stand, 
which is the proper posture for thanksgivings and 
lauds ; " Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants 
of the Lord, which by night stand in the house of 
the Lord"." And 2 Chron. vii. 6 : " The priests 
waited on their offices, the Levites also with instru- 
ments of music of the Lord, which David the king 
made to praise the Lord, (with the cxxxvi. Psalm,) 
because His mercy endureth for ever, when David 
praised by their ministry, and the priests sounded 
trumpets before them, and all Israel stood." The 
erection of the body fitly expresses the lifting up of 
the heart in joy : whence it is that rejoicing in 
Scripture is called the lifting up of the head ; " Lift 
up your heads, for your redemption draweth nigh"." 
So then joy being a lifting up of the soul, and praise 
and thanksgiving being ettects of joy, cannot be 
more fitly expressed than by erection and lifting up 
of the body, " standing in the courts of the Lord," 
when we sing praise unto Him. 

After the morning first lesson follows Te Deum, 
We pbaise Thee, O God, or, O all ye works 
OF the Lord, &c., called Benedicite. The first of 
which, We praise Thee, O God, &c., was, as is 
credibly reported, framed miraculously by St. Am- 

" Psalm cxxxiv. 1. • Luke xxi. 28. 

o u 

C .0 


broseP and St. Augustine at his baptism, and hath 
been in much esteem in the Church ever since as it 
deserves, being both a creed, containing all the 
mysteries of faith, and a most solemn form of 
thanksgiving, praise, adoration, and what not. And 
so hath that other canticle, " O all ye works of the 
Lord," in which the whole creation praises God to- 
gether, been esteemed universally in the Church''. 

After the second lesson at morning prayer is 
appointed, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, 
called Benedictus, or, O be joyful in the Lord, 
called Jubilate. 

After the evening lessons are appointed Magni- 
ficat, or. My soul doth magnify the Lord, and 
Nunc Dimittis, Lord now lettest Thou Thy 
servant depart in peace, or else two Psalms'. 

And very fitly doth the Church appoint sacred 
hymns after the lessons. For who is there that 
hearing God speak from heaven to him for his soul's 
health can do less than rise up and praise Him? 
And what hymns can be fitter to praise God with 
for our salvation, than those which were the first 
gratulations wherewith our Saviour was entertained 
into the world ? And such are these. Yet as fit as 
they are, some have quarrelled at them, especially 
at Magnificat, " My soul doth magnify the Lord ;" 
and Nunc Dimittis, or, " Lord, now lettest Thou 

P Bingham, b. xiv. ch. U. vol. v. p. 39. i Cone. Tolet. iv. 

Can. xiv. torn. v. p. 1710. ' Ps. xcvlii. and Ixvii. 

6 o 

o o 


Thy servant depart in peace." The objections are 
these: That the first of these was the Virgin Mary's 
hymn for bearing Christ in her womb ; the latter 
old Simeon's, for seeing and holding in his arms 
the blessed Babe, neither of which can be done by 
us now, and therefore neither can we say properly 
ihese hymns. 

The answer may be, that bearing Christ in the 
womb, suckling Him, holding Him in our arms, is 
not so great a blessing "As the laying up His Holy 
Word in our hearts*," "by which Christ is fonned 
in us';" and so there is as much thanks to be re- 
turned to God for this as for that. He that doth 
the will of God, taught in His word, may as well 
say, " My soul doth magnify the Lord," as the holy 
Virgin, for Christ is formed in him, as well as in the 
Virgin's womb : " Whosoever doth the will of My 
Father which is in heaven, the same is My brother 
and sister and mother"." And why may not we 
after the reading of a part of the New Testament, 
say, " Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in 
peace," as well as old Simeon ? For in that Scrip- 
ture, by the eye of faith, we see that salvation which 
he then saw, and more clearly revealed. We have 
then the same reason to say it that old Simeon had, 
and we should have the same Spirit to say it with. 

There can nothing be more fitting for us, as we 
have said, than, having heard the lessons and the 

• Luke xi. 28. « Gal. iv. 19. " Matt. xii. 50. 

o o 

o— -o 


goodness of God therein preached unto us, to break 
out into a song of praise and thanksgiving, and the 
Church hath appointed two to be used (either of 
them) after each lesson, but not so indifferently but 
that the former practice of exemplary Churches 
and reason may guide us in the choice ; for 
the Te Deum, Benedictus, Magnificat, and Nunc 
Dimittis being the most expressive jubilations and 
rejoicings for the redemption of the world, may be 
said more often than the rest, especially on Sundays 
and other Festivals of our Lord ; excepting in Lent 
and Advent, which being times of humiliation, and 
meditations on Christ as in expectation, or His suf- 
ferings, are not so fitly enlarged with these songs of 
highest festivity ; (the custom being for the same 
reason in many Churches, in Lent, to hide and con- 
ceal all the glory of their altars, covering them with 
black to comply with the season ;) and therefore in 
these times maybe rather used the following psalms 
than the foregoing canticles, as at other times also, 
when the contents of the lessons shall give occasion ; 
as when it speaks of the enlargement of the Church 
by bringing in the Gentiles into the fold of it, for 
divers passages of those three psalms import that 

And for the canticle Benedicite, O all ye works 
OF THE Lord, it may be used not only in the 
aforesaid times of humiliation, but when either the 
lessons are out of Daniel, or set before us the won- 

c o 

c ; 

THE apostles' CREED. 47 

derful handiwork of God, in any of the creatures, 
or the use He makes of them either ordinary or 
miraculous for the good of the Church. Then it 
will be very seasonable to return this song, " O all 
ye works of the Lord, bless ye the Lord, praise 
Him, and* magnify Him for ever ;" that is, ye are a 
great occasi(in of blessing the Lord, who therefore 
be blessed, praised, and magnified for ever. 

The Creed follows. At ordinary morning and 
evening prayer, and most Sundays and holydays, 
the Apostles' Creed is appointed ; which Creed 
was made by the Apostles upon this occasion, says 
RuflSnus*. The Apostles having received a com- 
mandment from our Lord to teach all nations, and 
withal being commanded to tarry at Jerusalem till 
they should be furnished with gifts and gi-aces of 
the Holy Spirit, sufficient for such a charge, tarried 
patiently, as they were enjoined, expecting the ful- 
filling of that promise. In the time of the stay at 
Jerusalem, they agreed upon this creed as a rule of 
faith, according to the analogy of which they and 
all others should teach, and as a word of distinction 
by which they should know friends from foes. For 
as the Gileadites distinguished their own men from 

» In Symb. ap. Cyp. Op. p. 17. 

6 o 

o— o 

48 THE apostles' creed. 

the Benjaniites, by the word Shibboleth y ; and as 
sohliers know their own side from the enemy by 
their word ; so the Apostles and the Church should 
know who were the Church's friends, and who were 
enemies, who were right believers, who false, by 
this word of faith ; for all that walked according to 
this rule, and professed this faith, she acknowledged 
for hers, and gave them her peace ; but all others 
that went contrary to this rule and word, she ac- 
counted enemies^ led by false spirits ; "For he that 
is not of God heareth not us ; hereby know we the 
spirit of truth, and the spirit of error*." 

This Creed is said daily twice, morning 
AND evening. So it was of old. " Take the rule 
of faith, which is called the symbol or creed, say it 
daily, in the morning before you go forth ; at night 
before you sleep''." "Say your creed daily morning 
and evening <^." " Rehearse your creed to God, 
say not, I said it yesterday, I have said it to-day 
already, say it again, say it every day ; guard your- 
selves with your faith ; and if the adversarj' assault 
you, let the redeemed know that he ought to meet 
him with the banner of the cross and the shield of 
faith, above all, taking the shield of faiths.'" "Faith 
is rightly called a shield ; for as a shield is carried 

y Judges xii. 6. 

• Tertull. de praescript. cap. xiv. p. 236. 

* 1 John iv. 6. 

^ August, de Symbol, ad Catechum. 1. i. cap. i. A. torn. vi. p. 547. 
' S. Aust. Horn. LVIII. cap. xi. A. torn. v. p. 343. 
■> Ephes. vi. 16. 

o o 

o o 

THE apostles' CREED. 49 

before the body, as a wall to defend it, so is faith to 
the soul ; for all things yield to that. This is our 
victory whereby we overcome the world, even our 
faith*." Therefore we had need look well to our 
faith, and be careful to keep that entire ; and for 
that purpose it is not amiss to rehearse it often, and 
guard our soul with it. 

When we are affiighted, run we to the Creed^ 
and say, " I believe in God the Father Almighty ;" 
this will guard your soul from fear. If you be 
tempted to despair, guard your soul with the Creed; 
say, " I believe in Jesus Christ His only Son our 
Lord, who was conceived," &c., for us men and our 
salvation ; that may secure your soul from despair. 
If you be tempted to piide, run to the Creed, and 
a sight of Christ hanging upon the cross will hum- 
ble you. If to lust or uncleanness, to the Creed, 
and see the wounds of Christ, and the remembrance 
of them, if any thing, will quench that fiery dart. 
If we be tempted to presume and grow careless, 
take up again this shield of faith, see Christ in the 
Creed coming to judgment, and this terror of the 
Lord's will persuade men. In a word, the Creed 
is a guard and defence against all temptations of 
the world, all the fiery darts of the devil, all the 
filthy lusts of the flesh. Therefore, "above all, 
take the shield of faith," saith St. Paul, and be sure 

• Chr>'sostom. Horn. XXIV. A. torn. xi. p. 180. 

' Cum horremus aliquid, recurrendum est ad symbolum. 

C 6 

o o 

50 THE apostles' ckeed. 

to guard your soiil morning and evening with the 
Creed, the symbol of the most holy faith. Besides, 
this solemn rehearsing of our Creed is a plighting 
of our faith and fidelity to God, before devils, 
angels, and men ; an engaging and devoting of our 
souls in the principal faculties and powers of it, 
our reason and understanding and will, wholly to 
God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to believe 
in the ever blessed Trinity, whatsoever flesh and 
blood shall tempt to the contrary ; which is a high 
piece of loyalty to God, and cannot be too often 
performed. It is that kind of confession that 
St. Paul says is necessary to salvation, as well as 
believing, (Rom. x. 10.) for it is there said, ver. 9, 
" If we confess with our mouth," as well as, " If 
we believe with the heart, we shall be saved ;" it 
is that kind of confession that our Lord Christ 
speaks of, " Whosoever shall confess Me before 
men, him will I confess also before My Father 
which is in heavens." And therefore since it is a 
service so acceptable, it cannot be thought unrea- 
sonable for the Church to require it morning and 
evening. The Creed follows soon after the lessons, 
and very seasonably ; for in the Creed we confess 
that faith that the holy lessons teach. 

The Creed is to be said not by the priest alone, 
but by the minister and people together. (Rubric 
before the Creed.) For since confession of faith in 
g Matt. X. 32. 

o o 

o o 


public before God, angels, and men, is so accept- 
able a service to God, as is shewn ; fit it is that 
every man, as well as the priest, should bear his 
part in it, since every man may do it for himself 
as well, nay, better than the priest can do it for 
him ; for as every man knows best what himself 
believes, so it is fittest to confess it for himself, 
and evidence to the Church his sound belief, by 
expressly repeating of that Creed, and every parti- 
cular thereof, which is and always hath been ac- 
counted the mark and character, whereby to dis- 
tinguish a true believer from a heretic or infidel. 

We are required to say the creed standing, by 
this gesture signifying our readiness to profess, and 
our resolution to adhere and stand to this holy 

Besides the Apostles' Creed, holy Church ac- 
knowledges two other, or rather two explications 
of the same Creed, the Nicene and Athanasius's 
Creed. Of the Nicene Creed shall be said some- 
what in the proper place, the Communion Service, 
where it is used. Athanasius's Creed is here to be 
accounted for, because it is said sometimes in this 
place instead of the Apostles' Creed. It was com- 
posed by Athanasius, and sent to Pope Julius, for 

O J 

o o 


to clear himself and acquit his faith from the slan- 
ders of his Arian enemies, who reported him erro- 
neous in the faith. It hath been received with 
great veneration as a treasure of an inestimable 
price, both by the Greek and Latin Churches'" ; 
and therefore both for that authority, and for the 
testification of our continuance in the same faith 
to this day, the Church rather uses this and the 
Nicene explanations than any other gloss or para- 
phrase devised by ourselves ; which though it were 
to the same effect, notwithstanding coidd not be of 
the same credit or authority. 

This Creed is appointed to be said upon the days 
named in the Rubric, for these reasons ; partly, 
because those days, many of them, are most proper 
for this confession of the faith, which, of all others, 
is the most express concerning the Trinity, because 
the matter of them much concerns the manifesta- 
tion of the Trinity, as Christmas, Epiphany, Trinity 
Sunday, and St. John Baptist's Day, at the highest 
of whose acts, (the baptizing of our Lord,) was 
made a kind of sensible manifestation of the Trinity; 
partly, that so it might be said once a month at 
least ; and therefore on St. James's and St. Bartho- 
lomew's days, and withal at convenient distance 
from each time, and therefore on St. Matthew's, 
Matthias's, Simon and Jude's, and St. Andrew's. 

■■ S. Greg. Naz. in laudem Magn. Athanas. orat. xxi. torn. i. 
p. 394. 

6 o 

O : O 



This Divine salutation, taken out of Holy Scrip- 
ture', was frequently used in ancient liturgies be- 
fore prayers, before the gospel, before the sermon, 
and at other times; and that by the direction of the 
holy Apostles, says the second Council of Braga''. 
It seems as an introit or entrance upon another 
sort of Divine Service ; and a good introduction it 
is, serving as a holy excitation to attention and 
devotion, by reminding the people what they are 
about, namely, such holy services as, without God's 
assistance and special grace, cannot be performed ; 
and therefore when they are about these services, 
the priest minds them of it by saying, The Loud 
BE WITH YOU. And again, it is a most excellent 
and seasonable prayer for them, in effect thus 
much : The Lord be with you, to lift up your hearts 
and raise your devotions to His service. The Lord 
be with you, to accept your services. The Lord be 
with you, to reward you hereafter with eternal life. 
The people answer, 

And WITH THY SPIRIT. Which form is taken 
out of 2 Tim. iv. 22, and is as much as this: Thou 
art about to offer up prayers and spiritual sacrifices 
for us, therefore we pray likewise for thee, that 
He, without whom nothing is good and acceptable, 

■ Ruth ii. 4. ' Can. iii. torn. v. p. 840. 

c o 

c o 


may be with thy^ spirit while thou art exercised in 
these spiritual services, which must be performed 
with the spirit, according to St. Paul'. Thus the 
priest prays, and wishes well to the people ; and 
they pray, and wish well to the priest. And such 
mutual salutations and prayers as this and those 
that follow, where priest and people interchange- 
ably pray each for other, are excellent expressions 
of the communion of saints, both acknowledging 
thus that they are all one body, and each one 
members one of another, mutually caring for one 
another's good, and mutually praying for one an- 
other ; which must needs be, if well considered and 
duly perfonned, excellent incentives and provoca- 
tions to charity and love one of another ; and, as 
St. Chrysostom observes", if these solemn mutual 
salutations were religiously performed, it were 
almost impossible that priest and people should be 
at enmity. For can the people hate the priest that 
blesses them, that prays for them, " The Lord be 
with you," or, " Peace be with you ?" which was 
anciently the Bishop's salutation, instead of " The 
Lord be with you." Or can the priest forget to 
love the people that daily prays for him, "And 
with thy spirit?" 

' 1 Cor. xiv. 15. 

■" Horn. III. Coloss. c. i. v. 15. 20. torn. xi. p. 347, 8. 

o o 

o o 

or THE KYEIE. 55 


These words are often used in ancient liturgies 
as well as in ours, and are an excitation to prayer, 
to call back our wandering, and re-collect our 
scattered thoughts, and to awaken our devotion, 
bidding us mind what we are about, namely, now 
when we are about to pray, to pray indeed, that is, 
heartily and earnestly. The deacon in ancient 
services was wont to call upon the people often, 
4kt€vws Seridwixev, " Let US pray vehemently," nay, 
iKTevfo-repov, " still more vehemently." And the 
same vehemency and earnest devotion which the 
manner of these old liturgies breathed, does our 
Church in her liturgy call for in these words. 
Let us pray ; that is, with all the earnestness and 
vehemency that we may, that our prayers may be 
such as St. James speaks of, active, lively-spirited 
prayers ; for these are they that avail much with 
God. And there is none of us but must think it 
needful thus to be called upon and awakened ; for 
thoughts will be wandering, and devotions will 
abate, and scarce hold but to the prayer's end, 
though it be a short one : so that well said the old 
hermit, whom Melancthon mentions in his dis- 
course », " There is nothing harder than to pray." 

These words. Let us pray, as they are an in- 

" De Invocatione et Precatione, torn. i. p. 278. 

o o 

o o 

56 or THE KYRIE. 

citation to prayer in general, so they may seem to 
be sometimes an invitation to another form of 
petitioning, as in the Litany and other places ; it 
being as much as to say. Let us collect our alter- 
nate supplications by versicles and answers into 
collects or prayers. In the Latin liturgies (their 
Rubrics especially) preces and orationes seem to be 
thus distinguished ; that preces, or supplications, 
were those alternate petitions where the people an- 
swered by responsive versicles ; oratio, or prayer, 
was that which was said by the priest alone, the 
people only answering. Amen. 

Lord have mercy upon us. 

Christ havte mercy, &c. 

Lord have mercy, &c. 
This short Litany (as it was called by some 
ancients), this most humble and piercing supplica- 
tion to the blessed Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, was frequently used in ancient liturgies, as 
it is to be seen in them, and also in the second 
Council of Vaison"; " Because," saith that Council, 
" the sweet and wholesome custom of saying 
Kyrie Eleeson, or. Lord have mercy upon us, 
with great affection and compunction, hath been 
received into the whole Eastern and most of the 
Western Church : therefore be it enacted, that the 
same be used in our churches at Matins, Even- 
song, and Communion Service." It was anciently 

■> Can. iii. torn. iv. p. 1680. 

o o 

o ^ o 


called cKTevV iKea-ia, " tlie earnest or vehement 
supplication ;" because as it is a most pathetic 
petition of mercy to every Person of the blessed 
Trinity, so it was uttered by those primitive good 
men with much earnestness and intention of spirit, 
being sensible of their danger of sinking into end- 
less perdition, without the mercy of the blessed 
Trinity ; and therefore (with no less earnestness 
than St. Peter cried, " Master, save," when he was 
sinking into the sea) did they cry out, " Lord have 
mercy." God the Father have mercy, God the Son 
have mercy, God the Holy Ghost have mercy : 
have mercy upon us in pardoning our sins, which 
make lis Avorthy to be cast out of Thy favour, but 
unworthy to serve Thee : have mercy in helping 
our weakness and inability of ourselves to serve 
Thee : many are our dangers, many are our wants, 
many ways we stand in need of mercy, therefore, 
" Lord have mercy," &c. This excellent compre- 
hensive litany is seasonable at all times and all 
parts of the service, after our singing of hjTnns 
and psalms, after our hearing and confession of 
faith ; such is our unworthiness, such our weak- 
ness, that it cannot be thought amiss to beg God's 
mercy, after we have prayed ; such is our dulness 
and coldness in our prayers, that we had need pray, 
" Lord have mercy upon us. " 

It may be observed, that this earnest and humble 
supplication was usuallv in old Services, and so is 

o : 6 

c o 


in ours, set immediately before the Lord's Prayer, 
as a preparation to it, and very fitly ; for as we 
cannot devise a more suitable preparation to prayer 
than this humble petition of mercy, and acknow- 
ledgment of our own misery, so is there no prayer 
whereto greater preparation is required than that 
Divine Prayer sanctified by the sacred lips of our 
Lord, wherein we say, " Our Father," &c. Cle- 
ment, in his Constitutions?, advises when we say 
this prayer to be careful to prepare ourselves, so 
that we may in some manner be worthy of this 
Divine adoption to be the sons of God ; lest if we 
unworthily call Him Father, He upbraid us as He 
did the Jews, " If I be a Father, where is Mine 
honour"! ?" The sanctity of the Son is the honour 
of the Father. Indeed it is so great an honour to 
call God " Our Father'," that we had need with 
all humility beg pardon of His Majesty, before we 
venture upon so high a title. Therefore out mother 
the Church hath been careM to prepare us for this 
Divine Prayer, sometimes by a confession of our 
sins and absolution, as at Morning and Evening 
Service ; but most commonly by this short litany : 
first, teaching us to bewail our unworthiness, and 
pray for mercy; and then with an humble boldness 
to look up to heaven and call God our Father, and 
beg further blessings of Him. 

f Clement. Constitut. 1. vii. cap. xxv. Pat. Ap. Cot. torn. i. p. 373. 
1 Malachi i. 6. ■• 1 John iii. 1, 2. 

o ■ o 

o o 

VexiicU^ anil ^nstocrs. 

After the Lord's Prayer follow short Versicles 
and Answers taken out of Holy Scripture ; Psalm 
Ixxxv. 7 ; Psalm xx. 9 ; Psalm cxxxii. 9 ; Psalm 
xxviii. 9; 1 Chron. xxii. 9; Psalm xxxiii. 16 — 20; 
Psalm li. 10, 11. 

The priest beginning and the people answeiing, 
contending in a holy emulation who shall be most 
devout in these short, but pithy ejaculations, or 
darts cast up to heaven. Such short ejaculations 
were much used by the devout brethren, which St. 
Augustine commends as the most piercing kind of 
prayer ^ Such as these were that of the leper, 
" Lord, if Thou wilt, Thou canst make me clean ' :" 
aiid that of the disciples, "Master, save us, we 
perish"." Short, but powerfid, as you may see by 
our Saviour's gracious acceptance of them. 

And here I must further commend the order pf 
ANSWERS of the PEOPLE iu all places of the service 
where it stands. It refresheth their attention, it 
teaches them their part at public prayers, not to 
stand by and censure how well the priest plays the 
mouth of the congregation. Lastly, it unites the 
affections of them all together, and helps to keep 
them iu a league of perpetual amity. For if the 
prophet David did think that the very meeting of 

• S. August. Ep. cxxx. c. X. F. tom. ii. p. 389. 
' Matt. viii. 2. ° Matt. viii. 25. 

6 6 

o o 


men together in the house of God, should mate the 
bond of their love indissoluble, Psalm Iv. 14, how 
much more may we judge it reasonable to hope 
that the like effects may grow in each of the people 
toward other, in them all towards the priest, 
and in the priest towards them ; between whom 
there daily and interchangeably pass, in the hearing 
of God Himself, and in the presence of His holy 
angels, so many heavenly acclamations, exultations, 
provocations, petitions, songs of comfort, psalms of 
praise and thanksgiving. In all which particulars, 
as when the priest makes their suits, and they with 
one voice say. Amen ; or when he joyfully begins, 
and they with like alacrity follow, dividing betwixt 
them the sentences wherewith they strive which 
shall most shew his own, and stir up others' zeal to 
the glory of God, as in the psalms and hymns ; or 
when they mutually pray for each other, the priest 
for the people, and the people for him, as in the 
Versicles immediately before the moraing Collects ; 
or when the priest proposes to God the people's 
necessities, and they their own requests for relief in 
every of them, as in the Litany ; or when he pro- 
claims the law of God to them as in the Ten Com- 
mandments ; they adjoining an humble acknow- 
ledgment of their common imbecility to the several 
branches thereof, together with the lowly requests 
for grace to perform the tilings commanded, as in 
the Kyries, or, "Lord have mercy upon us," &c. at 

c!) — o 

o o 


the end of each commandment: all these inter- 
locutory forms of speech, what are they but most 
effectual, partly testifications, partly inflammations 
of all piety ? 

The peiest when he begins these shoht 


It is noted that the priest in the holy offices is 
sometimes appointed to kneel, sometimes to stand. 
The reason of this we shall here once for all inquire. 

The priest or minister being a man of like infir- 
mities with the rest of the congregation, a sinner, 
and so standing in need of gi"ace and pardon, as 
well as the rest, in all confessions of sins, and peni- 
tential prayers, such as the Litany is, is directed to 
beg His pardon and grace upon his knees. He 
being moreover a priest or minister of the most high 
God, that hath received from Him an office and 
authority, sometimes stands to signify that his 
office and authority. Which office of his may be 
considered either in relation to God or the people. 
As it relates to God, so he is God's ambassador, 
2 Cor. V. 18, to whom is committed the ministry of 
reconciliation, in which respect he is to teach, 
baptize, consecrate the Holy Eucharist, bless and 
absolve the penitent ; and in all these acts of 
authority, which he does in the name and person 
of Christ, he is to stand. 

As his office relates to the people, so he is in 
their stead, for them appointed by God to offer up 

o ^ 

o o 


gifts and sacrifices to God, particularly the sacrifice 
of praise and thanksgiving, together with their 
prayers : so we read, Heb. v. 1 ; " Every high 
priest," or priest, (so the words are promiscuously 
used, Heb. viii. 3, 4,) " taken from among men, is 
ordained for men," or in their stead, "in things 
pertaining to God, to offer both gifts and sacrifices 
for sins." Which definition of a priest, belongs not 
only to a priest of the Law, but also to a priest or 
minister of the Gospel. For St. Paul from his defi- 
nition proves that our Lord Christ, who was after 
the order of Melchisedec, not of Aaron, a priest 
of the Gospel, not of the Law, ought not to call 
Himself, (v. 5,) but was appointed by God, and 
moreover, that He ought to have gifts and sacri- 
fices to offer; because "every high priest," or priest, 
"is ordained to ofiier gifts and sacrifices"." These 
arguments of St. Paul, drawn from this definition, 
are fallacious and unconcluding, unless this be the 
definition of a gospel priest, as well as a legal. 
Seeing then that we must not conclude St. Paul's 
arguments to be unconcluding, we must grant that 
the ministers of the Gospel are appointed by God 
to offer up the sacrifices of prayers and praises of 
the Church for the people, thus to stand betwixt 
God and them ; and to shew this his office, in these 
services he is directed to stand. By this we may 

6 ^ o 

c o 


see what advantage it is to the people, that their 
prayers are offered up by a priest. For God having 
appointed him to this office, will certainly assist 
and accept His own constitution : and though the 
minister be wicked, or undevout in his prayers, yet 
God, that will punish this neglect in himself, will 
certainly accept of his office for the people. Upon 
this ground probably it was that God sent Abime- 
lech to Abraham to pray for him, for he was a pro- 
phet. Gen. XX. 7. 

'^Ijt ®olUctg. 

The Collects follow, which are thought by divers 
to be so called, either because they were made by 
the priest, super collectum popuU, over, or in behalf 
of the congregation, meeting, or collection of the 
people ; or rather because the priest doth herein 
collect the devotions of the people, and oflfer them 
up to God ; for though it hath been the constant 
practice from the beginning for the people to bear 
a vocal part by their suffrages and answers in the 
public service of God (which for that very reason 
was by the ancients called Common Prayer, as may 
be gathered out of Justin Martyr and others ? ;) 

y Apologia I. cap. Ixv. B. p. 85. S. August. Epist. liv. torn. ii. 
p. 123. 


o o 


yet for the more renewing and strengthening of 
their earnestness, importunity, and, as it were, 
wrestling with God, and hope of prevailing, they 
desired that themselves and their devotions should 
in the close be recommended to God by the priest, 
they all adjoining their assent, and saying Amen to 
it. And that is the reason why in many of the 
Collects God is desired to hear the petitions of the 
people, (to wit, those that the people had then made 
before the Collect,) that they come in at the end 
of other devotions, and were by some of old called 
misscB, that is to say, dismissions, the people being 
dismissed upon the pronouncing of them and the 
Blessing, the Collects themselves being by some of 
the ancients called Blessings, and also Sacramento, 
either for that their chief use was at the Commu- 
nion, or because they were uttered per sacerdotem, 
by one consecrated to holy offices. 

But it will not be amiss to inquire more particu- 
larly what may be said of these very Collects which 
we use, they being of so frequent use, and so con- 
siderable a part of the devotion of our Church. 

And first concerning their authors and antiquity, 
we may observe, that our Church endeavouring to 
preserve, not only the spirit but the verj' forms (as 
much as may be, and in a known tongue) of ancient 
primitive devotion, hath retained these very Collects 
(the most of them) among other precious remains 
of it : for we find, by ancient testimony, that they | 

o^ '-b 

o o 


were composed or ordered, either by St. Ambrose, 
Gelasius, or Gregory the Great, those holy bishops 
and fathers of the Church ; and therefore, having 
daily ascended up to heaven like incense from the 
hearts and mouths of so many saints in the ages 
since their times, they cannot but be very venerable, 
and relish well with us, unless our hearts and aflfec- 
tions be of a contrary temper. 

Secondly, for the object of these Collects, they 
are directed to God in the name of Jesus Christ 
our Lord, for so usually they conclude, and very 
fitly ; for Christ is indeed the altar upon which all 
our prayers are to be offered, that they may be 
acceptable ; " Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father 
in My name, He will give it you^." And so it was 
the custom of old : " Itaque orationes nostras, 
vitam et sacrificia, et omnia nostra offerimus tibi. 
Pater, assidue per Dominum nostnun Jesum 
Christum," Sec." But yet we may observe that a 
few Collects are directed to Christ, and in the 
Litany some supplications to the Holy Ghost, 
besides that precatory hymn of Veni Creator in the 
Book of Ordination, and that some Collects, espe- 
cially for great festivals, conclude with this acknow- 
ledgment, " that Christ with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, liveth and reigneth one God world 
without end." And this seems to be done to testify 

' John xvi. 23. 

* Bernard, de Contemplando Deo, cap. viii. D. torn. li. p, 240. 

0- --6 

o o 


what the Scripture warrants, that although for more 
congruity we in the general course of our prayers 
go to the Father by the Son, yet that we may also 
invocate both the Son and the Holy Ghost, and 
that while we call upon one, we equally worship 
and glorify all three together ; " Quia dum ad solius 
Patris personam honoris sermo dirigitur, bene 
credentis fide tota Trinitas honoratur," saith 

Thirdly, for their form and proportion, as they 
are not one long-continued prayer, but divers 
short ones, they have many advantages to gain 
esteem : the practice of the Jews of old, in whose 
prescribed devotions we find a ceitain number of 
several prayers or Collects to be said together ; the 
example of our Lord in prescribing a short form ; 
the judgment and practice of the ancient Christians 
in their Liturgies, and St. Chrysostom, among 
others, commends highly short and frequent prayers 
with little distances between' ; so doth Cassian 
also, and from the judgment of others that were 
much exercised therein d. And lastly, as they are 
most convenient for keeping away coldness, distrac- 
tion, and illusions from our devotion ; for what we 
elsewhere say in praise of short ejaculations, is true 
also concerning Collects, and that not only in re- 
spect of the Minister, but the people also, whose 

^ Ad Monimum, 1. ii. cap. v. p. 14. 

« Hoik. II. de Hanna, torn. iv. p. 714. 

^ De Institutis Coenobiorum, 1. ii. cap. x. p. 31 . 

6 o 

O r> 


minds and affections become hereby more erect, 
close, and earnest, by the oftener breathing out 
their hearty concuiTence, and saying all of them 
Amen together at the end of each Collect. 

Fourthly, the matter of them is most excellent 
and remarkable: it consists usually of two parts, 
an humble acknowledgment of the adorable perfec- 
tion and goodness of God, and a congruous petition 
for some benefit from Him. The first is seen not 
only in the Collects for special festivals or benefits, 
but in those also that are more general ; for even in 
such what find we in the beginning of them but 
some or other of these and the like acknowledg- 
ments ? that God is Almighty, everlasting, full of 
goodness and pity ; the strength, refuge, and pro- 
tector of all that trust in Him ; without whom 
nothing is strong, nothing is holy, no continuing in 
safety or being; that such is our weakness and 
frailty that we have no power of ourselves to help 
ourselves, to do any good, to stand upright, cannot 
but fall ; that we put no trust in any thing that we 
do, but lean only upon the help of His heavenly 
grace ; that He is the Author and Giver of all good 
things, from whom it comes that we have a hearty 
desire to pray or do Him any true or laudable 
service ; that He is always more ready to hear than 
we to pray, and to give more than we desire or 
deserve, having prepared for them that love Him 
such good things as pass man's understanding. 

o o 

c o 


These and the like expressions can be no other 
than the breathings of the primitive Christians, who 
with all self-denial made the grace of God their 
hope, refuge, protection, petition, and profession 
against all proud heretics and enemies of it : and 
the petitions which follow these humble and pious 
acknowledgments and praises, are very proper, holy, 
and good, which will better appear if we consider 
the matter of each Collect apart. 

The first in order among the Collects is that for 
the day. Now as on every day or season there is 
something more particularly commended to our 
meditations by the Church ; so the first Collect 
reflects chiefly upon that, though sometimes more 
generally upon the whole matter of the Epistle and 
Gospel, desiring inspiration, strength, and protec- 
tion from God Almighty, in the practice and pur- 
suance of what is set before us. But concerning the 
matter of the Collects for the day, is spoken after- 
ward, in the particular account that is given of each 
Epistle, Gospel, and Collect. 

The second Collect is for peace, according to St. 
Paul's direction, i Tim. ii. 1, 2, and orbem pacatum, 
that the world might be quiet, was ever a clause in 
the prayers of the primitive Church ; and good 
reason, for peace was our Lord's legacy — My peace 
I leave with you ; His new year's gift — pax in terris, 
Xenium Christi. He prayed for peace, paid for 
peace, wept for it, bled for it : peace should there- 

c o 

o o 


fore be dear to us, all kind of peace, outward peace 
and all : for if there be not a quiet and peaceable 
life, there will hardly be godliness and honesty^. 
This Collect then is fit to be said daily, being a 
prayer for peace, and so is that which follows. 

The third, for grace to live well : for if there be 
not peace with God by a holy life, there will never 
be peace in the world. No man can so much as 
think a good thought, much less lead a godly life, 
without the grace of God; therefore that is also 
prayed for, together with God's protection for the 
day or night following. 

Then the prayers : according to St. Paul, who 
exhorts that " prayers and supplications be made 
for all men '." In particular for kings ; and the 
reason he there gives, sufficiently shews the neces- 
sity of praying particularly and especially for them; 
namely, that we may lead " a quiet and peaceable 
life in all godliness and honesty ;" which can hardly 
be done if they do not help towards it. For as the 
son of Sirach says, "As the judge of the people is 
himself, even so are his officers ; and what manner 
of man the ruler of the city is, such are all they that 
dwell therein e." A good Josiah, Hezekiah, or David, 
promote religion and honesty, and the right wor- 
ship of God among the people ; but a Jeroboam, by 
setting up calves in Dan and Bethel, makes all the 
people sin. 

' I Tim. ii. 2. ' Ver. 1,2. k Ecclus. x. 2. 

o o 

o o 


After this follows a prayer for the Church, 
excellently described by bishops, curates, and the 
people committed to their charge. By curates here 
are not meant stipendiaries, as now it is iised to 
signify, but all those, whether parsons or vicars, to 
whom the bishop, who is the chief pastor under 
Christ, hath committed the cure of souls of some 
part of his flock, and so are the bishop's curates. 
The bishop with these curates, a flock or congrega- 
tion committed to their charge, make up a Church. 
For according to oiur Saviour's definition, a Church 
is a shepherd, and His sheep that will hear His voice ; 
to which St. Cyprian's description agrees, "The 
Church is a congregation of believers united to their 
bishop, and a flock adhering to their shepherd'';" 
whence you ought to know, says he, that the Church 
is in the bishop, and the bishop in the Church, and 
they that are not with the bishop are not in the 
Church. Now because the bishops are the guides 
and governors of the Church, so that all acts of the 
Church are ordered and directed by them, as the 
same Cyprian says ; therefore the custom of the 
Church always was, and not without reason, to 
pray particularly by name for their bishop, as they 
did for the king. 

To make this Church, to gather it from among 
infidels and heathens, and to preserve it from all her 

i" " Illi sunt Ecclesia, plebs Sacerdoti adunata, et pastori suo 
grex adhaerens." Epist. LXVI. p. 16S. 

o o 

c o 


subtle and potent enemies, by the healthful Spirit 
of His grace, is an act of as great power, and a 
greater miracle of love, than to create the world. 
Although Thou beest wonderful, O Lord, in all 
Thy works, yet Thou art believed to be most won- 
derful in Thy works of piety and mercy, says St. 
Augustine, and therefore the preface is suitable. 
Almighty God, which only workest great 



We end our service with a blessing, which is 
to be pronounced by the bishop, if he be present. 
See the Rubric before the Blessing in the Commu- 
nion Service. Then the priest or bishop, if present, 
shall let them depart with his blessing. This 
is ordered for the honour of the bishop's authority, 
" without contradiction the less is blessed of the 

Therefore blessing being an act of authority, the 
bishop ought not to be blessed by the priest, but 
the priest by the bishop. 

' Heb. vii. 7. 

c O 



This blessing of the bishop or priest was so highly 
esteemed in the primitive times, that none durst go 
out of the church till they had received it, accord- 
ing to the Councils of Agde'', in the year 506, 
and Orleans the third'. 

And when they received it, they did it kneeling 
or bowing down their heads. And the deacon, to 
prepare them to it, was wont to call out imme- 
diately before the time of the blessing in such 
words as tliese, " Bow down yourselves to the bless- 
ing"." The Jews received it after the same manner, 
Ecclus. 1. 19, 21, "When the service was finished, 
the high priest went down, and lifted up his hands 
over the congregation to give the blessing of the 
Lord with his lips, and they bowed down them- 
selves to worship the Lord, that they might receive 
the blessing from the Lord the most High." And 
doubtless did we consider the efficacy and virtue 
of this blessing of priest or bishop, we could do no 
less than they did. For it is God from heaven that 
blesses us by the mouth of His minister. We have 
His Word for it, " And the Lord spake unto Moses, 
sajang. Speak to Aaron and his sons, saying. On 
this wise shall ye bless the children of Israel ; The 
Lord bless thee, &c. And they shall put My 
name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless 

•i Can. xlvii. torn. iv. p. 1391. ' Can. xxix. torn. v. p. 302. 

■" S. Chrysost. Liturg. ap. Goar. Euch. p. 86. 

c o 

o o 


them"." And the same promise of God's assist- 
ance, and ratifying the priest's blessings, we have in 
the Gospel, where our Saviour charges His Apostles 
and disciples, that "into whatsoever house they 
enter, they should say," not pray, say with authority, 
"Peace be to this house"," and (not if your prayers 
be fer\'ent, or if they in the house join in prayer 
with you, but) if the son of peace be there ; that is, 
if he that dwells in the house hinders not, nor 
resists your blessing, if he be a person capable of so 
much good as your blessing (for this is signified by 
this Hebrew phrase, son of peace), your peace shall 
rest upon him : but if he be not such a son of 
peace, your blessing shall return to you again, 
which it could not be said to do, unless virtue, 
together with the blessing, had gone out from 

The Evening Sebvice differs little or nothing 
from the Morning, and therefore what hath been 
said concerning the morning office, may be applied 
to that. 

?ri)e aftang. 

Litany signifies an humble and earnest supplica- 
tion. These foiiHS of prayers called Litanies, 
(wherein the people are more exercised than in any 
other part of the service, by continual joining in 

■■ Numb. vi. 22-27. ■> Matt. x. 13; Luke x. 5. 

o 6 




every passage of it,) are thought by some to have 
been brought into the Church about four hundred 
years after Christ, in times of great calamity, for 
the appeasing of God's wrath. True it is that they 
are very seasonable prayers in such times, and 
therefore were by Gregory and others used in their 
processions, for the averting of God's wrath in pub- 
lic calamities ; but it is as true, that they were long 
before that time, even in the first services that we 
find in the Church, used at the Communion Service, 
and other oSices, as ordination of priests, and the 
like ; witness the Clementine Constitutions?, where 
we find the deacon ministering to the people, and 
directing them from point to point what to pray for, 
as it is in our Litany, and the people are appointed 
to answer to every petition, i)o>ret«e miserere, " Lord 
have mercy," And in all liturgies extant, (as Mr. 
Thorndike hath well observed in his book of Beli- 
gious Assemblies'',) the same allocutions or irpoff- 
(paivijaiis, which are indeed litanies, may be seen. 
And St. Augustine' tells us of the common prayers, 
which were indited or denounced by the voice of the 
deacon. All which make it probable, that the 
practice of litanies is derived from the Apostles, 
and the custom of their time. And St. Chrysostom, 
on Rom. viii. 26, seems to assert the same ; for upon 

p L. viii. cap. v. p. 395, 6 ; vi. 397, 8 ; x. 400, 1. Cot. Pat. 
Apost. torn. i. 1 Ch. x. p. 342. 

' Epist. Iv. cap. xviii. B. torn. ii. p. 142. 



c ^o 


that verse, " we know not what we should pray for 
as we ought, but the Spirit helpeth our infirmities," 
he says thus': in those days, amongst other mira- 
culous gifts of the Spirit, this was one, doniim pre- 
cum, the gift of making prayers for the Church, to 
help the ignorance of the people that knew not 
what to pray for as they ought : he that had this 
gift, stood up and prayed for the whole congrega- 
tion, and taught them what to pray for; whose 
office now the deacon performs : viz. by directing 
them from point to point, what to pray for. To 
every of which petitions, says Clement, above cited, 
the people were to answer, Domine miserere. This 
continual joining of the people in every passage of 
it, tends much both to the improving and evidencing 
that fervour and intention which is most necessary 
in prayers. Hence was it that these fonns of 
prayers (where the people's devotion is so often 
excited, quickened, and exercised by continual suf- 
frages, such as, " Good Lord deliver us," " We be- 
seech Thee to hear us, good Lord") were called e/cT€- 
viis Sf{}(Teis, earnest or intense petitions. In which, if 
they were relished aright, the earnest and vehement 
devotion of primitive times still breathes ; and in 
these prayers, if ever, we pray with the Spirit. 

Concerning the Litany of our Church, we may 
boldly say, and easily maintain it, that there is not 

• Chrysost. in Rom. Horn. xiv. torn. ix. p. 585. C. 

o o 

o o 


extant any where, I. a more particular, excellent 
enumeration of aU the Christian's either private or 
common wants ; noi", II. a more innocent, blame- 
less form, against which there lies no just exception ; 
nor. III. a more artificial composure for the raising 
of our devotion, and keeping it up throughout, than 
this part of oiir Liturgy. 

In the beginning, it directs our prayers to the right 
object, the gloiious Tkinity. For necessaiy it is, 
that we should know whom we worship. Then it 
proceeds to deprecations, or prayers against evil ; 
lastly, to petitions for good. In the deprecations, 
as right method requires, we first pray against sin, 
then against punishment ; because sin is the greatest 
evil. From all which we pray to be delivered by 
the holy actions and passions of Christ, the only 
merits of all our good. The like good order is 
observed in our petitions for good. Fii-st, we pray 
for the Church catholic, the common mother of all 
Christians; then for our own Church, to which, 
next the Church catholic, we owe the greatest ob- 
servance and duty. And therein in the first place 
for the principal members of it, in whose welfare 
the Chvu:ch's peace chiefly consists. After this we 
pray particularly for those sorts of men that most 
especially need our prayers, such amongst others as 
those whom the Law calls miserable persons. 

The Litany is not one long-continued prayer, but 
broken into many short and pithy ejaculations; that 

o o 

: O 


the intention and devotion which is most necessary 
in prayer may not be dulled and vanish, as in a 
long prayer it is apt to do, but be quickened and 
intended, by so many new and quick petitions ; 
and die nearer to the end, the shorter and livelier 
it is, strengthening our devotions by raising in us 
an apprehension of our miseiy and distress, ready 
as it were to sink and perish, and therefore crying 
out as the disciples did, " Master, save us, we 
perish ;" O Lamb of God heab us, O Christ 
HEAR us, Lord have mercy upon us. Such as 
these are the active, lively-spirited prayers, ivepyoi- 
ixfvai, which St. James mentions, and tells us avail 

The Doxology,or Glory be to the Father, &c., is 
much used in our service, after Confession, after 
Athanasius' Creed, and especially after each psalm 
and canticle, as a most thankful adoration of the 
holy Trinity, upon reflection on the matter going 
before, and therefore is very fitly divided betwixt 
the priest and people in saying it, according as the 
matter going before was ; and it is in those places 
said standing, as the most proper posture for 
thanksgiving or adoration. Here in the Litany it 
is said in a way somewhat different ; for after that 
the priest and people have in the supplications 
aforegoing besought God that He would arise, help 
and deliver them, as He did their forefathers of 

' James v. 16. 

C o 

o o 


old, for His name's sake and honour, the priest 
does collect-wise sum up this ; praying that by such 
deliverances, all glory may redound to God the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as it was in the be- 
ginning, is now and ever shall be, &c. the people 
answering only. Amen, as it were after a Collect, 
and continuing kneeling ; because both this, as it 
is here used, and other parts of the Litany before 
and after, are matters of humble supplication, and 
so most fit to be tendered to God in that posture. 

In the fonner part of the Litany the priest hath 
not a part so proper but that it may be said by a 
deacon or other, and it useth to be sung by such in 
cathedral and collegiate churches and chapels, 
and both it and all other our alternate supplica- 
tions, which are as it were the lesser Litanies, do 
much resemble the ancient prayers indited by the 
deacons, as we have said ; but in the latter part of 
the Litany, from the Lord's Prayer to the end, the 
priest hath a part more peculiar, by reason of the 
eminency of that prayer, and that other Collects 
follow wherein the priest doth recommend again 
the petitions of the people to God, (as in that 
prayer, " We humbly beseech thee, O Lord, merci- 
fully to look upon our infirmities," &c.) and so- 
lemnly offers them up to God in the behalf of the 
people, to which the people answer, Amen ; and 
therefore these Collects after the Litany, though 
the matter of them hatli been prayed for before, 

c o 



particularly in the supplications foregoing, may be 
Said without the charge of needless tautology ; for 
here the priest does by virtue of his sacred office 
solemnly offer up and present to God these peti- 
tions of the people, as it was usually done in an- 
cient liturgies ; praying God to accept the people's 
prayers, as he doth more than once in St. Chrysos- 
tom's liturgy, particularly in that prayer which we 
have out of it in our Litany. For when the deacon 
hath (as we have observed) ministered to the people 
several petitions, to which they answer. Lord have 
mercy, litany-wise, then the priest, collect-wise, 
makes a prayer to God to accept the people's peti- 
tions, the deacon in the mean time proceeding to 
dictate to the people more supplications which the 
priest in another Collect offers up to God solemnly 
but secretly, so that though in some of those Col- 
lects the priest at the latter end spake out so that 
the people might hear and answer, Amen, or Glory 
be to the Father, or the like, (which they might well 
do, for though the prayer were said by the priest 
secretly, yet it was prescribed, and such as the 
people knew beforehand,) yet some of them were 
said throughout secretly by the priest, to which the 
people were not required to make any answer. 

The reason of these secreta, secret prayers said 
by the priest, may be partly for variety to refresh 
the people, but chiefly, as I conceive, that by this 
course the people might be taught to understand 

o o 



and reverence the office of the priest, which is to 
make an atonement for the people, and to present 
their prayers to God by that very offering of them 
up, making them more acceptable to God: all 
which depends not upon the people's consent or 
confirmation of his office, but upon God's alone 
appointment and institution, who hath set him 
apart to these offices of offering gifts and sacrifices 
for the people ". And therefore as it was appointed 
by God, that when Aaron by his priestly office was 
to offer for the people and make an atonement for 
them, none of the people were to be present * ; so 
the Church ordered that at some times, when the 
priest was making an atonement for the people, and 
offering up for them and the acceptation of their 
prayers, the merits and passion of Christ, none 
should seem actually to assist, but the priest should 
say it fjLVffTiKus, secretly and mystically. Yet lest 
the people should be unsatisfied, and suspicious 
that the priest had neglected this his office, which 
they could not be assured that he had performed, 
because it was done secretly; therefore the Chiu-ch 
appointed that the priest should at the end of the 
service come down from the altar, and standing 
behind the pulpit, in the midst of the people, say a 
loud prayer, called €vxh S-n-iaedfiPaivos '', which was a 
sum or compendium of all that the people had 

" Heb. V. 1. • Levit. xvi. 17. » Goar. p. 154. 

6 -o 

o o 


before petitioned for, which he then solemnly 
offered up to God. 

The Church of Eugland is generally in her Com- 
mon Prayers, as for an humble, so for an audible 
voice, especially in the Lord's Prayer, appointing it 
to be said, in the Rubric before it, with a loud, that 
is, an audible voice, not secretly ; and this, for the 
more earnest repetition of so Divine words, and 
to make them more familiar to the people. But 
though this Church does not order the priest to say 
these prayers secretly, yet she retains the same 
order of offering up by the priest in Collects follow- 
ing the people's foregoing supplications. 

The Litany is appointed in the Rubrics to be read 
Wednesdays and Fridays, the days kept in the 
Greek Chm'ch for more solemn fasts, because the 
Bridegroom was then taken from us, being sold by 
Judas on Wednesday, and murdered on Fridays 
And though our Church in imitation of the Western 
hath changed the Wednesday fast to Saturday, yet 
in memoiy of the Eastern custom, she still appoints 
the Litany to be used upon Wednesday. 

Friday was both in the Greek Church and Latin, 

a litany or humiliation day, and so is kept in ours. 

And whosoever loves to feast on that day rather 

than another, in that holds not communion with 

the ancient Catholic Church, but with the Turks, 

who, in contumely of Christ crucified, feast that day'. 

' Epiphan. adver. Aerium. torn. i. cap. iii. p. 906. cap. vi. 910. C. 
» Chemnit. in 3. prsec. 

o 6 

o^ ^ o 


©f l^olg 19ags(. 

Holy in Scripture phrase is all one with sepa- 
rate or set apart to God, and is opposed to common : 
"What God hath cleansed, that call not thou com- 
mon ''." Holy days then are those which are taken 
out of common days, and separated to God's holy 
service and worship, either by God's own appoint- 
ment, or by holy Church's dedication. And these 
are either fasting and penitential days, (for there is 
a holy fast, Joel ii. 15, as well as a holy feast, Nehem. 
viii. 10,) such as Ash-Wednesday, Good-Friday, 
and the whole week before Easter, commonly called 
the Holy week ; which days holy Church hath 
dedicated to God's solemn worship, in religious 
fastings and prayers. Or else holy festivals, which 
are set apart to the solemn and religious com- 
memoration of some eminent mercies and blessings 
of God. And amongst these holy days, some are 
higher days than other, in regard of the greatness 
of the blessing commemorated, and of the solemnity 
of the service appointed to them. So we read Lev. 
xxiii. 34, &c. the feast of tabernacles was to con- 
tinue seven days, but the first and the eighth were 
the highest days, because then were the most solemn 

•i Acts X. 15. 

o o 

C- : 


This sanctification or setting apart of festival- 
days, is a token of that thankfulness, and a part of 
that public honour which we owe to God for His 
admirable benefits ; and these days or feasts so set 
apart are of excellent use, being, as learned Hooker 
observes, the 

I. Splendour and outward dignity of our religion. 

II. Forcible witnesses of ancient truth. 

III. Provocations to the exercise of all piety. 

IV. Shadows of our endless felicity in heaven. 

V. On earth, everlasting records teaching by the 
eye in a manner, whatsoever we believe. 

And concerning particulars. As that Jews had 
their sabbath, which did continually bring to mind 
the former world finished by creation ; so the 
Christian Church hath her Lord's-days or Sundays, 
to keep us in perpetual remembrance of a far better 
world begun by Him who came to restore all things, 
to make heaven and earth new*^. The rest of the 
days and times which we celebrate have relation all 
unto one head, Christ. We begin therefore our 
ecclesiastical year (as to some accounts, though not 
as to the order of our service) with the glorious 
Annunciation of His birth by angelical message. 
Hereunto are added His blessed Nativity itself, the 
mystery of His legal Circumcision, the testification 
of His true Incarnation by the purification of His 
blessed mother, the Virgin Mary: His glorious 

<= Eccles. Pol. b. V. ch. Ixx. § 8. vol. ii. p. 496. 

o o 

O o 


Resurrection and Ascension into heaven, the 
admirable sending down of His Spirit upon 
His chosen. 

Again, forasmuch as we know that Christ hath 
not only been manifested great in Himself, but 
great in other His saints also ; the days of whose 
departure out of the world are to the Church of 
Christ, as the birth and coronation-days of kings or 
emperors; therefore, especial choice being made of 
the very flower of all occasions in this kind, there 
are annual selected times to meditate of Christ 
glorified in them, which had the honour to suffer 
for His sake, before they had age and ability to 
know Him, namely, the blessed Innocents ; glori- 
fied in them which knowing Him, as St. Stephen, 
had the sight of that before death, whereinto so 
acceptable death doth lead : glorified in those sages 
of the East, that came from far to adore Him, and 
were conducted by strange light: glorified in the 
second Elias of the world, sent before Him to pre- 
pare His way : glorified in every of those Apostles 
whom it pleased Him to use as founders of His 
kingdom here: glorified in the angels, as in St. 
Michael : glorified in all those happy souls that are 
already possessed of bliss. 

Besides these, be four days annexed to the feasts 
of Easter and Whitsuntide, for the more honour 
and enlargement of those high solemnities. These 
being the days which the Lord hath made glorious, 

o o 

o o 


" Let us rejoice and be glad in them^." These days 
we keep not in a secret calendar, taking thereby 
our private occasions as we list ourselves to think 
how much God hath done for all men ; but they 
are chosen out to serve as public memorials of such 
mercies, and are therefore clothed with those out- 
ward robes of holiness, whereby their difference 
from other days may be made sensible, having by 
holy Church a solemn service appointed to them. 

Part of which service are the Epistles and Gos- 
pels ; of which in the first place we shall discourse, 
because these are peculiar and proper to each 
several holy day, the rest of the service for the most 
part being common to all. 

Concerning these, two things are desirable : 

I. To shew the antiquity of them. 

II. Their fitness for the day to which they belong, 
or the reason of their choice. 

Concerning the antiquity of Epistles and Gospels, 
it will be sufficient, once for all, to shew that the 
use of them in the Christian Church was ancient. 
Concerning the antiquity of the days themselves, to 
which the Epistles and Gospels appertain, it will 
be fit to be more particular. 

That the use of Epistles and Gospels peculiar to 
the several holy days was ancient, appears first by 
ancient liturgies ; secondly by the testimony of 
the ancient fathers. Let St. Augustine testify 

•i Psalm cxviii. 24. 

C 6 

o o 


for the Latin Church ; " We heard first," says he, 
" the apostolical lesson, then we sung a psalm, 
after that the Gospel was read*." Now let St. 
Chrysostom testify for the Greek ; " The minister 
stands up, and with a loud voice calls, 'Let us 
attend':' then the lessons are begun;" which les- 
sons are the Epistles and Gospels, (as appears in his 
liturgy,) which follow immediately after the min- 
ister hath so called for attention. 

The fitness of the Epistle and Gospel for the day 
it belongs to, and the reason of the choice, will 
plainly appear, if we observe that these holy fes- 
tivals and solemnities of the Church are, as I have 
touched before, of two sorts ; the more high days, 
or the rest : the first commemorate the signal acts 
or passages of our Lord in the redemption of man- 
kind, His Incarnation and Nativity, Circumcision, 
Manifestation to the Gentiles, His Fasting, Passion, 
Resurrection and Ascension, the sending of the 
Holy Ghost, and thereupon a more full and express 
manifestation of the Sacred Trinity. The second 
sort is of inferior days that supply the intervals of 
the greater, such as are either the remaining Sun- 
days, wherein, without any consideration of the 
sequence of time, (which could only be regarded in 
great feasts,) the holy Doctrine, Deeds, and Miracles 

• In Epist. Joannis ad Parthos. Prologus, torn. iii. p. 826. Serm. 
clxxvi. de verbis Apost. i Tim. i. 1. D. torn. v. p. 839. 

* Horn. XIX. in Act. Apost. cap. ix. torn. ix. p. 159. E. 

o ■ o 



of our Lord are the chief matters of our meditations ; 
or else the other holy days of which already hath 
been spoken. And for all these holy times we have 
Epistles and Gospels very proper and seasonable ; 
for not only on high and special days, but even in 
those also that are more general and indifferent, 
some respect is had to the season, and the holy 
affections the Church then aims at, as mortification 
in Lent, joy, hope, newness of life, &c. after Easter ; 
the fruits and gifts of the Spirit, and preparation for 
Christ's second coming in the time between Pente- 
cost and Advent. But these things I shall shew in 
the discourse of the holy days severally. As for 
the lessons, although they have another order, and 
very profitable, being for each day of the week, 
following usually the method of chapters, and taking 
in the Old Testament also, (the Communion deal- 
ing chiefly with the New as most fit for the nature 
of that service.) yet in them also regard is had to 
the more solemn times by select and proper read- 
ings, as hath been shewn. This being the Church's 
rule and method, (as she hath it from the Apostle,) 
that all things be done unto edifying, that we may 
be better acquainted with G od and with ourselves, 
with what hath been done for us, and what is to be 
done by us. And this visible as well as audible 
preaching of Christian doctrine by these solemni- 
ties and readings in such an admirable order, is so 
apt to infuse by degrees all necessary Christian 

o 6 

Q O 


knowledge into us, and the use of it to the igno- 
rant is so great, that it may well be feared (as 
a reverend person* hath forewarned) that when the 
festivals and solemnities for the birth of Christ and 
His other famous passages of life, and death, and 
resurrection, and ascension, and mission of the Holy 
Ghost, and the Lessons, Gospels, (and Collects,) and 
Seimons upon them, be turned out of the Church, 
together with the Creeds also, it will not be in the 
power of weekly sermons on some head of religion 
to keep up the knowledge of Christ in men's hearts, 
&c. And no doubt for this and other good reasons 
which he gives us, it was that the primitive Chris- 
tians were so exact and religious in these solemni- 
ties and meditations on the occasions of them, and 
therefore the sermons of the fathers were generally 
on the readings of the day, as hereafter is shewed. 
And we have from another the like hand thus: 
" The blessings of God, whereof these solemnities 
renew the remembrance, are of that esteem to the 
Church, that we are not able to express too much 
thankfulness in taking that occasion of solemnizing 
His service. And the greatest part of Christians 
are such as will receive much improvement in the 
principal mysteries of our faith, by the sensible in- 
struction which the observation of such solemnities 
yieldeth. The remembrance of the birth, the suf- 

K Dr. Hammond's View of the New Directory, chap. i. sect. 
36. p. 152. 

o -o 



ferings, the resurrection of Christ, the coming of 
the Holy Ghost, the conversion of the Gentiles by 
sending the Apostles, the way made before His 
coming by the Annunciation of the angel and the 
coming of the Baptist, as it is a powerful mean to 
train the more ignorant sort in the understanding 
of such great mysteries, so it is a just occasion for 
all sorts, to make that a particular time of serving 
God, upon which we solemnize those great works of 
His*":" and what we have above said concerning 
the excellent use of festival days at p. 83. 

The same method shall be observed in this dis- 
course of holy days, which the service-book uses : 
not that in the title-page in the beginning of the 
book, (which perhaps reckons for holy days only 
those days in which we are solemnly to worship 
God, and also to rest from usual labour,) but that 
in the services appointed by the book which adds 
over and above, that old catalogue of holy days, St 
Paul and St. Barnabas, Ash- Wednesday, and the 
Holy Week ; all which must be reckoned for holy 
days in the Church's account, because they have 
holy day service. Epistles and Gospels, and second 
service, appointed to them, though there be no law 
that inflicts a penalty upon them that do their usual 
works upon those days, they being only desired to 
be present at the Church's service at the hours 

* Thorndike of Religious Assemblies, ch. vii. p. 256 



o o 


The principal holy days, as Christmas, Easter, 
and Whitsunday, have some days appointed to 
attend upon them; some to go before, some to 
come after : as it were to wait upon them for their 
greater solemnity. 

Before Christmas are appointed four Advent 
Sundays, so called because they are to prepare us 
for Chi-ist's Advent, or coming in the flesh. These 
are to Christmas-day as St. John the Baptist to 
Christ, forerunners to prepare for it and point it 


The Gospel, Matt. xxi. 1, seems at first more 
proper to Christ's passion than His birth ; yet is it 
read now principally for those words in it, " Blessed 
is He that cometh in the name of the Lord," that 
is. Blessed is He for coming in the flesh, the cause 
of all our joy, for which we can never say enough, 
Hosanna in the Highest. 

The Epistle, Rom. xiii. 8, labours to prepare us 
to behold with joy this rising sun, bidding us awake 
from sleeA according to the Prophet Isaiah, ch. Ix. 1 , 
" Arise, afld shine, for thy light is come." 

The Collect is taken out of both, and relates to 

o- 6 

o o 


both ; the first part of it is clearly the words of the 
Epistle, " That we may cast away the works of 
darkness, and put upon us the armour of light." 
That which follows, " In the time of this mortal 
life, in the which Thy Son Jesus Christ came to visit 
us," in effect is the same with that in the Epistle, 
" Let us put off the works of darkness, &c., because 
the night is spent, the day is at hand, and our sal- 
vation is near ;" that is, our Saviour Christ, the 
light of the world, is coming into the world to visit 
us in great humility, according to the prophet, 
Zach. ix. 9, which the Gospel records, " Tell ye 
the daughter of Sion," (to her great joy,) that be- 
hold " her King comes unto her, meek," (or, in great 
humUity,) " sitting upon an ass." 


The Gospel, Luke xxi. 25, treats of Christ's 
second coming to judgment, an excellent meditation 
to prepai'e us for the welcome and joyful entertain- 
ment of Christ's first coming. A Saviour must 
needs be welcome to him that is afraid of damna- 

The Epistle, Kom. xv. 4, mentions the first 
coming of our Lord for the salvation even of the 
Gentiles, that is of us, for which all praise is by us 
to be given to Him. " Praise the Lord, all ye 
Gentiles, and laud Him all ye nations together." 

o o 

O _ o 


The Collect is takea out of the Epistle ; and 
though it seems not to relate to the day, yet is 
it an excellent prayer for all times, and so not 
unseasonable for this. 


The Epistle, 1 Cor. iv. 1, mentions a second 
coming of Christ; the Gospel, Matt. xi. 2, the 
first. The Collect prays for the benefit of this 


This week is one of the four Ember weeks, con- 
cerning which see after the first Sunday in Lent. 


The Epistle, Phil. iv. 4, and Gospel, John i. 19, 
set Christ, as it were, before us, not prophesied of, 
but being even at hand, yea, standing amongst us ; 
pointing Him out as St. John Baptist did to the 
people; "Behold the Lamb of God that taketh 
away the sins of the world !" 

The Collect prays most earnestly and passionately 
to Him, to succour us miserable sinners. 

G O 

o— o 


iF«agt of ©Ibttgtmag Hag. 

The Episde, Heb. i. 1, Gospel, John i. 1, and 
Collect, are plainly suitable to the day, all men- 
tioning the birth of Christ. Besides, this feast 
hath proper Psalms, in which some verses are 
peculiar to the day, as will appear if they be well 
considered. The first psalm for the Morning Ser- 
vice, is xix : " The heavens declare the glory of 
God ; " very suitable to the feast, for at His birth 
a new star appeared which declared His glory and 
Deity so plainly, that it fetched the sages of the 
East to come and worship Him : " Where is He that 
is bora King of the Jews? for we have seen His 
star in the east, and are come to worship Him'." 

The second psalm for the morning is xlv., which, 
at the beginning of it, is a genethliac, or birth- 
song of Christ, " Thou art fairer than the children 
of men," ver. 3. And of His mighty success in sub- 
duing the devil and the world by the word of truth, 
of meekness, and righteousness, ver. 5, &c. 

The third is Psalm Ixxxv. which is principally 
set for the birth of Christ : for it is a thanksgiving 
to God for sending a Saviour, which should save 
His people from their sins, the greatest captivity 
that is, and therefore cannot properly be meant of 

' Matt. ii. 2. 


o , 


any but Christ, who was therefore called " Jesus, 
because He should save His people from their sins," 
Matt. i. 21. And so the primitive Church under- 
stood it, and therefore selected it out as a part of 
their office for this day, as being proper and perti- 
nent to the matter of the feast : for the meeting 
here specified, of mercy and truth, righteousness 
and peace, ver. 10, 11, was at Christ's birth, who 
said of Himself, that He was the Truth ; who as He 
had a birth from heaven, to wit. His Divine nature, 
so had He another as man from earth from the 
Virgin ; which birth drew righteousness to look 
from heaven upon poor sinners with a favourable 
look, and made righteousness and peace kiss, for 
the delivering of sinners from their captivity. True 
it is the prophet in the first verses speaks of this 
delivery as of a thing past, " Lord, Thou hast turned 
away the captivity of Jacob :" yet for all this it 
may be a prophecy of our salvation by the coming 
of Christ hereafter : for as St. Peter says, David 
being a prophet and seeing this before. Acts ii. 30, 
31, spake of Christ's nativity, as if it were already 

The evening Psalms are Ixxxix. ex. cxxxii. The 
first and last of which are thankful commemora- 
tions of God's merciful promise of sending our 
Lord Christ into the world, that " seed of David, 
which He had sworn to establish, and set up His 
throne for ever." For which, " O Lord, the very 

6 6 

o o 


heavens shall praise Thy wondrous works, and Thy 
truth in the congregation of the saints''." The 
Church was in affliction now, as is plain in both 
these psalms ; but such was the joy that they were 
affected with, at the promise of Christ's birth and 
coming into the world, that they could not contain, 
but even in the midst of their misery break forth 
into thanksgiving for it : and how can the Church 
excite us better to thanksgiving to God for the 
birth of Christ upon this day, than by shewing us 
how much the promise of it afar off WTOught upon 
the saints of old ? Psalm ex. expressly mentions 
the birth of Christ, " The dew of Thy birth is of 
the womb of the morning," ver. 3. As the morning 
dew brings forth innumerable fruit, so shall the 
birth of Christ bring forth innumerable faithful 
people ; and therefore the prophet here does, as we 
should this day, adore and praise the goodness of 
God for the birth of Christ, the cause of so much 

It is admirable to behold the frame of the 
Church's holy office and service this day. In the 
first Lessons, she reads us the prophecy of Christ's 
coming in the flesh ' ; in the second Lessons, 
Epistle and Gospel, she gives us the history of it": 
in the Collect, she teaches us to pray, that we may 
be partakers of the benefit of His birth; in the 

■■ Psalm Ixxxix. 5. ' Isaiah ix. 1—8 ; vii. 10 — 17. 

■" Luke ii. 1 — 15; Titus iii. 4 — 9. 

6 6 

o o 


proper preface for the day, as also in the proper 
psalms, she sets us to our duty of adoring and glo- 
rifying God for His mercy. In the Lessons and 
Gospels appointed, holy Church does the angel's 
part, brings us glad tidings of our Saviour's birth ; 
" Behold, I bring you glad tidings of great joy, for 
unto you is born this day a Saviour, which is Christ 
the Lord °." In appointing the special hymns and 
psalms, she calls upon us to do the she^ierds' 
part, to " glorify and praise God for all the things 
that this day we hear and see°." And to sing with 
the angels, " Glory to God in the highest, for this 
good will to men." 

For the antiquity of this day, many testimonies 
might be brought out of the ancients ; but, because 
I intend brevity, I shall be content with two 
beyond exception. St. Augustine p witnesses, that 
it was the custom of holy Church to keep this day : 
and upon the five and twentieth of December i. St. 
Chrysostom makes a sei-mon to prove that the 
keeping of Christmas-day was ancient, even from 
the first times, and that the Church kept the true 
day. In the same sermon he says, " it is a godly 
thing to keep this day." Nay, further, that • " the 
keeping of this day was one of the greatest signs of 
our love to Christ." Amongst other arguments 
which he uses there, to pereuade his hearers to 

" Luke ii. 10, 11. ° Ver. 20. f Ep. Iv. cap. 1. B. tom.ii. p. 12S. 
1 In Psalm, cxxxii. torn. iv. p. 1490. A. 

o 6 

o ^ o 


keep this day, he brings this, that the custom of 
keeping this day was religious, and of God, or else 
it could never have been so early spread over the 
whole world, in spite of so much opposition ^ 

5t, 5tcp5cn, <St. %(i\)n, Innocents. 

Immediately after Christmas follow, as attend- 
ants upon this high festival, St. Stephen, St. John, 
and Innocents ; not because this was the very time 
of their suffering, but because none are thought fitter 
attendants on Christ's nativity than the blessed 
martyrs, who have laid down their lives for Him, 
from whose birth they received spiritual life. And 
there being three kinds of martyrdom : I. In wiU 
and deed, which is the highest. II. In will, but 
not in deed. III. In deed, but not in will : in this 
order they attend. St. Stephen first, who suffered 
both in will and deed. Next, St. John, who suffered 
martyrdom in will, but not in deed, being mira- 
culously delivered out of the boiling caldron, into 
which he was put before Port-Latin in Eome. 
Lastly, the holy Innocents, who suffered in deed 
but not in will ; yet are reckoned amongst the 
martyrs, because they suffered for Christ; whose 

' In diem natalem Dom., torn. ii. p. 354. 

o o 

o o 


praise these His witnesses confessed, and shewed 


the day.] 

The reason of the choice of the Epistles', Gos- 
pels", and Collects for these days is plain, these 
being all privileged days, that is, days which have 
in Scripture their peculiar histories. But for the 
Collect" for St. Stephen's day, we may note in par- 
ticular, that as the Church offers up some of her 
Collects directly to the second Person of the Trinity, 
SO one of them is this for St. Stephen's day, and 
very properly ; for as St. Stephen in the midst of 
his martyrdom prayed to Jesus, saying, " Lord Jesus 
receive my spirit," and, " Lord lay not this sin to 
their charge ; " so the Church in imitation of this 
blessed proto-martyr upon his day calls upon the 
Lord Jesus also, desiring of Him such a spirit as 
that of St. Stephen, to love and pray for our enemies, 
which is that heroical and transcendant virtue which 
is peculiar to Christian Religion. 

• Old Collect for Innocents' Day. " Almighty God, whose 
praise this day the young Innocents Thy witnesses have confessed 
and shewn forth, not in speaking, but in dying; mortify and kill 
all vices in us, that in our conversation our life may express Thy 
faith, which with our tongues we do confess; through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. " 

' Acts vii. 55 ; 1 John i. I ; Rev. xiv. 1. 

» Matt, xxiii. 34; John xxi. 19; Matt. ii. 13. 

» Old Collect for St. Stephen's Day. " Grant us, O Lord, to 
learn to love our enemies by the example of Thy martyr St. 
Stephen, who prayed for his persecutors to Thee ; which livest 
and reignest," &c. And for St. John the Evangelist's Day, after 
the words, " Evangelist St. John," followed, "may attain to Thy 
everlasting gifts ; through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

C 6 

o o 


Before we endeavour to shew the antiquity of 
these days in particular, it will not be amiss to give 
some account of the ancient observation of Saints' 
days in general. 

That the observation of Saints' days was very 
ancient in the Church, will appear by these testimo- 
nies following. The third Council of Carthage ^ tells 
us, that the Church did celebrate the passions and 
anniversaries of the martyrs. The council was held 
in St. Augustine's time^ " Attend therefore, my 
dearly beloved ; all of you unanimously hold fast 
God your Father, and the Church your mother. 
Celebrate the Saints' birth-days (so they anciently 
called the days of their death and martyrdom) with 
sobriety, that we may imitate them that have gone 
before us, that they may joy over us, who pray for 
us, that so the blessing of God may remain upon us 
for ever." Amen. Amen. 

Chrysostoni". " The sepulchres of the Saints are 
honourable, and their days are known of all, bring- 
ing a festival joy to the world." 

Before these St. Cyprian'', "We celebrate the 
passions of the martyrs and their days with an anni- 
versary commemoration." And before him, anno 
147, the Church of Smyrna says the same'^. 


y Can. xlvii. torn. ii. p. 1 177. B. 

» S. Austin, Serm. ii. in Psalra. Ixxxviii. torn. iv. p. 954. C. 

• Horn. LXVI. ad Pop. Antiocli. torn. v. p. 325. B. ed. Lat. 

'' Epist. xxxix. p. 77. 

■= Euseb. Eccles. Hist., 1. v. cap. xv. p. 135. A. 




If it be demanded why the Church kept the days 
of the Saints' deaths, rather than of their birth or 
baptism : the answer may be : I. Because at their 
deaths they are born citizens of heaven, of the 
Church triumphant, (which is more than to be bom 
either a man or a Christian, a member of the Church 
militant,) whence (as above said) these days were 
usually styled by the ancients, their birth-days. II. 
Then do they perfectly triumph over the devil and 
the world, by which the Church militant hath 
gained, to her comfort, an example of persevering 
constancy and courage, and the Church triumphant 
hath gained a new joy by the addition of a new 
member. For surely if the Saints and Angels in 
heaven joy at the conversion of a sinner, much 
more do they joy at the admission of a saint into 

Thus much of the Saints' days in general. For 
these three holy days in particular, that they are 
ancient, St. Augustine shews us, who hath sermons 
upon all these days, vol. v. and Chrjsologus, who 
hath sermons upon St. Stephen and Innocents^; 
and Origen in his comment upon these words", "A 
voice was heard in Eama," tells us, the Church 
did, and did well in it, to keep the feast of Inno- 
cents ; and there is as much reason for the keeping 

■i Chrysologus Serm. cliv. in St. Stephan. p. 391. Serm. De 
Infantium nee. CLII. p. 387. 
« In Diversos, Horn. III. torn. ii. p. 436. ed. Lat. 


o o 


of St. Stephen's day, who was the first martyr, and 
of St. John's, the beloved disciple and evangelist, as 
for the keeping of Innocents : and therefore it is to 
be thought that the Church did then as well 
observe them as this, since we have proved she 
did keep the days of martyrs. 

5unDaa after ®&rtstma0. 

This Sunday hath the same Collect with Christ- 
mas-day; and the Epistle, Gal. iv. 1, and Gospel, 
St. Matt. i. 18, treat about the same business, the 
birth of Christ ; for we have not yet done with the 
solemnity of Christmas. Thus great solemnities 
have some days after them, to continue the memory 
of them, in prorogationem festi. 

iFcagt of ©frciimcigfon, or 

Xcto ¥car*s 39ag. 

The feast of Circumcision is affirmed by learned 

men to be of later institution ; for though many of 

the ancients mention the octave of Christmas and 

New Year's day, yet they do not mention or seem 

I to keep it, say they, as a feast of the Circumcision. 

o o 

o o 

102 OF NEW tear's day. 

But suppose it to be so ; yet surely it cannot be 
denied that there is reason enough for the keeping 
of this day solemn, as it is the feast of Christ's 
Circumcision ; for as at Christmas Christ was 
made of a woman like us in nature, so this day " He 
was made under the Law^," and for us took upon 
Him the curse of the Law ; being made sin for us, 
and becoming a surety to the offended God, for us 
sinners ; which suretyship He sealed this day with 
some drops of that precious Blood which He meant 
to pour out whole upon the cross. 

As by His birth we received the adoption of sons, so 
by His Circumcision, the redemption from the Law; 
and without this His birth had not availed us at all. 

The Epistle, Rom. iv. 8, Gospel, St. Luke ii. 15, 
and Collect, are plainly fit for the day. 

This holy day hath no fast before it, the reason 
we shall shew ; and to save trouble, we will hei'e 
once for all shew " Why some holy days have fasts 
before them ; and then. Why this and some other 
have none." 

For the first. It was the religious custom of the 
primitive times to spend the night (or a greater 
part of it) before the holy days, in watching and 
prayers and tears, partly to prepare them for the 
more solemn and religious observation of the holy 
day following ; partly to signify that we should be 
as the blessed Saints were, after a little time of 

« Gal. iv. 4, 5. 

c ^ o 

o o 

OF NEW year's day. 103 

mortification and affliction, translated into glory 
and joy, according to Psalm xxx. 5, "Heaviness 
may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the 
morning." Thus after a vigil comes a holy day. 
These vigils, or night-watches, being in continuance 
of time abused by the wickedness of some, who, 
under colour of those holy nightly exercises, stole a 
liberty of intemperance, lust, and other villainy, 
were, say some, by the wisdom of holy Church, to 
avoid scandal, turned into fasts, which still retain 
the old name of vigils. The truth of this assertion 
I question ; for neither do I find any decree of holy 
Church forbidding these vigils: (Canon xxxv. of 
the Council of Eliberis^f, and Canon v. of the Council 
of Autissiodorum •■ (or Auxerre), which are usually 
produced to this purpose, coming far short of such a 
prohibition :) nor is it so probable that the Church 
should, for some particular men's abuse, forbid a 
practice so religious commanded by our Saviour, St. 
Matt. XXV. 13; commended to us by His practice at 
Gethsemane, St. Matt. xxvi. 38 ; St. Luke vi. 12; 
earnestly urged by the Fathers of the primitive 
times. I therefore rather think, that, whereas it 
was the ancient custom to fast the day and watch 
the night before the holy day, as St. Bernard' tells 
us, in time, as charity and devotion grew cold, 
through sloth and restiness, this more troublesome 

8 Tom. i. p. 974. D. h Tom. v. p. 958. B. 

' In Vigil. S. Andr. Apost. Sena. torn. i. p. 105«. E. I 

6 ~o 

o— o 

104 OF NEW year's day. 

part of devotion, the nightly watches, were laid 
aside, and the fast only retained, and that but slen- 
derly observed. But it were to be wished, that as 
the fast might be still retained, and more strictly 
observed, so the holy vigils might be in part at least 
revived; for the night was not made only for sleep. 
Tradesmen, mariners, merchants, will tell you so 
much ; they spend a good part of the night in watch- 
ing for gain ; will not you do as much for your soul? 
Besides, the darkness and silence of the night are 
helps to compunction and holy son-ow; helps to 
meditation and contemplation ; the soul is the more 
free from outward distraction. The sight of men 
lying asleep in their beds, like dead men in the 
grave, suggests a meditation of Doomsday. Let 
me therefore persuade men and women : bend your 
knees, sigh, watch and pray in the night, " Blessed 
is he, whom our Lord when He cometh shall find 
so doing ; and because we know not what hour He 
will come, watch therefore''." This for the firsts 
why some holy days have fasts before them. 

Now why this feast of Circumcision, and some 
other, have no fasts, the reason is double. 

First, because sometimes the signification of the 
vigil or fast, mentioned above, ceases ; and the 
signification or mystery failing, the vigil or fast is 
omitted. For example, St. Michael upon this ac- 
count hath no fast, because the angels did not by 

'' S. Chrysost. Horn. XXVI. in Act. Apost. torn. ix. p. 212. C. 

6 . o 

O^ — — o 


sufferings and mortifications enter into their joy, 
but were created in the joy they have. But then, 
secondly, though this signification and mystery of 
vigils and fasts holds good in St. Mark, St. Philip, 
St. Jacob, and some other, yet they have no fasts 
for another reason ; because they fall either betwixt 
Easter and Whitsunday, or betwixt Christmas and 
Epiphany, which holy Church held for such high 
tiipes of joy and festivity, that they would not have 
one day among them sullied by pensive sorrow and 

If the fast for a holy day fall upon a holy day, 
that is, if the day before the holy day upon which 
the fast regularly is to be kept, be itself also a holy 
day, then the fast must be kept the day before that". 


This Greek word signifies Manifestation, and 
hath been of old used for Christmas-day, when 
Christ was manifested in the flesh ; and for this day, 
wherein the Star did appear to manifest Christ to 
the wise men; as appears by Chrysologus " and 
Epiphanius". Upon this identity of the word, some 

' Cone. Turon. II. can. xvii. torn. v. p. 856. E. Epiphan. in 
brev. expos. Fidei, cap. xxii. tom. i. p. 1104. 
■n Decretal. 1. iii. tit. XLVI. cap. i. p. 1523. 
" Serm. clvi. p. 393. 
" In Assumptionem, tom. ii. p. 28G. B. 


o o 


unskilful ones were misled to think that anciently 
the feasts of Christmas and Epiphany were one and 
the same ; but plain it is by Chrysologus, Epipha- 
nius, and Nazianzen, in their sei-mons upon this 
day, that these two feasts were observed, as we do, 
upon several days. Nazianzen p calls this day on 
which Christ was baptized, " The holy lights of 
Epiphany; which to-day we celebrate," says he, 
"having already celebrated the holy feast of Christ- 
mas." St. Chrysostomi says, the day of Christ's 
birth is not so usually and properly called Epiphany, 
as the day of His baptism. 

This feast is called in Latin Epiphanice, Epipha- 
nies, in the plural ; because upon this day we cele- 
brate three glorious apparitions or manifestations, 
all which happened upon the same day, though not 
of the same year'. 

The first manifestation was of the Star, (men- 
tioned in the Gospel,) the Gentiles' guide to Christ. 

The second Epiphany or manifestation was that 
of the glorious Trinity at the baptism of Christ, 
mentioned in the second Lesson at morning prayer*. 

The third was of Christ's glory or divinity, by the 
miracle of turning water into wine, mentioned in 
the second lesson at evening prayer '. 

p In Sane Lumina, torn. i. p. 624. 

1 De Baptismo Christi, torn. ii. p. 369. D. 

' Chrysologus, Serm. clx. p. 403. 

• Luke iii. 1—23. > John ii. 1—12. 

o u 

c o 


The Collect is plain. The Epistle, Ephes. iii. 1, 
and Gospel, St. Matt. ii. 1, mention Christ's mani- 
festation to the Gentiles ; for this was the day of 
the dedication of the Gentiles' faith". 

For the antiquity of this day, we have already 
seen Nazianzen, Chrysostom, and Epiphanius, to 
which I shall add only St. Augustine x, " The so- 
lemnity of this day, known throughout all the world, 
what joy doth it bring us ! But the Donatists," says 
he, " will not keep it, both because they are schis- 
matics and love not unity, and also because they 
hate the Eastern Church, where the Star appeared." 


From Christmas to Epiphany, holy Church's de- 
sign is, to set forth Christ's humanity, to make 
Christ manifest in the flesh, which the offices do, as 
we have seen ; but from Epiphany to Septuagesima, 
especially in the four next Sundays after Epiphany, 
she endeavours to manifest His glory and divinity, 
by recounting some of His first miracles, and mani- 
festations of His Deity, so that each Sunday is in 
this respect a kind of Epiphany. 

The Gospel of this day, St. Luke ii. 41, mentions 
Christ's manifestation to the doctors of the Jews, 

» Chrysologus in diem, p. 293 — 405. 

» Serm. ccii. In Epiphania Domini, iv.cap. 1. F. torn. v. p. 914. 

o o 

o o 


astonishing all His hearers with His miraculous 

The Epistle, Rom. xii. 1, exhorts us to make a 
spiritual use of the wise men's mysterious offerings, 
especially of myrrh ; which signifies veiy rightly the 
mortifying of the flesh, and the offering of our 
bodies as a holy sacrifice to God by Christ. 

The Collect prays for grace to enable us thereunto. 


The Gospel, St. John ii. 1, mentions Christ's turn- 
ing water into wine, by which He manifested both 
His glory by the miracle, and His goodness in 
ministering to the necessities of others ; to which 
virtue the Epistle, Rom. xii. 6, exhorts us, that 
whatsoever gifts we have, we should use them, as 
Christ did, to the good and benefit of others. 

The Collect, as divers others, recommends to 
G od the supplications of the people, &c. [See more 
of the Collects in general, p. 63 ; and for the day, 
p. 68.] 


The Gospel, St. Matt. viii. 1, is concerning our 
Lord's healing of the leper that believed in Him. 

The Epistle, Rom. xii. 16, at first sight seems not 
to agree to the Gospel ; but yet, if rightly applied, 

o o 

o o 


it suits well with it in the mystical sense. For the 
healing of the leper signifies that Christ will heal 
us from the leprosy of sin, if we believe in Him, and 
come to Him for the cure as the leper did. 

The Epistle labours to prevent the most over- 
spreading leprous sins of pride, against which the 
first verse is directed, " Be not wise in yom* own 
conceits," and wrath and revenge in the following 
words, " Rendering to no man evil for evil." Or 
rather, the Epistle do th remove the two great im- 
pediments of Christ's cure of our sinful leprosy ; 
namely, pride, which " God resists y," and malice or 
revenge, which makes us unpardonable and in- 
curable; "for unless we forgive, Christ will not 
forgive us^." 

The Collect prays to God through Christ to 
heal us. 


The Gospel, St. Matt. viii. 23, treats of Christ's 
miraculous stilling of the waves and the wind. By 
the tempest on the sea, may be signified the tu- 
multuous madness of the people, which endangers 
the peace of the Church, Christ's ship ; so the 
Psalmist expounds it, " Thou stillest the raging of 
the sea, and the madness of the people"," which 
would never be quiet, unless Christ by His word 
and power should command it to be still ; and 

y James iv. 6. » Matt. vi. 15. ' Psalm Ixv. 7, 


o o 


because He does now rule the people's madness by 
ministers of His vengeance to whom He gives His 
power: therefore the Epistle, Rom. xiii. 1, teaches 
and exhorts us to submit conscientiously to that 
power of Christ, that so the ship of the Church may 
be still and safe. 

The Collect prays to God to keep the Church 
safe amidst the many storms and waves that shake 


The four preceding Sundays have manifested 
Christ's glory to us in part, by the miracles He 
wrought while He conversed with us on earth : the 
Gospel, St. Matt. xiii. 24, for this day, mentions His 
second coming to judgment, when He shall appear 
in His full glory, and all the holy angels with Him ; 
which glorious appearance, as it will be dreadful to 
those who have resembled the tares, for they shall 
then be burned with unquenchable fire ; so it will 
be a joyful appearance to such as the Epistle, Col. 
iii. 12, persuades us to be, viz. the meek and gentle 
and charitable. And the CoUect is for such, pray- 

■^ Fourth Sunday after Epiphany; Old Collect. " God, which 
knowest us to be set in the midst of so many and great dangers, 
that for man's frailness we cannot always stand uprightly, grant 
to us the health of body and soul, that all those things which we 
suiler for sin, by Thy help we may well pass and overcome ; 
through Christ our Lord. Amen." 

c o 

o— 9 


ing to God to keep His Church and Household 
continually in the true religion, &c.' 

Many reasons are given of this name ; but in my 
apprehension the best is a consequentia numerandi, 
because the first Sunday in Lent is called Qitadra- 
gesirna, containing about forty days from Easter ; 
therefore the Sunday before that being still farther 
from Easter, is called Quinquagesima, five being 
the next number above four ; and so the Sunday 
before that Sexagesima, and the Sunday before 
that Septuagesima. 

This, and the two next Sundays and weeks, were 
appointed as preparatives to the Lenten fast, that 
when it came it might be the more strictly and 
religiously observed. And the regulars, and those 
of the strictest life, did fast these weeks, though 
the common people began not their fast till Ash- 

The observation of Septuagesima^ Sexagesima, 

' The Sixth Sunday (if there be so many) shall have the same 
Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, that was upon the fifth Sunday. 
Now there is an especial Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, as see 
Wheatly on the place. 

"■ S. Bernard, Serm. I. in Septuages. torn. i. p. 811. F. 

o o 

o o 


and Quinquagesima, are, to be sure, as ancient as 
Gkegory the Great. 

The Epistle, 1 Cor. ix. 24, persuades us to works 
of penance and holy mortification ; and lest we 
should shrink from these hardships, it encourages 
us by propounding the reward of these religious 
exercises, namely, an everlasting crown. 

The Gospel, St. Matt. xx. 1, is much to the same 
purpose. It tells us that God's vineyard is no 
place for idle loiterers; all must work that will 
receive any penny or reward. 


The Epistle, 2 Cor. xi. 19, propounds the example 
of St. Paul, who was eminent for works of mortifi- 
cation and Lenten exercises; and lest we should 
think that there is no need of such strictness and 
holy violence in religion, the holy Gospel, St. Luke 
viii. 4, tells us what danger we are in of coming 
short of heaven, how that scarce one of four that 
profess religion, and hear the word, brings forth 
fruit to salvation, most losing it after they have 
received it, for want of due care and heed. 


Septuagesima and Sexagesima Sundays have per- 
suaded us to fasting and other exercises of mortifi- 

c o 

o o 

OF LENT. 113 

cation in the Lent following ; and because all tliese 
bodily exercises profit little, unless we add faith and 
charity, or faith working by love ; therefore this day 
the Epistle, 1 Cor. xiii. 1, commends charity, the 
Gospel, St. Luke xviii.'Sl, faith in Christ, by which 
our darkness is enlightened, as the blind man's eyes 
were, who wisely desired that he may see, for in 
sight of God consists our happiness. 


The antiquity of Lent is plain by these testimo- 
nies following: Chiysologus, Serm. II. De Jejunio 
et Tentationibus Christi, p. 27. D ; Chrysostom, 
Horn. XVII. Heb. x. 9. torn. xii. p. 170. A; Cyril. 
Catech. iv. cap. iii. p. 52. D, et xviii. cap. xxxii. p. 
300. B ; S. Austin, Epist. LV. cap. xvii. D. torn. ii. 
p. 141. Ut quadraginta dies ante Pascha observen- 
tur, ecclesice consuetudo roboravit, " That forty days 
should be observed before Easter, the custom of the 
Church hath confirmed." Nos unam quadrwjesi- 
rnam toto anno, tempore congruo jejunamus, secnii- 
dum traditionem Apostolorum, &c. " One fast in 
the year of forty days we keep at a time convenient, 
according to the tradition of the Apostles*." 

« S. Hierom. Ep. xxvii. ad Marcellam, torn. iv. pars ii. p. 64. 

o o 

o — 9 

114 OF LENT. 

Epiphanius^ tells us that the Aerians were the 
most brain-sick heretics that ever were ; for they 
held that bishops and priests were all one ; that 
presbyters might ordain presbyters : besides, they 
held that they were not bound to keep Lent, and 
the holy week, as holy Church's laws required, but 
would then feast and drink drunk in spite, saying 
that it was against Christian liberty to be tied to 

This forty days' fast of Lent was taken up by holy 
Church in imitation of !Moses and Elias in the Old 
Testament; but principally in imitation of our 
Saviour's fast in the New Testament, " That we 
might," says St. Austin, " as far as we are able, eon- 
form to Christ's practice, and suffer with Him 
here, that we may reign with Him hereafter »." 

But if this fast were taken up in imitation of our 
Saviour, it may be asked why we do not keep it 
at the same time that He did, who fasted immedi- 
ately after His baptism'', which was at Epiphany; 
whereas our fast begins not till some weeks after ? 

For answer of this, many reasons may be given 
why now, rather than at that time, we keep our 

I. Because at this time, when blood and affec- 
tions are at the highest, it is most fit to restrain 

' Adversus Aerium, Haer. LXXV. cap. iii. torn. i. p. 906. D. 
K S. August. Ep. LV. cap. xv. torn. ii. p. 13U. B. 
h Matt. iv. 1. 

o— — 6 

o o 

OF LENT. 115 

them ; and to that perhaps St. Jerome alludes, 
when he says, Jejunamus tempore contjruo, " we fast 
at a time convenient'." 

II. As Christ's sufferings ended in an Easter, a 
resurrection, so did holy Church think fit that our 
spiritual afflictions and penances should end, as His 
did, at Easter. " The fast of Lent signiiies this 
present troublesome life, and Easter signifies eter- 
nal happiness and rest ''." 

III. Holy Church appoints that all Christians 
whatsoever should receive the holy Communion at 
Easter ; and therefore appoints this time before, to 
prepare themselves by fasting and prayer ; thus 
judging themselves that they might not be judged 
of the Lord ; and this is after God's own pattern, 
who commanded the Israelites to afllict themselves, 
and eat bitter herbs, before they should eat the 
Paschal Lamb. All Churches therefore agreed that 
Lent should end in Easter, though some difference 
there was when it should begin. 

I'his fast is called Lent from the time of the year 
in which it is kept, for Lent in the Saxon language 
is Spring ; the Spring fast or Lent. 

' Epist. xxvi. ad Marcellam. 

'' S. August. Ep. Iv. cap. xv. torn. ii. p. 139. B. 

6 o 

o o 


The Church begins her Lent this day to supply 
the Sundays in Lent, upon which it was not the 
Church's custom to fast, Sundays being high festi- 
vals in memory of our Saviour's joyful resurrection. 
Now if you take out of the six weeks of Lent six 
Sundays, there will remain but thirty-six fasting- 
days ; to which these four of this week being added, 
make the just number of forty. 

This was anciently called caput jejunii, the head 
of Lent, and was a day of extraordinary humilia- 
tion. Upon this day were ashes sprinkled upon 
their heads, to mind them of their mortality, and 
also to mind them what they had deserved to be, 
namely, burnt to ashes. 

Hence was it called dies cinerum. Ash- Wednes- 
day ; and upon this day they were wont to clothe 
themselves in sackcloth. These rites are mentioned 
Isaiah Iviii. 5, as the usual rites of penitents. This 
was common to all penitents ; but notorious 


Which godly discipline, says our Church, [in 
her Office of Coramination,^ it is much to be 


Now that we may know what it is the Church 
wishes there, it will not be amiss to set down in 

Q O 

o o 


part the solemnity used upon those sinners at this 
time, which was ordered thus. 

Let all notorious sinners who have been already, 
or are now to be enjoined public penance, this day 
present themselves before the Church doors to the 
bishop of the place, clothed in sackcloth, barefooted, 
with eyes cast down upon the ground, professing 
thus by their habit and countenance their guilt. 
There must be present the deans or arch-presbyters, 
and the public penitentiaries, whose office is to 
examine the lives of these penitents, and according 
to the degree of their sin to apportion their penance, 
according to the usual degrees of penance. After 
this, let them bring the penitents into the Church, 
and, with the clergy present, let the bishop sing the 
seven penitential psalms, prostrate upon the ground, 
with tears for their absolution. Then the bishop 
arising from prayer, according to the Canons, let 
him lay his hand upon them, (that is, to ratify 
their penance, not to absolve them,) let him sprinkle 
ashes upon their head, and cover them with sack- 
cloth ; and with frequent sighs and sobs let him 
denounce to them, that as Adam was cast out of 
paradise, so are they cast out of the Church for their 
sins. After this, let the bishop command the officers 
to drive them out of the church doors, the clergy 
following them with this response, "In the sweat of 
thy brow shalt thou eat thy bread';" that these poor 

' Gen. iii. 19. 

o— o 

o o 


sinners seeing holy Church afflicted thus, and dis- 
quieted for their sins, may be sensible of their 


The Epistle, 2 Cor. vi. 1, exhorts to patience in 
afflictions. The Gospel, St. Matt. iv. 1, reads to us 
Christ's victory over temptations, to keep us from 
despair of conquest, that we should be of good 
cheer and heart, since He our captain " hath over- 
come the world"." The Collect for the day is 
another of those Collects wherein the Church 
directs her petitions to Christ, thereby manifesting 
her belief that He is the true Son of God, for 
she prays to none but God; in praying to Him, 
therefore, she professes to believe Him to be God, 
as it is in the close of the Collect; and this in oppo- 
sition to the tempter Satan and all his adherents, 
who are still tempting Christ in His members, to 
misbelief in that article. 

©f 1Emlict=toccfe. 

The week after Ash-Wednesday, is Imber, or 
Ember-week, of which fast we will here treat in 
general. There be four Ember-weeks, called in 

<" Gratian. Decret. pt. i. Distinct. L. cap. 64. p. 279. B. 
" John xvi. 33. 

c 6 

c < 


Latin Jejunia quatuor temponim, "the fasts of the 
four seasons," because they were kept in the four 
parts of the year, Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. 
The first of these begins upon Wednesday next after 
Ash-Wednesday. The second upon Wednesday 
next after Wliitsunday. The third upon Wednes- 
day next after Holy Cross, Sept. 14. The last upon 
Wednesday next after St. Lucy, Dec. 13. The 
days of fasting and prayers in these weeks are, 
Wednesday, Friday, Saturday. Wednesday, be- 
cause then our Lord Christ was betrayed by Judas: 
Friday, because then He was crucified : Saturday, 
because then we represent the Apostles' sorrow for 
the loss of their Lord lying in the grave. The 
causes of such religious fastings and prayers upon 
these weeks, were formerly many, as namely, that 
Christians in these religious duties might let the 
world know that they were as devout as the Jews 
formerly had been, whose custom it was to observe 
four solemn fasts, Zach. viii. 19. That they might 
dedicate to God, as the first-fruits, the beginnings 
of the several seasons of the year set apart to His 
religious worship, and by this means obtain God's 
bless'ng upon them the remainders of those times. 
But the principal cause was for preparation to the 
solemn ordination of ministers ; holy Church imi- 
tating tlie Apostles' practice, who, v.lieu they were 
to set apart men to the ministry, prayed and fasted 
before they laid on their hands, Acts xiii. 3. And I 

o- o 

1 — _ o 


in after-times, at these solemnities, these Ember 
fasts, special regard was had to the ordination of 
priests and deacons. In what manner, and with how 
much care and Christianity these fasts have been 
heretofore observed, may be gathered from St. Leo, 
in his sermons upon them, and from others: and 
the second Council of Milan decreed herein to 
good purpose", That upon the Sundays before 
these fasts, the priests should not only in their 
parishes bid the solemn fast, but every one in his 
several parish should piously and religiously say the 
prayers and litanies, &c. That God's assistance 
being implored, both the bishop may be guided by 
the Holy Spirit in the choice of those whom he 
shall ordain, and also that they that are ordained 
may grow in learning and holiness of life. These 
four fasts have been anciently observed both in the 
Church of England and in other Churches. In the 
laws of king Canute, ch. xvi. p. 130, thus it is said, 
" Let every man observe the fasts that are com- 
manded, with all earnest care, whether it be the 
Ember fast, or the Lent fast, or any other fast." 
And the like decrees are found in other councils of 
our nation before his time''. Now for the reason 
of the name, we find it in Thomas Becon, (as he 
delivers it out of others that wrote before him,) 
" By opinion of much people, these days have been 

" Tit. 1. Decret. xxii. torn. xv. p. 347. E. 

V See Sir Henry Spelman's Concilia Britannica, pp. 256,518, 

o o 



called Ember days, because that our fathers would 
on these days eat no bread but cakes made under 
embers; so that by eating of that they reduced 
into their minds that they were but ashes, and so 
should turn again, and wist not how soon." These 
fasts are still appointed by the Church of England. 
For though she hath not reckoned them amongst 
the holy days, because there is no peculiar office 
appointed for them, (as there is to all those that are 
reckoned in the catalogue of holy days,) yet by 
custom they have been always kept with litanies, 
prayers, and fasting, and are commanded to be 
kept still as formerly they were by that excellent 
Canon — "Forasmuch as the ancient Fathers of the 
Church, led by example of the Apostles, (who set 
men apart to the ministry of the Gospel by imposi- 
tion of hands, with prayer and fasting,) appointed 
prayers and fasts at the solemn ordering of minis- 
ters, and to that purpose allotted certain times in 
which only sacred orders might be given or con- 
ferred ; we, following their holy and religious ex- 
ample, do constitute and decree, that deacons and 
ministers be ordained or made but only upon the 
Sundays immediately foUowingjV/M/w'a qiiatuor tem- 
porum, commonly called Ember weeks, appointed 
in ancient time for prayer and fasting, purposely 
for this cause at their first institution, and so con- 
tinued at this day in the Church of England i." 

1 C. xxxi. A.D. 1603. 

c '■ o 

o , o 



The Epistle, 1 Thess. iv. 1, persuades to temper- 
ance, and abstinence from all uncleanness. 

The Gospel, St, Matt. xv. 21, tells us how we 
may subdue that devil, namely, by steadfast faith, 
and fervent and importunate prayer. 


The Epistle, Ephes. v. 1, as the time, calls for 
strictness of life. 

The Gospel, St. Luke xi. 14, commends perse- 
verance, shewing the danger of relapsing ; " for the 
end of that man is worse than the beginning." 


This is called Dominica Refectionis ; for the 
Gospel, St. John vi. 1 , tells us of Christ's miraculous 
feeding and satisfying the hungry souls that hun- 
ger after Him and His doctrine ; and the Epistle, 
Gal. iv. 21 , tells us of a Jerusalem which is above, 
which is free, and a joyous place, to which we, as 
children, are heirs. Thus holy Church mixes joy 
and comfort with our sorrows and afflictions. 

o ■ 6 

o , 



This is called Passion Sunday. For now begins 
the commemoration of the Passion of our Lord, and 
after a long funeral pomp and train, the corpse 
follows upon Good Friday. 

The Epistle, Heb. ix. 11, treats of the Passion. 

The Gospel, St. John viii. 46, of our Lord's being 
slandered by the bold malice of the Jews, who call 
Him Samaritan, and tell Him He hath a devil, 
which must needs be a thorn in His side, and a part 
of His Passion. 


This is Palm Sunday, on which Christ came 
from Bethany to Jerusalem, and was received with 
joy, some strewing their garments, others cutting 
down branches and strewing them in the way; 
whose religion it is fit we should imitate. "We 
should meet Christ, by keeping inuocency ; bear 
olive, by doing works of mercy; carry palms, by 
conquering the devil and our vices ; green leaves 
and flowers we carry, if we be adorned with virtues; 
and we strew our gai-ments in the way, when by 
mortification we put off the old man." — Bernard. 

This week was called of old the Great Week, 

6 'J 

O : 


because it hath a larger service than any other 
week, every day having a second service appointed. 

It was called also the holy week, because men 
gave over all worldly employments, and betook 
themselves wholly to devotion this week. The 
courts were shut up and civil affairs laid aside, and 
prisoners that were put in for small faults were 

It was also called the week of fasts, because 
fasting was then heightened and attended with 
watching and prayers; for these six days were 
spent in lying upon the ground and afflicting the 
body, in prayers, watchings, and fastings longer 
than ordinary. And when they did eat, their re- 
freshing was only bread, salt,- and water, says 
Epiphanius against Aerius. It will not be amiss 
to set down Epiphanius somewhat more at large : 
" Aerius and his disciples had flouted at the Catho- 
lic Christians' severities at this time. Why, say 
they, do you keep Easter ? why do you keep such 
a strict fast before it? it is Jewish thus to keep 
days of fasting by a law : it is enslaving your- 
selves to a yoke of bondage : if I would determine 
to fast at all, I would fast what day I pleased, 
at mine own liberty "." Upon this principle it is, 
saith that Father, that Aerius and his followers 
affect to fast on Sunday and feast on Friday, and to 

' S. Chrysost. Horn. XXX. Gen. xi. toin. iv. p. 293. 
• Cap. iii. torn. i. p. 908. A. 

C '- D 

o o 


spend this week of religion and devotion in jollity 
and sport, rising early to fill themselves with flesh 
and wine, with which, being full stnfled, they sport 
and scoff at the Catholic Christians' folly in afflict- 
ing themselves with such severities. " But who," 
says he, " are the more fools ; Aerius, a silly fellow 
of yesterday, still living with us, or we who observe 
this severe discipline wliich our fathers delivered 
us, which they received from their fathers, and they 
from theirs, and so from the Apostles?" 

The Epistles (Phil, ii.5; Isai. Ixiii. 1; 1.5; Heb. 
ix. 16 ; 1 Cor. xi. 17 ; Heb. x. 1 ;) and Gospels (St. 
Matt, xxvii. 1;, St. Mark xiv. 1; xv. 1; St. Luke xxii. 
1; xxiii. 1; St. John xix. 1;) of this week are con- 
cerning Christ's Passion, to the contemplation of 
which this week is dedicated'. 

i^aunDag ^fjuisDay. 

This day Christ washed His disciples' feet, and 
gave them a commandment to do likewise. Hence 
it is called dies mandati, mandate, or Maunday 

This day the penitents that were put out of the 

' On Sunday, St. Matthew xxvi. and xxvii. to ver. 56, were 
read till the last review. St. Mark xv. the Gospel for Tuesday, 
and St. Luke xxiii. on Thursday, and on Good Friday St. Jolin 
xviii. and xix. were the Gospel. We find this in the older books. 

, Q 

o o 


Church upon Ash-Wednesday, were received again 
into the Church ; partly, because there was this 
day a holy Communion, in memory of our Lord's 
institution of the same, this day ; and the Epistle, 
1 Cor. xi. 17, is fitted to that purpose ; fit therefore 
it was that penitents should be reconciled this day 
(upon which this Sacrament was instituted for the 
remission of sins) to receive the holy Communion. 
Partly, because this day our Lord was apprehended 
and bound, whose binding wrought our deliverance 
and freedom. 

The form of reconciling penitents was in short 
this. The bishop goes out of the doors of the 
Church, where the penitents lie prostrate upon the 
earth, and thrice in the name of Chkist he calls 
them, " Come, come, come ye children, hearken to 
me, I will teach you the fear of the Lord:" then 
after he hath prayed for them, and admonished 
them, he reconciles them, and brings them into 
the Church. The penitents thus received, trim 
their heads and beards, and laying off their peni- 
tential weeds, they re-clothe themselves in hand- 
some apparel. The Church doors were wont to 
be set all open this day ; to signify that penitent 
sinners coming from north or south, or any quarter 
of the world, shall be received to mercy and the 
Church's favour. 

o ■■ ■ o 

o o 


©ooH ipriliag. 

This day holy Church keeps a most strict fast ; 
it is called Good Friday. For a good day it was 
for us, even the cause of all our good, and ground 
of all our joy; and so in respect of the efifect of it, 
Christ's Passion may be a Gospel for a feast ; and 
so it is upon Palm Sunday. But if we consider 
that our sins were the cause of His sufferings, and 
that it was we that crowned His head with thorns, 
nailed His hands and feet, and gored His side with 
a spear ; so His Passion, considered in the cause of 
it, is matter of the greatest sorrow, and in this 
respect we keep it a fast. 

The Gospel is taken out of St. John xix. 1, rather 
than out of any other Evangelist, because he was 
present at the Passion, and stood by the cross when 
others fled ; and therefore the Passion being repre- 
sented as it were before our eyes this day, his testi- 
mony is read who saw it himself ; and from whose 
example we may learn not to be ashamed nor 
afraid of the cross of Christ. 

This day holy Church prays expressly for all 
Jews, Turks, and Infidels, enemies of the cross of 
Christ: for this day Christ both prayed and died 
for His enemies ; and as He expressed the height of 

c o 

) o 


His love this day, by dying for them, so does the 
Church her height of charity in praying for them. 

The antiquity of this holy day appears by 
Eusebius, who tells us that it was a holy day 
in his time, and long before. "That day of our 
Saviour's Passion we are wont to celebrate not 
only with fastings and watchings, but also with 
attentive hearing and reading of the holy Scrip- 


This day the Gospel, St. Matt, xxvii. 57, treats 
of Christ's body lying in the grave : the Epistle, 
1 St. Peter iii. 17, of His soul's descent into hell*. 

©f tj&c ©ollectg from .Scptuagcsima 
to CFaiStcr. 

Though the Church be always militant while 
she is upon earth; yet at this time ("the time 
when kings go out to battle''") she is more than 
ordinary militant, going out to fight against her 

» Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. II. cap. xvii. p. 57. B. 

» Till the Scotch Liturgy was compiled, there was no particular 
Collect for this day ; those for Good Friday, I suppose, were re- 
peated. See Wheatly on the place. » 2 Sam. xi. 1 . 

O 6 

Q O 


avowed enemies, the world, the flesh, and the devil, 
making it her special business to get the mastery 
over them, so far, that they may not be able to 
prevail over her the year following. Now because 
(as St. Paul saith') " Every one that strives for the 
mastery is temperate in all things," therefore at 
this time especially, when she is seeking the mas- 
tery over her enemies, holy Church does more than 
ordinary addict herself to temperance, fasting, and 
other works of penance and mortification ; and 
accordingly she suits her readings, not aiming to fit 
them to each particular day, (this is to be expected 
only upon privileged days, the subject-matter of 
whose solemnity is more particularly recorded in 
Holy Scripture,) but to the season in general, and 
the Church's design at this time, commending to us 
fasting, repentance, alms, charity, and patience in 
undergoing such voluntary afflictions. And the 
Collects are suitable also to the readings and the 
time, praying earnestly for those graces and virtues 
before mentioned, which are especially retiuisite to 
this her holy undertaking. And because she knows 
her own weakness, and her enemies' both craft and 
strength, who will then be most active and busy to 
hurt when we thus set ourselves to fight against 
them, therefore does she earnestly and frequently 
also in divers Collects pray for God's protection 
and defence from those enemies, for His strength 

' 1 Cor. ix. 25. 

6 o 

o ^ o 


and assistance wliereby she may overcome them, 
" That He would stretch forth the right hand of His 
Majesty, and by His power defend us both out- 
wardly in our bodies, and inwardly in our souls, 
which of ourselves have no power to help ourselves." 
And in such prayers as these the Church continues, 
lifting up her hands (as Moses did his against the 
Amalekites) all the time of this spiritual conflict. 

This is the highest of all feasts, says Epiphanius" 
upon the day. This day Christ opened to us the 
door of life, being the first-fruits of those that rose 
from the dead ; whose resurrection was our life, for 
He rose again " for our justification b." 

Instead of the usual in^itatory, " O come let us 
sing unto the Lord," holy Church uses special hymns 
or anthems "^ concerning Christ's resurrection, " Christ 
rising again from the dead," &c. and, " Christ is 
risen," &c. set down before the Collect on Easter- 
day. Having kept company with the Apostles and 
first believers, in standing by the cross weeping upon 
Good Friday, and kept a fast upon the Saturday 

• In Resur. Christi, torn. ii. p. 276. * Rom. iv. 2S. 

' 1 Cor. V. 7; Rom. vi. 9; 1 Cor. xv. 20. 

o ■ o 

o o 


following, to comply witli the Apostles and Catholic 
Church, who were that day sad and pensive, because 
their Lord was taken away from them, we are 
directed this day to rejoice with them for the rising 
again of our Lord, and to express our joy in the 
same words that they then did, and the Church 
ever since hath done, " Christ is risen ^," the usual 
morning salutation this day all the Church over; 
to which the answer in some places was, " Christ is 
risen indeed ;" and in others this, " and hath ap- 
peared to Simon." 

Holy Church's aim is in all these chief days to 
represent as full as may be the very business of the 
day, and to put us into the same holy affections 
that the Apostles and other Christians were, when 
they were first done ; she represents Christ born at 
Christmas, and would have us so affected that day 
yearly, as the first believers were at the first tidings 
delivered by the angel. So at His Passion she 
would have us so affected with sorrow, as they were 
that stood by the cross. And now at His resurrec- 
tion she desires so to represent it to us, as may put 
us into the same rejoicing that those dejected 
Clu'istians were, when the angel told them, " He is 
not here, but is risen'." Holy Church supposes 
us to have fasted and wept upon Good Friday, and 
the day following, because our Lord was taken 
away, according to that of our Saviour, " The time 

* St. Luke xxiv. 34. • Ibid. 6. 

o o 

c o 


shall come that the bridegroom shall be taken away 
from them, then shall they fast in those days," and 
now calls upon us to weep no more, for " Christ is 
risen." And that she may keep time also with the 
first tidings of the resurrection, she observes the 
angel's direction to the women, " Go quickly and 
tell His disciples that He is risen'." Supposing us 
as eager of the joyful news of Christ's resurrection 
as they were, she withholds not the joy, but imme- 
diately after confession and absolution, she begins 
her office with " Christ is risen s." 

Proper Psalms at morning are ii. Ivii. cxi. 

The first of these is a triumphant song for Christ's 
victory over all His enemies that so furiously raged 
against Him, " Yet have I set My king upon My 
holy hill of Sion," ver. 6. Notwithstanding all the 
fury of His enemies that persecuted and murdered 
Him, " Yet have I set My king upon My holy hill 
of Sion," by His glorious resurrection from the dead, 
as it is expounded. Acts xiii. 33. 

Psalm Ivii. is of the same nature. It mentions 
Christ's triumph over hell and death, " My soul is 
among lions," ver. 4 ; and " the children of men 
have laid a net for My feet, and pressed down My 
soul," ver. 7 ; crucifying the Lord of glory, but 
" God sent from heaven, and saved Him from" the 
lions, both devils and men, by a glorious resurrec- 

' St. Matt, xxviii. 7. 

s The verses " Christ our Passover," &c. were added at the last 
review. See Wheatly. 




tion. And therefore He breaks forth, " Awake up 
My glory, awake lute and harp, I myself will awake 
right early ; I will give thanks unto Thee, Lord," 
&c. ver. 9. 

Psalm cxi. is a psalm of thanksgiving for " mar- 
vellous works of redemption," ver. 9 ; " works wor- 
thy to be praised and had in honour," ver. 3. And 
therefore though it be not set particularly for the 
resurrection, but may serve for any marvellous 
work of mercy, yet is it most fit for this day and 
the work of this; for amongst all the marvellous 
works of redemption, this of Christ's resurrection 
is the chief, and most worthy by us to be had in 
honour. For "if Christ be not risen, we are yet in 
our sins'*," we are utterly lost. But "Christ is 
risen," " the merciful and gracious Lord hath so 
done His marvellous work of Christ's resurrection, 
that it ought to be had in remembrance." For 
which holy Church teaches us to sing, as we are 
bound, " I will give thanks unto the Lord with my 
whole heart, secretly amongst the faithful, and in 
the congregation," ver. 1 . 

Evening Psalms are cxiii. cxiv. cxviii. 

The first is a psalm of thanksgiving, especially 
for raising up Christ, " taking Him out of the dust, 
and lifting Him out of the mire, to set Him with" 
and above " the princes," ver. 6, 7 ; when " He raised 
Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right 

•> 1 Cor. XV. 14, 17. 

c o 

O Q 


hand in the heavenly places, far above all princi- 
palities and powers, and might and dominion, and 
every name that is named, not only in this world, 
but also in that which is to come''." 

Psalm cxviii. is (part of it at least) of Christ's 
resurrection, as it is expounded St. Matt. xxi. 42 ; 
Acts iv. 11 : "the stone which the builders refused, 
is become the head of the corner" this day. And 
therefore " this is the day which the Lord hath 
made, we will rejoice and be glad in it," ver. 24. 

Psalm cxiv. may seem at first sight not so appli- 
able to Christ's resurrection ; for it is a thanks- 
giving for the Jews' deliverance out of Egypt. Yet 
notwithstanding, if we look well into it, we shall 
lind it proper enough for the day. For as the 
Apostle teaches us, " all things happened to them 
in types and figiures;" not only words but actions 
were typical. Egypt was a type of hell, and their 
captivity there a type of our captivity under sin 
and the devil. Their deliverance from thence, a 
type and figure of our deliverance from hell ; and 
that which the Psalmist here gives thanks for as 
past, in the history, is understood to be meant as 
much or. more in the prophecy of Christ's redemp- 
tion of His Church (the true Israelites, " that walk 
in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham,") 
from sin and hell by the power of His glorious 
resurrection this day. 

'' Ephes. i. 20, 21. 

c ^ o 

c- o 


The first Morning Lesson is Exod. xii., in which 
is mentioned the institution of the Passover, proper 
for this day, the feast of the Passover ; for as St. 
Augustine observes', " we do in this feast not only 
call to mind the history of our Saviour's resurrec- 
tion, but also celebrate the mystery of ours." That 
as Christ this day rose again from death to life, so 
by Christ and the virtue of His resunection shall 
we be made alive, and rise from death to life eternal- 
Christ is therefore our true Passover, whereof the 
other was a type. The lesson then is proper for the 

So is the first Evening Lesson, Exod. xiv., for it 
is concerning the Israelites' deliverance out of 
Egypt, a type of our deliverance from hell this day 
by Christ's glorious resurrection. As that day 
Israel saw that great work which the Lord did 
upon Egypt, ver. 31 ; so this day we see the great 
conquest over hell and death finished, by Christ's 
triumphant resurrection from the dead. 

The second lessons are plain: Rom. vi ; Acts 
ii. 22. 

The Gospel, St. John xx. 1, gives us the fidl 
evidence of Christ's resurrection. The Epistle, 
Coll. iii. 1, tells what use we should make of it, 
"if Christ be risen, seek those things that are 
above," &c. 

' Epist. LV. cap. i. torn. ii. p. 128. B. 

6 o 

C O 


The Collect prays for grace tx) make that use of 
it which the Epistle directs. 

Thus holy Church is careful to teach and instruct 
all her children in the matter of the feast, preach- 
ing Christ's resurrection to us, both in the type and 
prophecy out of the Old Testament, and in the his- 
tory of it out of the New. And she does not only 
teach us to know what God hath done for us this 
day, but also she is careful that we may do our duty 
to God for this His marvellous goodness, command- 
ing and directing us to pray for grace to do our 
duty, prescribing us excellent forms of adoring and 
blessing God for His mercy this day, such methods 
as the Holy Ghost hath set down, in which we may 
be sure to pray and praise God by the Spirit. 

For the antiquity of this feast heaps of testi- 
monies might be brought, but these two following 
may suffice : 

I. St. Augustine ; " Those things which are not 
written, but we keep them by tradition, if they be 
observed all the world over, are to be undei'stood 
to be commended to us, and commanded either by 
general councils, (whose authority in the Church is 
most safe,) or else by the Apostles ; as, for example, 
that tlie Passion of our Lord, His resurrection and 
ascension into heaven, and the coming of the Holy 
Ghost, should be observed by an anniversary 

" Epist. LIV. cap. i. torn. ii. p. 124. B. 

c 6 

o o 


II. CoNSTANTiNE the Great; " the feast of Easter 
we have kept from the first day of the Passion until 
now":" and this was not in the practice of some 
few, but of all Churches, as he there testifies, and 
is apparent, from the great contention in the Church 
about the day ; some following the Jewish account, 
who kept this feast the fourteenth day of the first 
month, (the first month began with the new moon, 
whose fourteenth day, or moon as they called it, 
was the day of the vernal equinox, or if none such 
happened, then that whose fourteenth day came 
the soonest after the equinox,) but the most Churches 
kept their Easter the fii-st Sunday after the four- 
teenth day of the first month, which usage the 
Council of Nice confinned for these reasons : 

I. Because it was the most general custom of 
the Churches. 

II. Because tliey would not in this particular 
comply with the Jews; for though in some other 
cases they did it on purpose to sweeten them and 
make them pliable to Christianity, as our Lord 
Himself did and His Apostles", retaining many of 
their laudable and useful rites, as of excommuni- 
cation, benediction, imposition of hands, with many 
more which you may see in GrotiusP, (for they 
loved not innovation, nor measured the goodness of 
their religion by their distance from the Jews in 

" Euseb. de vita Constant, lib. iii. cap. xviii. p. 492. B. 

" Acts xxi. 24. 

f Annot. in S.Matt. xviii. torn. i. p. 310. et Append, p. 54. 


O -o 


tilings lawful and useful,) though, I say, the primi- 
tive Christians did not like the Jewish rites ever 
the woi'se because they were theirs, i. e. of God's 
institution, but did use as many of them that were 
useful as they had occasion for ; yet in this of the 
time of keeping Easter they would not, because it 
was of ill signification and scandalous, for the Jews 
keep their Easter as typical, and prefiguring Christ 
to come ; the Christians kept their Easter in thank- 
ful remembrance of Christ " come, and risen from 
the dead;" and therefore differing so much in the 
main of the feast, they would not comply with 
them, no, not so much as in the time» lest by that 
they might have been thought to have complied 
also in the very feast, and so have seemed to have 
denied their Lord as the Jews did. 

III. Because after the Jews' fashion of keeping 
of Easter, (they following at that time an erroneous 
account which had not due regard to the time of 
the equinox,) it might happen that there might be 
two Easters in one year, (viz. one in the first 
month and another in the last,) and none in the 
next year. 

After our English account, Easter is found by 
finding out Shrove Tuesday ; which is always the 
first Tuesday in the new moon after Candlemas ; 
the Sunday six weeks after is Easter. 

o o 

o o 


i^onliaB anD ^ucsliag in ^Faster 22Ilccfe. 

These two holy days are added as attendants 
upon Easter day in honour of this high feast and 
the more solemnity of it. And we find St. Austin'' 
mentioning them ; although both from him (else- 
where) and others we may gather that these two 
days were not all which at that time were added 
to the feast ; for of old, this queen of feasts, as 
the Fathers call it, was so highly esteemed, that 
it was in a manner solemnized fifty days together, 
even from Easter to Whitsuntide. See St. Ambrose', 
" Per hos quinquaginta dies nobis est jugis et 
continuata festivitas," &c. See also Eusebius de 
vita Constantini% and Tertullian de JejuniisS and 
in his book de Idolatria °, where he affirms that all 
the heathen festivals put together could not equal 
this one great and solemn feast of the Christians. 
From these and the like places some conclude, and 
most probably, that every day of that time the 
Christians met together in public to sing with 
greatest joy psalms and hallelujahs to God Almighty, 
and to take the cup of salvation, the holy Com- 
munion, praising the name of the Lord. All which 
time they did not kneel at their prayers, which was 

s De Civitate Dei, lib. xxii. cap. 8. torn. vii. p. 671. 

' Serm. Ixi. • Lib.iv. cap. Ixiv. p. 558. 

' De Jejuniis, p. 712. A. <■ p. 113. B. 

o — ■■ o 

o o 


accounted a posture of mourners, but stand, (as 
upon Sundays they were wont,) in token of joy, 
thus making every of those days equal in a man- 
ner to Sundays. The reason of this so great and 
long festivity at this time, was principally be- 
cause it was the feast of Easter, or of our blessed 
Lord's resurrection, a principal article of our faith : 
for as St. Paul says, " if Christ be not risen we are 
yet in our sins, and we Christians are of all men 
most miserable''." Now that "Christ is risen," 
needs must there be in Christians' hearts an over- 
flowing of joy; which in those times they expressed 
by such daily public exercises of religion, principally 
of receiving the holy Communion, the pledge of our 
resurrection, (as our Saviour says, " he that eats 
My flesh shall live for ever",") that by this means 
the memory of the resurrection might be fixed 
deeply in their minds. We must not think that 
the Christians then did keep all this time holy, so 
as to cease from labour, (for the poverty of many, 
and the care and charity required in all, would not 
permit that,) but only as to religious exercises and 
services. As devotion abated, the feast was short- 
ened; yet long after Tertidlian, even till Gratian's 
time and downward, the whole week of Easter, as 
also of Whitsuntide, were reckoned among holy 
days^. And our Church, though she enjoins only 

" I Cor. XV. 17, 19. » St. John vi. 54. 

V Gratian. e Decret. pars ili. de Consecratione, Distinct, iii. 
2054. B. 

6 ■ 6 

o o 


Mouday and Tuesday of this week for holy days, 
yet seems to me to commend the keeping holy of 
this whole week, as also of the whole week after 
Christmas, Ascension, and Pentecost: for she di- 
rects the proper prefaces for Christmas, Easter, 
Ascension, and Pentecost, to be used every day the 
week after ; which prefaces are to be used only at 
the Communion, as appears by the Rubrics ; so that 
by prescribing the prefaces to be used upon every 
day of the week, she doth withal prescribe the 
Communion every day likewise, which is properly 
the keeping of a day solemnly holy ; and this week's 
solemnity is principally, as we have said, for the 
expressing of our joy for our Lord's resurrection, 
and the honour of the feast, which Christians were 
not willing to make shorter than the Jews' feast of 
unleavened bread. 

Among the ancients there was another peculiar 
reason for the keeping of the whole week of Easter 
holy, besides that of the resurrection. For they 
ministering baptism (except in case of necessity) at 
no other times but the eves of Easter and Whit- 
sunday, did make it a part of their festivity, the 
week following, to congratulate the access of a new 
Christian progeny ; the new baptized coming each 
day to Church in white vestures with lights before 
them ; where thanksgivings and prayers were made 
for them, with instructions also to those that were 
of years of discretion, (for at that time there were 

o ( 

o ( 


many such that came in from heathenism,) in the 
principles and ways of Christianity. But after- 
wards, when most of the baptized were infants, and 
so not capable of such solemnities, this custom was 
altered, and baptism administered all times of the 
year, as at the beginning of Christianity z. 


It was the custom of our forefathers to observe 
the octave or utas of their high and principal feasts; 
and this is the octave or eighth day after Easter. 
Upon every octave, the use was to repeat some part 
of that service, which was performed upon the feast 
itself, and this is the reason that the Collect used 
upon Easter is renewed upon this day». 

The Epistle, 1 St. John v. 4, exhorts the new 
baptized persons that are bom of God, to labour 
to overcome the world, which at their baptism they 
vowed to do. 

The Gospel, St. John xx. 19, shews how Christ 
conversed with His disciples after His resurrection ; 
instructing and confirming them in the faith of the 

' Tertull. de Baptismo, cap. xviii. p. 264. S. Chr>-£ost. Horn. 
I. in Act. Apost. torn. ix. p. 10. 

• In all the old books, except the first of king Edward, the 
Collect for Easter day was ordered to he repeated ; hut at the 
last review, the Collect prescribed in that first book was again 
inserted on this day; it being the same which was originally ap- 
pointed for the second Communion on Easter day itself, which 
was then also used on the Tuesday following. — See Wheatly. 

o c 



This Sunday is called Low Sunday, because it is 
Easter day repeated, the octave of Easter, but the 
Sunday before is high Easter, and this is a lower 
feast, Low Easter ; in Latin Dominica in albis, or 
rather, post albas {scilicet de positas) as some old 
rituals call it; because those that were baptized on 
Easter eve, wore, seven days after, white garments 
called Chrysoms ; signs of the purity which they 
received in baptism ; which white clothes they this 
day put off. 


As the last Sunday instructed the young and 
new born Christians how they should imitate 
Christ in a resurrection from sin and death to life ; 
so this Sunday instructs the shepherds of the flock 
how to imitate their great Shepherd''. And the 
Epistle, 1 St. Peter ii. 19, sets before us His great 
patience and goodness in the work of our redemp- 
tion. The Collect prays for thankfulness and imi- 
tation of His holy life. 


Hitherto since Easter the Church hath been as 
it were overwhelmed in the joyful meditation of 
Christ's resurrection from the dead, or chiefly about 
it, and that hath been the subject of all the Collects 

>■ Johnx. 11. 

6 6 



since then. Now in this Collect (as somewhat also 
in one of the readings aforegoing) the Church re- 
flects upon that other ancient Paschal solemnity, 
the general haptism that was used at that time ; so 
that this Collect is for the new baptized, or new 
regenerates by baptism ; desiring Almighty God, 
who shews the light of His truth to them that be in 
error, (enlightening them by baptism, which was 
therefore called (paiTicrfibs, illumination, and the bap- 
tized the enlightened,) to grant them that be ad- 
mitted into the fellowship of Christ's religion, 
namely, by baptism, that they may eschew those 
things that be contrary to their profession or vow 
in baptism, &c. Though this custom of general 
baptism at Easter be not in use now, yet this 
Collect is still seasonable, as a general anniversary 
commemoration of the great blessings received from 
God by our baptism, and our solemn vow and pro- 
fession made to Him therein. 

The ancients were wont to observe Pascha anno- 
tinum, in anniversary commemoration of their bap- 
tism ; they that were baptized at Easter the year 
before, came the year following the same day to 
the Church, and solemnly with oblations and other 
religious offices commemorated the anniversary day 
of their new birth. Though our Church does not 
in every particular observe the same custom, yet 
she draws near to the ancient practice in this 
solemn though general anniversary commemoration 

o — o 

c- ' 


of baptism this day, minding us all this day of our 
baptism, and our vow made therein, and praying to 
God to enable us all to keep it. And for this very 
reason does she appoint children to be baptized 
upon Sundays and other holy days when most 
people are present, that they may be put in remem- 
brance of their own profession made to God in 
baptism *=; and happy were it for us, if we would 
make good use of this care of the Church, and be 
often remembering that solemn vow, by which we 
have dedicated ourselves to God to be a holy 
people ; the wilful breach of which vow is horrid 

In the Gospel, St. John xvi. 16, our Saviour tells 
His disciples, that though they " should weep and 
lament, (by reason of His death,) their sorrow 
should be turned into joy, which no man should 
take from them," (namely, after His resurrection.) 
And such joy belongs to this time and to us in it, if 
we be also His true disciples and followers ; which 
how we may be, the Epistle, 1 St. Peter ii. 11, 
shews by minding us of (what we promised and 
vowed, when admitted into Christ's school, and 
gave up our names to Him) " the abstaining from 
fleshly lusts, and having honest conversation " in 
all our relations. And this is the main drift of 
the whole Epistle (1 St. Peter) out of which this is 
taken, to persuade them that were born again, and 

^ Preface before Baptism. 

c o 

o o 


lately become Christians, to walk suitably to such 
a holy profession, and that chiefly in regard " of 
the lively hope unto which they were begotten 
again by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the 
dead," and so is most agreeable to the Church's 
meditations this day and season. 


This Collect '' is fit for this Paschal time from 
Easter to Pentecost, a time of greatest joy; the 
Church therefore prays that we may rightly observe 
the time : be full of joy in a joyful time ; withal 
that our joy may be a tme and real joy, that " our 
hearts may surely there be fixed, where true joys 
are to be found ;" such joy as Christ's resurrection 
and the promised Comforter afi'ords. And one or 
both of these two grand occasions of joy and 
exultation (to wit, Christ's resurrection, and the 
promise of a Comforter) are the principal subject 
of the Gospels^, from Easter to Whitsuntide ; but 
lest our joy should grow presumptuous and lux- 
uj-iant, (as joy is apt to exceed,) the Epistles for 
the same time admonish us of duties answerable, 
as to believe in Christ, to rise from the grave of sin, 

"" The Collect formerly began "Almighty God, which dost 
make the minds of all faithful men to be of one will ; Grant," &c. 
— See Wheatly. t John xvi. 5; James i. 17. 

o o 

c o 


to be patient, loving, meek, charitable, &c., having 
our Lord for an example, and the promise of His 
Spirit for our guide, strength, and comfort. 


The Gospel before promised a Comforter. The 
Epistle, St. James i. 22, and Gospel, St. John xvi. 
23, this day direct us what to do to obtain that 
promise. Two conditions are required on our parts 
for the receiving of that promised Comforter : I. 
Prayers or rogations : this the Gospel teaches ; 
" Ask and ye shall receive, that your joy may be 
full." II. To "love God and keep His command- 
ments':" this the Epistle exhorts to; "see that 
ye be doers of the Word," &c. The Collect prays 
tliat we may feel the fruits and comforts of this 
Holy Spirit in our hearts by good thoughts, and 
abilities to perform them. 


This is called Rogation Sunday, because upon 
the three following days rogations and litanies 
were used, and fasting, for these two reasons: 
I. Because this time of the year, the fruits of the 
earth are tender and easily hurt ; therefore litanies 

I ' St. John xiv. 15. 

c o 

o o 


extraordinary are said to God to avert this judg- 
mest. II. Because our Lord's ascension is the 
Thursday following, therefore these three days 
before are to be spent in prayers and fastings, that 
so the flesh being tamed, and the soul winged with 
fasting, we may ascend with Christ. 

The Gospel is concerning rogations, teaching us 
how to ask of God, so as we may obtain, and 
withal foretells His approaching Ascension. 

The fast this week is voluntary ; for there is no 
fast commanded betwixt Easter and Whitsunday, 
as hath been observed before. 

The service formerly appointed in the rogation 
days^ of procession, was Psalm ciii. and civ., with the 
litany, and suffrages, and homily of thanksgiving. 
The two psalms were to be said at convenient places, 
in the common perambulation ; the people thus 
giving thanks to God, in the beholding of God's 
benefits, the increase and abundance of His fruits 
upon the earth. At their return to the Church, 
they were to say the rest of the service mentioned'. 

K Con. Aur. I. Can. xxvii. tom. iv. p. 1408. E. 
>> Articles, Eliz. 1564. Spar. Articles, p. 125. 
' Eliz. lujunct. xviii. xix. p. 72. 

C) o 

o o 


This day was Christ's perfect triumph over the 
devil, "leading captivity captive''." This day " He 
opened the kingdom of heaven to all believers," as 
we say daily in the Te DeumK His flesh opened 
that passage, in that He deserved to enter there 
first ; for when He was taken up on high, then He 
opened the gates of heaven ". Therefore the Church 
appoints for this day Psalm xxiv. " Lift up your 
heads, ye gates, and he ye lift up ye everlasting 
doors, and the King of glory shall come in." This 
day gives us hopes of heaven, in that our flesh in 
the first-fruits is thither ascended. For if God had 
not intended some great good to our nature, He 
would not have received the first-fruits up on high : 
Christ, taking the first-fruits of our nature, this day 
cariied it up to God, and by those first-fruits hath 
made the whole stock to be sanctified. And the 
Father highly esteemed the gift, both for the worthi- 
ness of Him that offered it up, and for the purity 
of the offeiing, so as to receive it with His own 
hands, and to set it at His right hand. To what 
nature was it that God said, " Sit thou on My 
right hand?" To the same, to which formerly He 
had said, " Dust thou art, and to dust thou shalt 

k Ephes. iv. 8. ' See St. John iii. 13 ; Acts ii. 30; Heb. x. 19. 
■» Chrysost. in Heb. x. 23; Horn. XIX. torn. xU. p. 181. A. 

c o 

o o 


return." This gift went far beyond the loss; 
" Paradise was the place from which we fell ; but 
we were this day canied up to heaven, and man- 
sions are there provided for us"." " Christ ascend- 
ing up into heaven in the sight of His disciples, that 
they and we might assuredly believe that we should 
follow, and not deem it impossible for us, body and 
soul, to be translated thither"." 

This day hath proper Lessons and Psalms. 

The first Lesson at Morning Service is Deut. x., 
wherein is recorded Moses' going up into the mount 
to receive the Law from God, to deliver it to the 
Jews, a type of Christ's ascension into heaven to 
send down the new Law, the Law of faith ; " for 
when He ascended up on high. He led captivity 
captive, and gave gifts to men, Apostles, Evangel- 
ists, pastors, and teachers'"," to publish the new 
Law to the world. 

The first Lesson at Evening Service is 2 Kings ii., 
wherein Elias ascending into heaven was a type of 
Christ's Ascension, but Christ went far beyond His 
type in many particulars. Elias went up with a 
single chariot, but Christ was attended with thou- 
sands : " The chariots of God are twenty thousand, 
even thousands of angels, and the Lord ascending 
is among themi." Elias upon his ascension doubles 

" Chrysost. in diem, torn. ii. p. 447. 

» Cypr. in diem, Spuria, p. 55. 

V Ephes. iv. 8. i Psalm Ixviii. 17. 

o o 

c o 


his spirit upon Elisha ; but Christ gave such an 
abundance of the Holy Spirit to His disciples upon 
His Ascension, that they not only were filled with it 
themselves, but it ran over upon others from them, 
" by laying on of hands" they imparted it to others'. 

We have no proper second lessons appointed; 
but in Edward the Sixth's liturgy were appointed 
St. John xiv. and Ephes. iv., both very fit for the 

Psalms for the morning are viii. xv. xxi. 

Psalm viii. begins, " O Lord our Governor, how 
excellent is Thy name in all the world, Thou that 
hast set Thy glory above the heavens !" This was 
fulfilled this day. For this day He set His glory 
above the heavens, ascending from earthly humility 
to heavenly gloiy. This made Thy name wonder- 
ful in all the world ; for hereby it appears that 
Thou that didst before descend so low, and wert 
for a time so vile reputed, art greater than all prin- 
cipalities and powers in heaven and earth; since 
some saw, and all men now believe, that Thou 
didst ascend into heaven, whereby Thou hast gotten 
" a name above all names, that at the name of 
Jesus every knee shall bow, both of things in heaven 
and things in earth'." 

Psalm XV. " Who shall dwell in Thy tabernacle, 

' Acts viii. 17. ■ Lessons were added for this festival in 

1661. St. Luke xxiv.44; Ephes. iv. to ver. 17. These passages 
are plainly suitable to the day.— Ed. ' Phil. ii. 9, 10. 



o o 


or who shall rest upon Thy holy hill ? even he that 
hath clean hands," &c. shews both how just it was 
that Christ should ascend and rest upon the holy 
hill, the highest heaven, of which Mount Sion was 
a type ; for He of all others had clean hands and a 
pure heart ; and withal tells us the way which we 
must walk, viz. the way of righteousness and holi- 
ness, if we desire to follow Christ to heaven. 

Psalm xxi. is to he understood of Christ ; " Thou 
gavest Him a long life, even for ever and ever, His 
honour is great in Thy salvation"." The raising 
Him from death, hath made His honour great, and 
all the world to believe in Him. " Glory and great 
worship shalt Thou lay upon Him," by setting Him 
at Thy right hand in heaven. The rest of the 
psalm is to the same purpose, of Christ's absolute 
triumph over His enemies, which was this day ful- 
filled, when " He led captivity captive." 

The Evening Psalms are xxiv. Ixviii. cviii''. 

Psalm xxiv. was sung this day at Christ's Ascen- 
sion, by a choir of angels, some going before the 
Lord Christ, knocking, as it were, at heaven's 
gates, and singing, " Lift up your heads, O ye gates, 
and be ye lift up ye everlasting doors, and the 
King of glorj- shall come in :" to whom other angels 
in heaven, desirous to know who this King of glory 

» S. August, in Ps. xx. ii. 5, torn. iv. p. 89. 
» It seems that these were the Psalms in King Edward's book ; 
but in the present Liturgy we have xxiv. xlvii. cviii.— Ed. 

o — o 

o o 


was, sing the next words, " Who is the King of 
glory?" The first angels that waited upon our 
Lord in His Ascension, answer, " The Lord, strong 
and mighty, even the Lord mighty in battle," as ye 
may see by the prisoners that He leads captive in 
His triumph. Therefore, "lift up your heads, ye 
gates," that never were yet opened to human na- 
ture, "where never man yet entered ^" The other 
angels as yet, as it were, amazed at the glory of the 
triumph, ask again, "Who is the King of glory?" 
what Lord is it that is so mighty ? His heavenly 
guard answer again, " The Lord of Hosts, He is the 
King of glory >." Then heaven's gates w ere opened, 
and our dear Lord entered and took possession for 
us, and prepared places for us *. 

Psalm Ixviii. 18. is by the Apostle applied to the 
Ascension of Christ : " Thou hast ascended up on 
high, and led captivity captive a." It is not to be 
denied, but that it may be applied to others also, 
(for the Scripture is full of sense,) as to Moses. For 
he from the bottom of the Red sea went up to the 
top of Sinai, leading with him the people of Israel, 
that long had been captive to Pharaoh ; and there 
received gifts, the law, the priesthood, but, above all, 
the ark of the covenant to be the pledge of God's 
presence amongst them ; this is the literal sense. 

This of Moses, by analogy, doth king David 

« St. John iii. 13; Acts ii. 34; Heb. x. 20. 

y Theodoret. in Ps. xxiii. torn. i. p. 485. 

» St. John xiv. 2. * Ephes. iv, 8. 

Q — U 

o o 


apply to himself, to his going up to mount Sion, 
and to carrying up the ark thither. For all agree, 
this psalm was set upon that occasion. The very 
beginning of it (" Let God arise,") shews as much ; 
the acclamation ever to be used at the ark's re- 
moving. Num. X. 35. This was done immediately 
upon his conquest of the Jebusites, whom he had 
taken captive, what time for the honour of the 
solemnity he dealt gifts, bread and wine, to the 
people, 1 Chron. xvi. 3. But in the prophetical sense, 
this psalm belongs to Christ, to " the testimony of 
Jesus, which is the spirit of all prophecy''." For 
that was the greatest captivity that ever was led 
captive ; His the highest up-going, higher than Sion 
or Sinai far ; that the most gracious and gloiious 
triumph, when Christ made a show of principalities 
and powers of hell, triumphing over them in His own 
person, Col. ii. 15, which was this day's triumph"^. 

In Psalm cviii. the Prophet awakes himself and his 
instruments of music, to give thanks to God among 
the people, and among the nations, for setting Him- 
self above the heavens, and His glory above all the 
earth, which was most literally fulfilled in " His 
ascension into heaven, and sitting down at the 
right hand of God." It is true, this psalm is 
thought to be set upon another occasion, viz. God's 
promise of subduing the Ammonites and Idumeans 

>> fiev. xix. 10. 

' Bp. Andrewes on Whitsunday, serm. vii. vol. ill. p. 223. 8vo. 

6 o 

o o 


under David, for which he here vows his best 
thanks ; yet for all this, it may be, and that prin- 
cipally, meant of Christ and His triumphant Ascen- 
sion. For God Almighty did so direct the mind of 
the Prophets, that that which was spoken by them 
of other persons and actions, is ofttimes more ex- 
actly fidfilled in and by Christ. " Out of Egypt 
have I called My son*," was there spoken of the 
deliverance of the people of Israel out of Egypt; 
fulfilled in Christ. What David says of himself, " I 
will open my mouth in a parable," was fulfilled by 
Christ, St. Matt, xiii, 35. Psalm Ixxii. was written 
for Solomon, as the title shews, but more exactly 
fulfilled of Christ. David's complaint of his own 
miseiy, Psalm xxxv. 19, verified in Christ, St. John 
XV. 25. Nay more, (which is worth our observa- 
tion,) some things David speaks of himself, which 
do not agree to him but in a figure, which agree to 
Christ in the letter ; as, " they parted my gaiments 
among them, and cast lots upon my vesture^." 
Nay, in the same psalm, (and sometimes in the 
same verse,) some words will not agree to Christ, as 
" my faults are not hid from Thee ^ ;" these cannot 
be spoken of Christ, who knew no sin. Some 
words again most properly belong to Christ, as 
" they gave me gall to eat, and when I was thirsty 
they gave me vinegar to drink s." 

"i St. Matt. ii. 15 ; Hosea xi. 1. ' Psalm xxii. 17, 18. 

' Psalm Ixix. 5. g Ibid. 22. 


o o 


Thus holy Church hath in the Lessons and Gos- 
pel, St. Mark xvi. 14, preached to us the Ascension 
of Christ, in the tjpe and antitype. In the Epistle, 
Acts i. 1, she teaches us our duty not to stand 
gazing up to heaven, wondering at the strangeness 
of the sight, but to take heed to demean ourselves 
so, as that we may with comfort behold Him at 
His second coming, His coming to judgment: 
" Why stand ye gazing up into heaven?" there is 
other business to be done, fit yourselves for another 
coming, for " this same Jesus which was taken up 
from you into heaven, shall so come, even as ye 
have seen Him go into heaven''." 

In the Collect we are taught to pray that we, as 
far as may be, may confonn to our Lord in His 
Ascension ; that like as we believe Him to have 
ascended into the heavens, so we may also in heart 
and mind thither ascend, and with Him continually 
dwell. In the special psalm and hymn we adore 
and bless God for our Saviour's glorious Ascension. 
It is pleasant to behold the rare beauty of the 
Church's offices, as on others, so on this day, how 
each part suits the other. 

The Gospel to the Lessons, the Epistle to the 
Gospel, the Collect, and psalms and hymns, all 
fitted to the same, and all to the day. 

For the antiquity of this day, see St. Augustine's 

o ■ o 



Epistle LIV. cited upon Easter day ; Epiphanius, 
vol. ii. 276, and Chrysostom upon the day '. 


This is called Expectation Week : for now the 
Apostles were earnestly expecting the fulfilling of 
that promise of our Lord, " If I go away, I will send 
the Comforter to you''." 

The Epistle, St. Peter iv. 7, exhorts to earnest 
prayer for the Comforter promised in the Gospel ; 
St. John XV. 26,27; xvi. 1 — 4 ; which the Church 
performs in the Collect. 

Tuis day the Holy Ghost came down from 
heaven upon His Church, as the Epistle, Acts ii. 1 , 
tells, according to the promise of the Gospel, St. 
John xiv. 15. 

As in a long war it happens ; when the war is 
ended, and peace concluded, pledges and hostages 
are mutually sent, both as tokens of, and securities 
for, the mutual agreement and peace ; so was it 
betwixt God and man. After our Lord Jesus had 

■ Epist. LIV. cap. i. torn. ii. p. 1124. B. Chrysost. in Ascens. 
torn. ii. p. 447. ' St. John xvi. 7. 


o ^ — o 


ended the long war betwixt God and man, and 
finished the reconciliation, He sent up, or rather 
He carried up Himself, our hostage, our flesh and 
nature ennobled by the union with His Divine Per- 
son , as a royal pledge to His Father ; on the other 
side, God sent this day His royal hostage, HisHoly 
Spirit, a security for our future peace'. The devil 
had taken us captive, our Lord Christ undertiikes 
the quan-el. His death was His battle, but then He 
seemed to be overcome ; but up He got again at 
His Eesurrection, that was His victory ; His Ascen- 
sion was His triumph ; and as ancient custom was 
for conqueroi-s to scatter gifts amongst the be- 
holders, especially on the last and great day of the 
triumph, so does our Lord, in this last day of the 
feast, the conclusion of His triumph. He doth, as it 
were, make the conduits nm with wine ; He poured 
out His Spirit so upon all flesh, that some mockers 
said, they were "full of new wine'"." He casts 
abroad His new wine, new gifts and gi-aces of the 
Spirit, to the amazement of the world, giving " to 
some the word of wisdom, to others the gift of 
knowledge, to others faith, to others the gift of 
healing, to others the working of miracles, to others 
prophecy, to others discerning of spirits, to others 
divers kinds of tongues, to others the interpretations 
of tongues":" all these vvorketh one and the same 

' 1 John iv. 12, 13. S. Chrysost. de Sanct. Pentecost. Horn. I. 
torn. ii. p. 465. D. ■» Acts ii. 13. » 1 Cor. xii. 4. 

6 O 

o o 


Spirit, the Holy Ghost, whom the Lord Christ, as 
He promised, sent down this day with these gifts, in 
honour of whom and His gifts we keep this day 

This time was also appointed of old for solemn 
baptism. The reason was, I. Because this day the 
Apostles were baptized with the Holy Ghost and 
fire. Acts ii. 3. II. Because this day three thou- 
sand were baptized by the Apostle, Acts ii. 41. In 
memory of which the Church ever after held a 
solemn custom of baptizing at this feast". 

This day is called Pentecost, because it is fifty 
days betwixt the true Passover and Whitsunday. 

As there were fifty days from the Jews' Passover 
to the giving of the Law to Moses in Mount Sinai, 
which Law was written with the finger of God ; (for 
from the fourteenth day of the first month, the day 
of the Passover, to the third day of the tliird month, 
the day of the Law's giving, Exod. xix., are fifty 
days ;) so from the true Passover, which was cele- 
brated when Christ was offered up for us, are fifty 
days to this time when the Holy Ghost came down 
upon the Church, to write the new law of charity 
in their hearts. Upon this meditation St. Augustine 
breaks out thus ; " Who would not prefer the joy 
and pleasure of these mysteries, before all empires 
of the world ? Do you not see, that as the two sera- 
phims cry one to another. Holy, holy holyp, so the 

' Gratian. de Consec. Dis. iv. cap. xiii. p. 2069. p Isaiah vi. 3. 

o ^ o 

O ; 


two Testaments, Old and New, faithfully agreeing, 
convince the sacred truth of Godi?" Note that we 
must not count the fifty days from the very day of 
the Passover, but from the Sunday following ; and 
so God directed the Jews, speaking of their Pente- 
cost, or feast of weeks, " and ye shall count from 
the morrow after the Sabbath, from that day seven 
weeks shall be complete'." 

It is also called AVhitsimday from the glorious 
light of heaven which was then sent down upon 
the earth, from the Father of lights; so many 
tongues, so many lights, which kindled such a light 
in the world on this day, as never shall be put out 
to the world's end ; as also because the new bap- 
tized, which were many at that feast, (Whitsunday 
and Easter being the two solemn times of baptism,) 
and of old called illuminati, the enlightened, Heb. 
vi. 4, from the spiritual light they received in bap- 
tism, Avere then clothed in white gamients, as types 
both of that spiritual whiteness and purity of soul, 
which they received in baptism, and were carefully 
to preserve all their life after ; as also of their joy 
for being made then by baptism members of Christ, 
children of God, and heirs of the kingdom of hea- 
ven. White is the colour of joy, says Solomon: 
" Let thy gannents be always white, for God now 
accepts of thy works'." St. Cyril, alluding to this 

1 Epift. LV. cap. xvi. torn. ii. p. 140. A. ' Lev. xxiii. 15. 
• Eccles. ix. 8. 

o — o 

o o 


ancient custom of the new baptized, of putting oiF 
their old garments, and clothing themselves in pure 
white, hath words to this eflect ; " This white cloth- 
ing is to mind you, that you should always here- 
after go in white. I speak not this to persuade 
you always to wear white clothes, but that you 
should ever be clothed with spiritual white, bright- 
ness and purity of soul, that so you may say with 
divine Isaiah', ' I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, 
for He hath clothed me with the garments of salva- 
tion, He hath covered me with the robe of righte- 
ousness.' Of which robe of righteousness and 
garment of salvation, the white vestment was a 
resemblance. ' And to her was granted, that she 
should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white, 
for fine linen is the righteousness of the Saints".'" 

Whitsunday then is as much as Dominica in albis, 
the Sunday in white. The Greeks for the same 
reason call Easter KvpiaK-}) Kafiirpa, the bright Sun- 
day, because then also the new baptized wore white : 
but the Latins call neither of these days from 
thence, but give them their names from the Resur- 
rection and Pentecost, and the octave of Easter or 
Low Sunday is by them called Dominica in albis, 
as is above said, p. 143. 

This holy day hath proper lessons and psalms. 

The second Lessons, Acts x. 34 ; xix. to ver. 21 ; 

' Ch. Ixi. 10. 

° Rev. xix. 8. Catech. xxii. Myst. iv. cap. viii. p. 322. 

c -o 

o o 


ai'e plain. The Morning first Lesson, Dent. xvi. 
to ver. 18, gives us the Law of the Jews' Pente- 
cost, or feast of weeks, which was a type of ours. 

The Evening first Lesson, Wisd. i.,^ is fit for this 
day ; for it treats of the Holy Spirit, ver. 5, 6, how 
it fills the world, vei'. 7, which was most exactly 
fulfilled this day, in which " they were all filled 
with the Holy Ghosf." 

The Psalms for the Morning, xlv. xlvii., are very 
proper to the day^. The beginning of xlv. is con- 
cerning the birth of Christ, and therefore used 
upon Christmas-day ; but the latter part is con- 
cerning the calling of the Gentiles, ver. 10, 11, and 
the glory of the Church, the King of heaven's 
daughter, "who is all glorious within," ver. 14, 
through the heavenly gifts and graces of the Holy 
Ghost, sent down this day ; which glorious gifts 
miraculously poured upon the Church brought in 
the Gentiles to the Christian faith, " tlie virgins that 
be her fellows shall bear her company, and shall 
be brought imto Thee ;" ver. 15. For which all the 
people shall (as holy Church directs us to do this 
day) give thanks unto Thee, ver. 18, in holy 

' Tsaiah xi. is a prophecy of the conversion of the Gentiles to 
the kingdom of Christ, through the inspiration of the Apostles, 
by the Spirit of God. — Wheatly on Common Prayer, p. 241. This 
was appointed instead of Wisdom i. in 1661. — Ed. 

y Acts ii. 4. 

' These were the Psalms in King Edward's book; but the 
proper Psalms in the present Liturgy are xlviii. Ixviii. — See 
Wheatly on Common Prayer, p. 240. 

C O 

O Q 


David's Psalms, as we do ; so Theodoret on Psalm 
xliv.,* " ' I will remember Thy name from one gene- 
ration to another, therefore shall the people give 
thanks unto Thee, world without end ;' that is, all 
people to the world's end shall praise God for these 
blessings upon the Church, with those psalms which 
I compose, and so, (though I be dead long before,) 
yet in my psalms sung by them, I will remember 
Thy name from one generation to another." 

Psalm xlvii. is a song of praise for the conversion 
of the Gentiles, by the Gospel published this day 
in all languages. Acts ii. 1 — 13, for which the Pro- 
phet invites them to active praises : " O clap your 
hands together, all ye people : O sing unto God with 
the voice of melody," ver. 1, for " God is gone up 
in jubilo, with a merry noise," ver. 5. That was upon 
Ascension-day. And now " He is set upon His 
holy and royal seat. He reigns over the heathen, 
makes the princes of the people join in one body 
unto the people of the God of Abraham," brings 
the Gentiles in to the Jews, and makes one Church 
of both ; and that by the Gospel of the kingdom, 
published this day to all nations, and so, that was 
done this day, for which this psalm gives thanks. 

Evening Psalms are civ. cxlv. These two are 
thankful commemorations of the various gifts of 
God the Holy Ghost, who then gave temporal, this 
day, spiritual gifts ; which spiritual gifts of this 

• Tom. i. p. 896. 

c o 

c o 


day were shadowed out by those temporal, and " all 
come from the same Spirit''," to whom this feast 
is held sacred; so that in blessing the Author of 
them, we bless the Author of these, the Holy Spirit, 
from whom these divers gifts come. Some part of 
Psalm civ. is more particularly a]ipl!able to this 
feast : " He maketh the clouds His chariots," ver. 3, 
that was upon Ascension-day, when He went up to 
heaven in a cloud. Acts i. 9. Then follows, emitlis 
Spirittim, " Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit, and they 
shall be made. Thou shalt renew the face of the 
earth," ver. 30, which is proper to this day; for 
this day the Holy Spirit was sent, and renewed the 
face of the earth, with new creatures, new men of 
new hearts and new tongues, Acts ii. " old things 
passed away, and all things are become new." 

The same harmony of Epistle, Gospel, and Col- 
lect, and Lessons and Psalms that we have ob- 
served upon Christmas and Easter and Ascension, 
may with pleasure be meditated upon this day. 

The same ancients testify the antiquity of this 
feast, that gave in evidence for Easter. 

i^Eonlias anil Cucslias in WiffiHun 

The Epistles for both, Acts x. 34 ; viii. 14 ; relate 
not only to the sending of the Holy Ghost, but 

•■ 1 Cor. xii. 4. 

o o 

o o 


also to baptism, which the Church takes often 
occasion to remember us of by her readings and 
usages, and would have us improve them all 
towards most useful meditations. 

This is one of the four Ember weeks ; of which 
see above, after the first Sunday in Lent, p. 118. 

tZTrmitj) .SunDag. 

In ancient Liturgies and Eitualists, we find this 
day looked upon as an octave of Pentecost, or as 
Dominica vacans, (of which name is spoken p, 175,) 
and that the observing of it as a feast of the Trinity 
was of later use, and more late in the Roman 
Church than in some other "= ; and there were who 
objected, that because on each day (and especially 
Sundays) the Church celebrates the praises of the 
Trinity in her Doxologies, Hymns, Creeds, &c. 
therefore there was no need of a feast on one day 
for that which was done on each. But yet the wis- 
dom of the Church thought it meet that such a 
mystery as this, though part of the meditation of 
each day, should be the chief subject of one, and 
this to be the day. J'or no sooner had our Lord 
ascended into heaven, and God's Holy Spirit de- 
scended upon the Church, but there ensued the 

"^ Decretal. Greg. lib. ii. tit. ix. cap. ii. p. 647. C. 


o o 


notice of the glorious and incomprehensible Trinity, 
which before that time was not so clearly known. 
The Church therefore having solemnized in an 
excellent order all the high feasts of our Lord, and 
after, that of the descent of God's Spirit upon the 
Apostles, thought it a thing most seasonable to 
conclude these great solemnities with a festival of 
full, special, and express service to the holy and 
blessed Trinity. And tliis the rather in after-times, 
when Arians and such like heretics had appeared 
in the world, and vented their blasphemies against 
this Divine mystery. 

Some proper Lessons this day hath, as the 
Morning first and second ■'. 

The first Lesson is Gen. xviii., wherein we read of 
three that appeared to Abraham, or the Lord in 
three Persons, ver. 1, 2, a type of that mysterious 
Trinity in Unity, which was after revealed in the 
Gospel ; so Theodoret, " because the Jews had 
long lived in Egjpt, and had learned there the 
worship of many gods ; the most wise God did not 
plainly deliver to them the mystery of the Trinity, 
lest they should have mistaken it for a doctrine of 
a plurality of gods. Yet the doctrine of the Trinity 
was not wholly hidden in those times, but some 
seeds of that perfection of divinity were dispersed ; 
and for that cause, the choir of angels sing thrice 

"" In the present Liturgy the Lessons are; Morning, Gen. i, 
St. Matt. iii. ; Evening, Gen. xviii., 1 St. John v. 

o ' 6 

o o 


" holy," but once " Lord ;" " Holy, lioly, holy, Lord 
God of Hosts ; " and here three men appeared to 
Abraham «. 

The second Lesson, St. Matt, iii., is thought fit 
for tliis feast, because it delivers to us the baptism 
of Christ, at which was discovered the mystery of 
the Trinity ; for there the Son is baptized, the 
Holy Spirit descends upon Him, and the Father 
speaks from heaven, " This is My beloved Son." 

The Epistle and the Gospel are the same that in 
ancient services were assigned for the octave of 
Pentecost, (the Epistle being of the vision of St. 
John, Rev. iv. 1, and the Gospel the dialogue of our 
Lord with Nicodemus f,) and the mentioning (which 
we find therein) of baptism, of the Holy Spirit and 
gifts of it, though it might then fit the day, as a 
repetition (as it were) of Pentecost, so is it no less 
fit for it as a feast to the blessed Trinity. The 
mission of the Holy Ghost brings with it (as afore- 
said) more light and clearness to the doctrine of the 
Trinity ; and when more fit to think of the gifts of 
the Spirit than on a solemn day of ordination, (as 
this is one,) when men are consecrated to spiritual 
offices ? But besides this, we have in the Gospel 
set before us all the three Persons of the sacred 
Trinity, and the same likewise represented in the 
vision which the Epistle speaks of, with a hymn 

• Theodoret. advers. Gent. Disput. II. torn. iv. pt. ii. p. 744. 
■ John iii. 1. 

c o 

c o 


of praise, " Holy, lioly, holy. Lord God Almighty," 
&c. which expressions, by ancient interpretation, 
relate to the holy Trinity, as is above said. 

<Bt t\)e .SunDagg after lErmttg till Sllibfnt. 

The Church hath now finished the celebration of 
the high festivals, and thereby run, as it were, 
through a great part of the Creed, by setting before 
us in an orderly manner the highest mysteries of 
our redemption by Christ on earth, till the day 
He was taken up into heaven, with the sending 
down of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost. Now after 
she hath in consequence and reflection upon these 
mysteries, broke out into a more solemn and spe- 
cial adoration of the blessed Trinity, she comes, 
according to her method in the intervals of great 
feasts, (of which see p. 83,) to use such Epistles, 
Gospels, and Collects, as suit with her holy affections 
and aims at this season. Such, namely, as tend to 
our edifying, and being the living temples of the 
Holy Ghost our Comforter, with His gifts and 
graces ; that having oil in our lamps, we may be in 
better readiness to meet the Bridegroom at His 
second Advent or coming to judgment. And this 
is done in the remaining Sundays till Advent, which 

O 'J 

c o 


in their services are, as it were, so many echoes 
and reflections upon the mystery of Pentecost, (the 
life of the Spirit,) or as trumpets for preparation to 
meet our Lord at His second coming; which will 
be more manifest if we take a general view of the 
Gospels together, and afterwards of the Epistles 
and Collects. 

The Gospels for this time, according to the 
method which hath before been declared, p. 85, are 
of the holy doctrine, deeds, and miracles of our 
Saviour, and so may singularly conduce to the 
making us good Christians, by being followers of 
Christ, and replenished with that Spirit which He 
both promised and sent, and for which the Church 
lately kept so great a solemnity: for to be charit- 
able, heavenly-minded, repentant, merciful, hum- 
ble, peaceable, religious, compassionate, and thank- 
ful, to trust in God and abound with such spiritual 
qualities, are the lessons taught us by our Lord in 
these Gospels; and that not only by word and 
deed, but many mimcles also, for divers Gospels 
are of such, and tend much to our edifying. From 
His healing of the sick, and going about doing 
good, we may learn to employ that power and 
ability we have in works of mercy and goodness. 
He that raised the dead, and did such mighty 
works, can be no other, we may be sure, than God 
and man, the Saviour of the world, and able to 
protect us, even against death itself, to raise 

L. O 

o o 


our bodies from the dust, and glorify them here- 

Thus we have in general the intent of these 
Gospels, (as may easily appear by particular ob- 
servations,) and withal, how pertinent they are to 
the time. And with them the Church concludes her 
annual course of such readings ; having thereby 
given us (and in such time and order as most apt 
to make deep impression) the chief matter and 
substance of the four Evangelists. 

Tnie it is, that in ancient rituals, and particularly 
in St. Jerome's Comes, (or Leciionarins,) where 
we find this same order of Epistles and Gospels, 
{Pamela Liturg. Eccles. Lat. torn, ii.,) there are 
some other besides these which our Church useth, 
as for Wednesdays, Fridays, and other special times 
and solemnities. But these for Sundays and other 
holy days, which are retained by our Church, are 
so well chosen for the fitness, variety, and weighti- 
ness of the matter, and out of that Evangelist that 
delivers it most fully, that the chiefest passages of 
all the Evangelists are hereby made known and 
preached to us ; and what we meet not with here, 
is abundantly supplied by the daily second Lessons. 
And the like also may be said concerning the 

In the Epistles for this time there is a hai-mony 
with the Gospels, but not so much as some have 
thought in their joint propounding of particular 

o o 



considerations, and those several and distinct, as 
the days they belong to, (for that belongs to more 
special solemnities,) but rather as they meet all in 
the common stream, the general meditation and 
affection of the season. 

W^e may therefore observe, that as all the Gospels 
for Sundays since Easter-day hitherto are taken out 
of the beloved disciple St. John, who therein gives 
us many of the last and most tender and affectionate 
words of our dear Lord before His Passion and 
Ascension ; His promising of a Comforter, bidding 
them not fear, bequeathing His peace to them, and 
the like; so now the two fii"st Epistles are tJiken 
(and most fitly) out of the same Apostle, who 
therein minds us with much earnest affection of 
that Spirit which our Lord promised for our Com- 
forter, and of the great effect aind sign of it, the 
lore of one another : " if," saith he, " we love one 
another, God dwelleth in us, and His love is per- 
fect in us ; hereby know we that we dwell in Him, 
and He in us, because He hath given us of His 
Spirit." And the Epistle for the second Sunday 
exhorteth us in like manner, " to love one another 
as He gave commandment, and he that keepeth 
His commandments dwelleth in Him, and He in 
him ; and hereby we know that He abideth in 
us, even by the Spirit which He hath given us." In 
the Epistle for the third Sunday, we are put in 
mind by St. Peter of submission, and being humble, 

c o 

C-- p 


(for God gives grace to such,) of sobriety, watch- 
ing, faith, and patience in affliction, with an exhort- 
ation " to cast our care upon God, who cares for 
us, and shall perfect, settle, strengthen, and stablish 
us," which is according to what Christ said, " that 
He would not leave us comfortless." The fourth 
Epistle is out of Bom. viii. and is a comfort against 
afflictions, " as not worthy of that glory which shall 
be shewed upon us," provided we be such as they 
whom the Apostle there speaks of, " who had re- 
ceived the first-fruits of the Spirit." The Epistle 
for the fifth being taken out of St. Peter, exhorts 
us to love, peace, innocence, and such spiritual 
affections; and if any trouble us, " not to be afraid, 
but to sanctify the Lord God in our hearts." The 
rest of the Epistles for all the days following relate 
much to the same business, as newness of life, and 
all the fruits and gifts of God's Holy Spirit, as a 
particular insight will sufficiently manifest. But 
being not the first that are used in this season, they 
seem to have been chosen with more indifferency, 
for they are taken out of St. Paid, and keep the 
very order of his Epistles, and the place they have 
in each Epistle. For of them the first are out of 
the Epistle to the Romans, and (so in order) the 
next out of the Epistles to the Corinthians, (first 
and second.) Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, and 
Colossians, for so far the order reacheth till the 
time of Advent. Only two of the Sundays (the 

O J 

0- Q 


eighteenth and twenty-fifth) do vary from this 
method in the choice of their Epistles, and there is 
reason for both. 

And first, for the twenty-fifth or last Sunday, the 
reason is manifest ; for it being looked upon as a 
kind of preparative or forerunner of Advent, as 
Advent is to Christmas, (and in St. Jerome's Lectio- 
narius^ it is comprised within the time of Advent,) 
an Epistle was chosen not as happened according 
to the former method, but such an one as prophesied 
of Christ's Advent or coming; for that plainly 
appears in this out of Jeremy, " Behold the time 
Cometh, saith the Lord, that I will raise up the 
righteous Branch of David, which King shall bear 
rule, and He shall prosper with wisdom, and shall 
set up equity and righteousness again in the earth." 
The like prophecy is implied in the Gospel, and 
applied to Jesus in the words of the people when 
they had seen His miracle: "This is of a truth the 
same prophet that should come into the world." 
And therefore when there are either more or fewer 
Sundays than twenty-five between Trinity and 
Advent, if we so dispose of the services as always 
to make use of this for the last of them, it will be 
agreeable to reason and exemplary practice, and 
that from time of old, for we find such a rule in 
Micrologus, an ancient ritualist ''. 

The other Sunday that follows not the method of 

t Liturg. Pamel. torn. ii. p. 56. i" Cap. xxix. xxx. p. 752. 

c o 

o o 


the rest is the eighteenth after Trinity ; for its 
Epistle is taken out of the first to the Corinthians, 
not out of that to the Ephesians, as other are for 
the Sundays that go next before and after. This 
seems to be occasioned by a particidar circum- 
stance, to which a fit Epistle was to be found out, 
though it were not taken out of its place in the 
usual order, and that was the Ordination of Min- 
isters ; for the understanding of which, and the 
ancient care about ordinations, it will not be amiss 
to be somewhat the larger. We may therefore 
note that what was said of Collects (p. 64) is true 
also of this order of Epistles and Gospels, that it 
comes down to us from ancient times, as appears 
by St. Jerome's Lectionarius' above mentioned, 
and other old liturgists and expositors. And by 
them we find that it was the custom of old to have 
proper services for Wednesdays, Fridays, and Sa- 
turdays in each Ember week, and then followed 
(as with us) the conferring of Holy Orders. But 
care being taken that the ordination should be per- 
formed after continuance the same day in prayer 
and fasting, and yet be done upon the Lord's day 
also ; and because by ancient canon that day was 
not to be fasted upon, they therefore took this 
course to perform it on Saturday, (it being one of 
the Ember fasts,) and yet in the evening of it, for 
that tiijae was accounted as belonging to the Lord's 

■ Pamel. Lit. torn. ii. p. 50. 


o o 


day following ; or if they would continue so long 
fasting, to do it early in the morning following^. 

In regard therefore that this was accounted a 
Sunday's work, and that there had been so much 
exercise and fasting on Saturday, the Sunday fol- 
lowing had no public office, and was therefore 
called Dominica vacat, (or vacans), a vacant Sun- 
day. But it was afterwards thought better not to 
let that day pass in that manner, nor to continue so 
long and late on Saturday in such abstinence and 
exercise ; and therefore the ordination came to be 
dispatched sooner on Saturday, and the Sunday 
following had a service said on it, which at first for 
some time was borrowed of some other days, but 
afterwards one was fixed, being fitted to the day or 
season with some respect in the frame of it to the 
ordination at that time. For although there were 
peculiar readings, rites, and prayers for the ordina- 
tion itself, (as there is also in our Church, much 
resembling the ancient form,) yet besides that, in 
the general service of the day, some reflection was 
made on the business of ordination. 

Only the vacant Sunday for the Ember week in 
September had no constant peculiar service ; for 
being fixed to a certain time of that month, it 
chanceth that the said Sunday sometimes is the 
eighteenth after Trinity, sometimes the seven- 
teenth, or sooner, as Easter falls out : and accord- 

^ Leo, Epist. Decret. LXXXI. ad Dioscorum, cap. i. p. 435. C. 


o o 


ingly takes the service of the eighteenth Sunday, or 
some other before it, as it happens to be that year. 
But of old, after other vacant days had their proper 
services, this day continued for some while to make 
use of borrowing; so Bernoi and Micrologus™ say 
it was in their times ; and what service can we think 
could be more useful for that purpose than this of 
the eighteenth Sunday, especially if we consider 
it with all the accessaries it had then ? 

In the ancient rituals of St. Jerome's Lectiona- 
rius ", St. Gregory's Antiphonarius ", and in the Liber 
Sacramentorum'' , &c. we find the service of Ember- 
week placed immediately before that of this Sun- 
day, and the chief reason may be this aforesaid, 
their affinity of matter. Rupertus Tuitiensisi is 
very copious in shewing how much the office of 
this day (in that largeness it then had) concerned 
them that bad the cure of souls: and Berno 
Augiensis' is as large in shewing how well it might 
serve in that regard for a supplement to the vacant 
Sunday. All which considered, and withal that 
the usual order of the Epistles, fiom the fifth to the 
twenty-fifth, was changed only in this ; and that 
according to the course of Easter, the ordination 
falls on this Sunday, or some other before it, we 
may very probably conclude that the choice of this 

' Cap. V. p. 715. «> Cap. xxvi. p. 750. 

" Pam. Lit. torn. ii. p. 48. » Tom. ii. pp. 157, 168. 

P Tom. ii. p. 343. i De divinis officiis, lib. xii. cap. xviii. p, 1085. 

' De quibusdam rebus ad Missam spectant, cap. v. p. 705. 

o ■■ 6 

C ^ o 


Epistle (and Gospel also) was with design to exer- 
cise our meditations somewhat on the ordination this 
day celebrated, or not long before it. And hereby 
a good ground was given to the preacher in his ser- 
mon, (for that was usually upon the readings of the 
day,) to declare in a fit season the duty of pastors 
and their flocks according as he saw occasion. 

The Epistle, 1 Cor. i. 4, is a thanksgiving " in 
behalf of the Corinthians for the grace of God 
which was given them by Jesus Christ : " it appears 
by what the Apostle saitli of them in divers places, 
that they had been taught by many learned in- 
structors, and that many of them had much profited, 
and abounded in many spiritual gifts ; and such 
gifts are here mentioned as are specially requisite 
for them that are ordained to be spiritual guides, as 
the "being enriched in all utterance, and in all 
knowledge, and being behind in no good gift." 
And the Gospel, St. Matt. xxii. 34, is of our Saviours 
answering a question of a doctor of the law, of His 
silencing both Pharisees and Sadducees by His doc- 
trine and questions : whereby he shews how those 
whom He sends on Divine messages should be qua- 
lified, how able to speak a word in due season, to 
give a reason of their faith, and to convince gain- 
sayers. This is the Gospel in the ancient Lection- 
ary • above mentioned ; and though some Churches 
use other, yet we may observe that they are all 

• Tom. ii. p. 50. 

c o 

o o 


very appliable to this occasion. And the old 
anthems or versicles for the dayS (which are to 
be found most of them in some Latin services,) 
are herein most express; desiring of God "that 
His prophets may be found faithful ;" and speak- 
ing of " being glad of going into the house of 
God, bringing presents, coming into His courts, 
6cc., of telling out among the heathen that the 
Lord is King ; of Moses hallowing an altar, and 
offering sacrifices, ascending into the mount, pray- 
ing for the people, of God's shewing Himself to 
him," &c. 

It is true, that other ordination Sundays relate 
principally (as is most meet) to the chief medita- 
tions of those special seasons wherein they fall, but 
yet therein we may find matter very pertinent to 
this occasion. How fit the service of Trinity Sun- 
day is in this regard hath already been declared, 
p. 167, nor could any season have been more aptly 
chosen for this occasion. In that of Lent the 
Epistle tells us what holiness of life is required in 
all, and therefore certainly in them whom God 
hath called to such a holy profession ; and that 
saying of Christ, (in the Gospel for the same day,) 
" that He was sent to the lost sheep," &c., may 
mind thera of their duty who are sent by Him to be 
pastors of His flock. The like advertisements they 
may gather from both Epistle, 1 Cor. iv. 1, and 

' S. Greg. Antiphonarius, torn. ii. p._157. 

c o 

o ^o 


Gospel, St. Matt. xi. 2, of the Sunday of ordination 
in time of Advent, as may be obvious to view. 
And no less proper is that Epistle, which the Lec- 
tionary" and some Churches appoint for the same 
day ; " Let a man," saith the Apostle here, " thus 
wise esteem us, even as the ministers of Christ, and 
stewards of the secrets of God. Furthermore, it is 
required of stewards that a man be found faithful." 
Which Epistle with us, and some other Churches, 
is applied to the Sunday next before this, changing 
place with another Epistle, not unlit for this occa- 
sion, and more fit to come next to Christmas ; for 
by those words in it, " the Lord is even at hand," 
it may excite us to such a preparation for the feast 
of Christ's coming in the flesh, as may prepare us 
for that other coming in glory which we look for. 

Thus have we taken a view of these Epistles and 
Gospels, and upon occasion also of those which are 
used after ordinations, and somewhat also of the 
time when holy orders were given. Our Church 
herein keeps to the day that is most proper ; and 
that is to the Sunday which next follows the Ember 
fast. A day on which Christ bestowed His Spirit 
upon His Apostles, gave them their commission, 
and many wonderful gifts for the good of the 
Church. For this and other reasons doth Leo 
shew how congruous the Lord's day is for such 
a work. Besides this may be added, that a business 

■ Tom. ii. p. 58. 

o o 

o^ o 



of such consequence being done upon such a day, 
is attended with more solemnity and presence of 
the congregation. See the discourse of Ember 
weeks, p. 118, and Leo Epist. Ixxxi. adDioscorum, 
cap. i. p. 435. 

The Collects" remain to be now spoken of; 
and they in the same manner with the Epistles and 
Gospels have a general congruity with the affection 
of the season. For as faith, hope, and charity, the 
graces and gifts of the Holy Ghost, are the general 
subject, more or less, of these Epistles, and the 
same taught, exemplified, and con finned in the 

' The Collects in the old Books for the following Sundays were 
as follows : For the second Sunday, " Lord, make us to have a 
perpetual fear and love of Thy holy name, for Thou never failest 
to help and govern them whom Thou dost bring up in Thy stead- 
fast love. Grant this." &c. 

The third stood as follows : " Lord, we beseech Thee mercifully 
to hear us, and unto whom Thou hast given an hearty desire to 
pray ; grant that by Thy mighty aid we may be defended ; through 
Jesus Christ our Lord." 

The eighth began, " God, whose providence is never deceived ; 
we humbly beseech Thee," Sec. 

The ninth had, instead of " that we who cannot do," &c. " that 
we which cannot be without Thee, may by Thee be able to live." 

The eleventh had this expression, " Give unto us abundantly 
Thy grace, that we running to Thy promises may be made par- 

The twelfth ended thus ; " and giving unto us that that our 
prayer dare not presume to ask ; through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

The fifteenth was without, "from all things hurtful." 

The sixteenth had " congregation" for " church." 

The eighteenth began thus : " Lord, we beseech Thee, grant 
Thy people grace to avoid the infections of the devil." 

The nineteenth had this expression, " Grant that the working 
of Thy mercy," whereas we now read, "mercifully grant that 
Thy Holy Spirit." 

In the twentieth, for "cheerfully," there was "with free hearts." 

In the twenty-fourth, for " absolve," there was " assist." 

o o 



Gospels ; so are these Collects certain general invo- 
cations upon God for the assistance of His Holy 
Spirit, and bringing forth the fruits of it, and con- 
sist usually of a most humble acknowledgment, and 
a petition suitable, as is above declared, pp. 66, 67. 
And as we have taken there a brief view of the 
pious sense and spirit of these acknowledgments, 
so will it not be amiss to do the same here concern- 
ing the petitions ; which in each Collect are some 
or other of these following, or such like : " That 
God would be pleased to prevent and follow us 
always with His grace, and with His mercy, in all 
things direct and rule our hearts, to stir up our 
wills, pour into our hearts (grafif in them) the love 
of His holy name, make us to have a perpetual 
fear and love of it, to ask such things as shall please 
Him, to have the spirit to think and do always such 
things as be rightful, (to please Him both in will 
and deed,) that He would increase, nourish, keep 
us in true religion and all goodness ; give unto us 
the increase of faith, hope, and charity, that we may 
live according to His will, with pure and free hearts 
follow Him ; accomplish those things He would 
have done, may be cleansed, assoyled, delivered 
from all our offences, have pardon, peace, protec- 
tion and defence ; may plentifully bring forth the 
fruits of good works, and by Him be plenteously 
rewarded, and obtain His promises, which exceed 
all we can desire." Such requests as tliese, (be- 

o o 

o _ o 


sides some other, '* that God would hear the pray- 
ers of the people," of which see pp. 64, and 79,) are 
by the priest presented to God, fit for the Church's 
meditations at this time after Pentecost, and not 
unfitly following the Lessons, the Decalogue, and 
the following supplications of the people, as the 
proper place of Collects ; being all of them (though 
in several branches and expressions) in effect thus 
much ; that by the merciful grace, inspiration, 
defence, and protection of God Almighty, we may 
be cleansed from our sins, may obey His command- 
ments, may live as Christians ought, not after the 
flesh but after the Spirit, and so be fitter to meet 
our blessed Lord at His second Advent to judge 
the world. 

And this meditation of the second Advent of 
Christ is thought so seasonable in the last place, 
that some Churches, instead of those readings which 
we have for the last Sunday of this time, make use 
of some other which concern the day of judgment: 
but our Church, as she hath good reason for her 
method, as we have seen, pp. 172, 173, so is she 
not at all defective in her thoughts of Christ's 
second coming : in time of Advent, and often after- 
wards, she takes occasion to remember it, but most 
especially at this season. The last Gospel (except 
that which implies a prophecy of Christ's Advent) 
sets before us His raising up of one from the dead, 
a great ground of our faith and hope of a resurrec- 

o — 6 

o o 


tion. The Epistle that goes with it, and all the 
rest in a manner aim most evidently at this, the 
" quickening us to a life spiritual by the hopes of 
an eternal." The last Collect, with some other, is 
for the enjoyment of it according to God's pro- 
mises. So that we see the Church in her medi- 
tations for the conclusion of the year, takes in that 
for her subject which is the close of our Creed, 
end of our faith, and crown of our devotions ; " the 
resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting." 

This Saint's day is the first that is kept solemn, 
because he first came to Christ, and followed Him 
before any of the other Apostles, (St. John i. 40.) 
He brought his brother Simon to Christ, ver. 42. 
He it was that said, "We have found the Messiah," 
and therefore his day is rightly set at the beginning 
of Advent for ever, to bring news de adventu Domini, 
of the Advent or coming of our Lord. 

®onbergion of 5t. i^aul. 

Whereas other Saints' martyrdoms, or at least 
the days of their death, are celebrated by holy 

o -^ o 

o o 


Cliuich ; St. Paul's Conversion is made tlie holy 
day y ; for these reasons : 

I. For the example of it; that no sinner, how 
great soever, might hereafter despair of pardon, 
seeing Saul, a giievous persecutor, made St. Paul : 
" For this cause I obtained mercy, that in rae 
first Jesus Christ might shew forth all long-suffer- 
ing, for a pattern to them which should hereafter 

II. For the joy Avhich the Church had at his 

III. For the miracle wrought at his convei-sion. 

^ttrtficatiott of <St. i^larg, or 
JFeast of ©anl)lcmag^ 

Some Churches keep four holy days in memory 
of the blessed Virgin, namely, the Annunciation, 
the Assumption, the Nativity, and Purification. 
Our Church keeps only the Purification and An- 

T Conversion of St. Paul. The old Collect. " God, which hast 
taught all the world through the preaching of Thy blessed Apostle 
St. Paul, grant, we beseech Thee, that we, which have this won- 
derful conversion in remembrance, may follow and fulfil Thy 
holy doctrine that he taught; tluough Jesus Christ our Lord." 

» 1 Tim. i. 16. 

• Purification of St. Mary. The Epistle was the same as that 
used on the Sunday before, whereas it is now Malachi iii. 1 to 6. 
The Gospel was St. Luke ii. 22 to 27, but now it goes on to the 
end of ver. 40. 

c o 

o : o 


nunciation, which are common to her and our 
blessed Lord. 

The Purification is a double feast, partly in 
memory of the Virgin's purification, (this being the 
fortieth day after the birth,) which she observed 
according to the Law, Lev. xii. 4, though she needed 
it not ; but chiefly in memory of our Lord's pre- 
sentation in the temple, which the Gospel com- 

Our Saviour thus presented in the temple, offered 
Himself a live oblation for us, that so the whole 
obedience of His life might be ours. 

This day had one solemnity of old peculiar to it ; 
namely, procession ; the order and manner of which 
I shall set down briefly out of St. Bernard •>. 

"We go in procession, two by two, carrying 
candles in our hands, which are lighted, not at a 
common fire, but a fire first blessed in the Church 
by a Bishop. They that go out first return last ; 
and in the way we sing. Great is the glory of the 

" We go two by two, in commendation of charity 
and a social life ; for so our Saviour sent out His 

" We carry lights in our hands : first, to signify 
that our light should shine before men ; secondly, 
this we do this day especially in memory of the 
wise virgins (of whom this blessed Virgin is the cliief) 

^ In diem Serm. ii. torn. i. p. 961. 

o o 


o o 


that went to meet their Lord with their lamps light 
and burning. And from this usage and the many 
lights set up in the church this day, it is called 
Candelaria, or Candlemas. 

" Because our works should be all done in the 
holy fire of charity ; therefore the candles are light 
with holy fire. 

" They that go out first return last, to teach hu- 
mility ; in humility preferring one before another*. 

" Because God loves a cheerful giver, therefore 
we sing in the way. 

" The procession itself is to teach us, that we 
should not stand idle in the way of life, but proceed 
from virtue to virtue, not looking back to that 
which is behind, but reaching forward to that which 
is before. " 

For the antiquity of this day, see Cyril Alex. ^ 
Gregory Nyss. in diem'. And for the feast of the 
Annunciation, Athanas. Serm. de Deipare', 

Whebeas, in the primitive Church, the Apo- 
stles had not several days of solemnity, it was ap- 

•^ Phil. ii. 3. ^ Tom. v. pt. ii. p. 379. « Tom. ii. p. 876. 

' Serm. in Annunc. S. D. DeiparjE, tom. iii. p. 393. 

8 St. Philip and St. James. The Collect formerly ran, after 
the words, "the way, the truth, and the life," " as Thou hast 
taixght St. Philip and other Apostles ; through Jesus Christ our 



o o 


pointed that one day should be allowed for them 
all ; namely, in the Latin Church, the Calends, or 
fii-st of May; in the Greek, the feast of St. Peter 
and St. Paul. Afterwards, when the other Apostles 
had peculiar days appointed, this first of May was 
left to St. Philip and Jacob, because it was thought 
that they suffered upon that day. Thus Durandus"" 
and some other deliver it ; but upon further in- 
quiry, it seems to be a mistake; for if (as hath 
been proved in the discourse upon St. Stephen's 
day) Martyrs and other Saints had their several 
days observed in the first times, it is not probable 
that the Apostles, those founders of Churches, 
"those princes over all lands," (as they are called 
Psalm xlv. 16,) should be huddled up all into one 
day, and have a less respect given them by the 
Church than other Saints and Martyrs had. I 
conceive therefore that they had several days 
allowed them as well as other Saints; and this 
mistake of Durandus was occasioned by this, that 
in some old Martyrologists, this feast of St. Philip 
and Jacob was called the feast of St. Philip and 
Jacob and all the Apostles, and in some, the feast 
of St Philip and Jacob and all Saints. The reason 
of which was not because the Apostles had no other 
feasts appointed them, but only this, because the feast 
of St. Philip and Jacob is upon the Calends of May, 
and so falls within the Paschal solemnity betwixt 

•• Rational. 1. vii. cap. x. p. 438. 

6 o 

C _ o 


Easter and ^Vhitsuutide ; all which time the Church 
of old was wont to commemorate, not one Saint alone, 
but all together ; and therefore, not St. Philip and 
Jacob alone, but all the Apostles and Saints together 
with them. The reason of which was, says Gemma 
de antiquo ritu Missarum ', because, in our heavenly 
country which that time signifies, the joy of all is 
the joy of every one ; and the joy of every Saint the 
common joy of all : or because, as Micrologus says'', 
" At the general resurrection (of which Easter so- 
lemnity is a type) there is a common festivity and 
joy of the righteous." 

The St. Philip this day commemorated was St. 
Philip the Apostle, whom the Gospel, St. John xiv. 1, 
mentions, not Philip the deacon. Yet the Church 
gives us a Lesson, Acts viii., concerning him ; and 
it was a thing not unusual in ancient martyrologies 
to commemorate divers of the same name on the 
same day. 

The St. James that is commemorated this day is 
not one of the sons of Zebedee, whose day is kept 
in July, but St. James who was called the brother 
of our Lord, the first bishop of Jerusalem, who 
wrote the Epistle called the Epistle of St. James, 
part of which is this day read, ch. v. 1. 

This day hath no fast, because it falls betwixt 
Easter and Whitsuntide. See feast of Circumcision. 

' De Eccl. Offic. (Gemma) 1. Hi. cap. cxl. p. 129. 
' De Eccl. Offic. c. Iv. p. 763. 

o— o 

c — ■ — ' o 


5t. S^^n iUapttst. 

We celebrate the birth of St. John Baptist, and 
of our Saviour, for these reasons : 

The births of both were full of joy and mystery. 
Our Saviour's we have already observed. Now for 
St. John's, it is plain there was more than ordinary 
joy at his birth, St. Luke i. 14, and full of mystery 
and wonder it was. As a virgin conceived our 
Lord, so a barren woman brought forth St. John, 
St. Luke i. 36. Again, his Inrth was prophetical of 
our Lord, whom he saluted out of his mother's 
womb. Lastly, his birth was made memorable by 
the prediction of the angel Gabriel, St. Luke i. 19. 

There was formerly another holy day for the be- 
heading of St. John Baptist ; but our Church keeps 
only this holy day in memory of him, wherein, 
though she principally commemorates his myste- 
rious nativity, as you may see in the Gospel', yet 
she does not omit his life and death ; his life and 
office in the morning Lessons'" are recorded ; his 
death is related in the Second Lesson ° evening, and 
the Collect prays for grace to imitate his example, 
patiently suffering for the truth's sake. 

• St. Luke i. 57. «' Mai. iii. ; St. Matt. iii. 

° St. Matt. xiv. 1—13. 

6 6 

o — o 


St. micffMi 

Holy Church holds a feast in memory of the 
holy angels : first, because they minister to us on 
earth, " being sent forth to minister to them that 
shall be heirs of salvation ° ;" secondly, because they 
fight against the devil for us, by their prayers and 
recommendation of us and our condition at the 
throne of grace ; as appears by the Epistle and the 
Gospel at the end of it. 

The Church in this feast particularly commemo- 
rates St. Michael, because he was prince, or tutelar 
angel of the Church of the Jews, Dan. x. 13; 
xii. 1 ; and so of the Christian Church ; for the 
Church which was once in the Jews is now in the 

^H Saints* 

Because we cannot particularly commemorate 
every one of those Saints in whom God's graces 
have been eminent, for that would be too heavy a 
burden ; and because in these particular feasts, 
which we do celebrate, we may justly be thought to 
have omitted some of our duty, through infirmity 

» Heb. i. H. 

c— — ■ o 

o o 


or negligence ; tberefore holy Church appoints this 
day in commemoration of the Saints in general. 

Other holy day's not here spoken of, are either 
mentioned in other places, or need no other expli- 
cation than what already hath heen said in general 
of holy days, and their readings. 

^Jc ®ommunion, or 5fconl) <^ert)icc. 

In the Liturgy it is called the Communion, and 
well it were that the piety of the people were such 
as to make it always a Communion. The Church, 
as appears by her pathetical exhortation before the 
Communion, and the Rubric after it, labours to 
bring men oftener to communicate than she usually 
obtains. Private and solitary Communions of the 
Priest alone she allows not ; and therefore when 
other cannot be had, she appoints only so much of 
the service, as relates not of necessity to a present 
Communion, and that to be said at the holy table ; 
and upon good reason, the Church thereby keeping, 
as it were, her ground, visibly minding us of what 
she desires and labours towards, our more frequent 
access to that holy table, and in the meanwhile that 

c— — o 

O- D 


part of the service which she uses may perhaps 
more fitly be called the Second Service than the 
Communion. And so it is often called, though 
not in the Rubric of the Liturgy, yet in divers 
fast books and the like, set out by authority. If 
any should think that it cannot properly be called 
the second service, because the Morning Service 
and Litany go before it, which we prove in the 
following discourse to be two distinct sen'ices, 
whereby this should seem to be the third rather 
than the second service, it is answered, that some- 
times the Communion Service is used upon such 
days as the Litany is not ; and then it may, with- 
out question, be called the second service: nay, 
even then, when the Litany and all is used, the 
Communion Service may be very fitly called the 
second service : for though in strictness of speech 
the Litany is a service distinct, as is shewn, yet in 
our usual acceptation of the word sei"vice, namely, 
for a complete service, with all the several parts 
of it, Psalms, Readings, Creeds, Thanksgivings, 
and Prayers, so the Litany is not a service, nor so 
esteemed, but called the Litany, or supplications, 
and looked upon sometimes, when other ofiices 
follow, as a kind of preparative (though a dis- 
tinct form) to them, as to the Commimion, Com- 
mination, &c. And therefore it was a custom in 
some Churches, that a bell was tolled, while the 
Litany was saying, to give notice to the people that 

o u 

O : 


the Communion Service was now coming on. This 
service consists of four parts; the first reaches to 
the offertory, called anciently ynissa catechumeno- 
runi, " the service of the catechumens ;" the second 
is the offertory, which reaches to the consecration. 
The third begins at the consecration, and ends at 
the angelical hymn, Glory be to God on high. 
The last is the post-Communion, or thanksgiving, 
which with us is nothing but that holy hymn. 

Part I. We begin the first part as the Church 
was wont to begin her services, with the Loiid's 
Pkayeb, concerning which see the Morning Service. 

After this follows an excellent prayer to God to 


Then follow the Commandments with a Kyrie, 
or LoED HAVE MERCY UPON cs, after every one of 
them ; which, though I cannot say it was ancient, 
yet surely cannot be denied to be very useful and 
pious. And if there be any that think this might be 
spared, as being fitter for poor publicans than saints ; 
let them turn to the parable of the publican and 
pharisee going up to the temple to pray, St. Luke 
xyiii. 9, and there they shall receive an answer. 

Then follows the Collect for the day, with 
another for the King, which the priest is to say 
standing, <s.c. Of this posture enough hath been 
said in the Morning Service. Though there hath 
been a prayer for the King in the Morning Service, 
and another in the Litany; yet the Church here 

o o 

C Q 


appoints cue again, that sbe may strictly observe 
St. Paul's rule, 1 Tim. ii., who directs that in all 
our public prayers for all men, an especial prayer 
should be made for the King. Now the Morning 
Service, Litany, and this Communion Service, are 
three distinct services, and therefore have each of 
them such an especial prayer. 

That they are three distinct services will appear, 
for they are to be performed at distinct places and 
times. The Morning Service is to be said at the 
beginning of the day, as appears in the third Collect 
for grace. Upai'ia, says St. Chrysostom, which is 
translated, St. Matt, xxvii. 1, in the morning, and 
St. John xviii. 28, early ; in St. Mark xiii. 35, it is 
translated, the dawning of the day. The place for 
it is the accustomed place in the chancel or church, 
says the Rubric before Morning prayer, or where 
the ordinary shall appoint it. 

The Litany is also a distinct service, for it is no 
part of the Morning Service, as you may see, Rubric " 
after Athanasius' Creed. Here ends the Morning 
and Evening Service. Then follows the Litany. 
Nor is it any part of the Communion Service, for 
that begins with " Our Father," and the Collect, 
" Almighty God," &c., and it is to be said after the 
Litany. The time and place for this is not ap- 
pointed in the Rubric, but it is supposed to be known 

1" That Rubric is now placed at the end of the Morning and 
Evening prayer, and omitted after St. Athanasius' Creed. 

o ^ o 

c ■ o 

OF THli: COMM0XION. 195 

by practice. For in the Commination, Psalm li. is 
appointed to he said, wliere tliey are accustomed to 
say tbe Litany, and that was in the church, before 
the chancel door. " It being a penitential office, 
is there appointed, in imitation of God's command 
to the priests in their penitential service'', 'Let 
the pi-iests weep between the porch and the Altar'.' " 
The time of this is a little before the time of the 
Commination Service'. 

The Communion Service is to be some good dis- 
tance after the Moniing Service ; before the Com- 
munion Service, " so many as intend to be par- 
takers of the holy Communion, shall signify their 
names to the Curate over night, or before Morning 
Prayer, or immediately after'," which does neces- 
sarily require a good space of time to do it in. The 
usual hour for the solemnity of this service was 
anciently, and so should be, nine of the clock, morn- 
ing"; this is the canonical hour^, thence probably 
called the holy houry. In case of necessity, it 
might be said earlier or later, Durant. de ritibus^ ; 
but this was the usual and canonical hour for it. 

< Bishop Andrewes on the Liturgy, p. 56. 
' Joelii. 17. 

• Eliz. Injunc. xviii. Spar. Art. p. 72. 
' Rubric I. The present Rubric is somewhat different; for 

after the word " Curate," it merely says " at least some time the 
day before." 
" Cone. Aurel. III. can. xiv. torn. v. p. 299. 

• Decret. Pars III. de Consec. Distinct. I. cap. xlix. p. 1992. C. 
y Decret. Pars I. Distinct. XLIV. cap. xiii. p. 221. D. 
' Lib. II. cap. viii. p. 122. 

o o 

c — o 


One reason which is given for it is, because at this 
hour began our Saviour's Passion, St. Mark xv. 25, 
the Jews then crying out, " Crucify," &c. At this 
hour, therefore, is the Communion Service (part of 
which is a commemoration of Christ's Passion) per- 
formed. Another reason given is, because this hour 
the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles, Acts 
ii. 15. Lastly, because it is the most convenient 
hour for all to meet, and despatch this with other 
offices before noon. For, till the service was 
ended, men were persuaded to be fasting; and 
therefore it was thought fit to end all the service 
before noon, that people might be free to eat*. 
Why this service is called the second, see pp. 
191, 192. 

The place for this service is the Altar, or Com- 
munion Table''. And so it was always in primitive 
times, which is a thing so plain as needs no proof 

After this, the priest reads the Epistle and Gospel 
for the day. Concerning the antiquity of which, 
and the reason of their choice, hath been said 
already ; nothing here remains to be shewn but the 
antiquity and piety of those rites which were used 
both by us and the ancient Church, about the read- 
ing of the Gospel. As, 

I. When the Gospel is named, the clergy and 
the people present say or sing, Glory be to Thee 

« Durantus de ritibus Eccles., 1. ii. cap. vii. p. 122. 
'' Rubric before the Communion. 

0- o 

Q ^ O 


O Lord. So it is in St. Chrysostom's Liturgj", 
" Glorifying God that hath sent to them also the 
word of salvation." As it is in the Acts of the 
Apostles, xi. 18, " When they heard these things 
they glorified God, saying. Then hath God also to 
the Gentiles granted repentance unto life." 

II. While the Gospel is reading, all that are 
present stand d: and Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical 
History, tells us it was a new fashion in Alexandria, 
that the Bishop did not rise up when the Gospel 
was read ; " which," says he, " I never observed 
nor heard amongst any others whatsoever*." The 
reason was this: anciently, whensoever the holy 
Lessons were read, the people stood', to express 
their reverence to the holy word, Neliem. viii. 5. 
But because this was counted too great a burden^ 
it was thought fit to shew our reverence, especially 
at the reading of the Gospel, which historically 
declares somewhat which our Saviour spake, did, 
or suffered in His own Person : by this gesture 
shewing a reverend regard to the Son of God, above 
other messengers, although speaking as from God. 
And against Arians, Jews, Infidels, who derogate 
from the honour of our Lohd, such ceremonies are 
most profitable, as judicious Mr. Hooker notes?. 

■: Goar, Euchol. p. 69. 

'' Gratian, Decret., Pars HI. De Consec. Distinct. I. cap. Ixv. 
p. 1997. D. 
' Sozomen, Hist. Eccles. 1. vii. cap. xix. p. 735. A. 
f S. Austin, Horn. CCC. in Append, torn. v. p. 504. B. 
g B. V. ch. XXX. § 3. vol. ii. p. 179. 

c o 

o o 


III. After the Gospel is ended, the use was to 
praise God, saying. Thanks be to God for this 
Gospel. So was it of old ordained '', that the lauds 
or praises should be said, not after the Epistle, hut 
immediately after the Gospel, for the glory of Christ, 
which is preached in the Gospel. 

In soma places the fashion was then to kiss the 
book. And surely this book, by reason of the rich 
contents of it, deserves a better regard than too 
often it finds. It should in this respect be used so, 
as others may see we prefer it before all other 

Next is the Nicene Creed ; so called because it 
was for the most part framed at the great Council 
of Nice. But because the great Council of Con- 
stantinople added the latter part, and brought it 
to the frame which we now use, therefore it is 
called also the Constantinopolitan Creed. This 
Creed began to be used in Churches at the Com- 
munion Service, immediately after the Gospel, in 
tlie year of our Lord cccxxxtx. 

Afterwards it was established in the Churches of 
Spain and France, after the custom of the Eastern 
Church', and continued down to our times. 

The reason why this Creed follows immediately 
after the Epistle and Gospel, is the same that was 
given for the Apostles' Creed following next after 

>" Oonc. Toletan. IV. can. xii. torn. v. p. 1709. 
■ Cone. Toletan. III. can. ii. torn. v. p. 1009. 

G O 

c o 


the Lessons at Morning and Evening prayer. To 
which the Canon of Toledo last cited, hath added 
another reason of the saying it here before the people 
draw near to the holy Communion, namely, "that the 
breasts of those that approach to those dreadful mys- 
teries may be purified with a true and right faith''." 

A third reason is given by Dionysius'. It will 
not be amiss to set down some passages of his at 
large, because they will both give us a third reason 
of using the Creed in this place, and discover to us, 
as I conceive, much of the ancient beautiful order 
of the Communion Service. 

The Bishop or Priest, standing at the Altar, 
begins the melody of psalms, all the degrees of 
ecclesiastics singing with him. This psalmody is 
used, as in almost all priestly oiBces, so in this, to 
prepare and dispose our souls by holy affections, to 
the celebration of the holy mysteries following ; 
and by the consent and singing together of divine 
psalms, to work in us a unanimous consent and 
concord one towards another. Then is read, by 
some of the ministers, first a lesson out of the Old 
Testament, then one out of the New, in their order, 
(for the reasons before mentioned in the discourse 
of lessons at ISIorning Service.) After this the 
catechumens, the possessed, and the penitents are 
dismissed, and they only allowed to stay who are 

k Tom. V. p. 1010. 
I ' De Eccles. Hier. cap. lii. §. ii, iii. torn. i. p. 242. 

o 6 

c o 


deemed worthy to receive the holy Sacrament ; 
which being done, some of the under ministers keep 
the door of the Church, that no infidel or unworthy 
person may intrude into these sacred mysteries. 
Then the ministers and devout people (reverently 
beholding the holy signs, not yet consecrated, but 
blessed and offered up to God on aby-standing table, 
called the table of proposition, rpdire^a TcpoBea-ews) 
praise and bless the Father of Lights (from whom, as 
all good gifts, so this great blessing of the Commu- 
nion does come) with the Catholic hymn of praise, 
which some call the Creed, others more divinely 
the pontifical thanksgiving, as containing in it all 
the spiritual gifts which flow from heaven upon us, 
the whole mystery of our salvation. When this 
hymn of praise is finished, the deacons with the 
Priest set the holy bread and cup of blessing upon 
the Altar ; after which, the Priest or Bishop says 
the most sacred, that is, the Lord's Prayer, gives 
the blessing to the people ; then they (in token of 
perfect charity, a most necessary virtue at this time 
of offering at the Altar, St. Matt. v. 23.) .salute 
each other. After which, the names of holy men 
that have lived and died in the faith of Christ are 
read out of the diptychs, and their memories cele- 
brated, to persuade others to a diligent imitation of 
their virtues, and a steadfast expectation of their 
heavenly rewards. This commemoration of the 
Saints, presently upon the setting of the holy signs 


o o 


upon the Altar, is not without some mysteiy; to 
shew the inseparable sacred union of the Saints 
with Christ, who is represented by those sacred 
signs. These things being rightly performed, the 
Bishop or Priest that is to consecrate washes his 
hands, a most decent ceremony, signifying, that 
those that are to do these holy offices should have a 
special care of purity, " I will wash mine hands in 
iunocency, O Lord, and so will I compass Thine 
Altar""." After he hath magnified these divine 
gifts, and God that gave them, then he consecrates 
the holy mysteries: and having uncovered them, 
reverently shews them to the people, inviting them 
to the receiving of them. Himself and the priests 
and deacons receive first, then the people receive 
in both kinds; and having all received, they end 
the service with a thanksgiving, which was Psalm 

After the Epistle and Gospel, and the confession 
of that faith which is taught in holy writ, follows 
THE SEHMOX", wliich usually was an exposition of 
some part of the Epistle or Gospel, or proper 
Lesson for the day, as we may see in St. Augustine 
in his Sermons de Tempore, according to the pat- 
tern in Nehem. viii. 8. "They read in the book, in 
the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and 
caused the people to understand the reading." And 

■" Psalm xxvi. 6. 

° S. Ambros. Ep. XX. torn. ii. p. 852. Leo. Serm. ii. de Resur. 
Dom. p. 1098. 

. o 

D d 

o c 


the preacher was in his exposition appointed to 
observe the Catholic interpretation of the old doc- 
tors of the Church ; as we may see in Can. xix. of 
the sixth Council of Constantinople, held in Trullo". 
The Canon is this : " Let the governors of Churches 
every Sunday at the least, teach their clergy and 
people the oracles of piety and true religion ; col- 
lecting out of Divine Scripture, the sentences and 
doctrines of truth, not transgressing the ancient 
bounds and traditions of the holy Fathers. And if 
any doubt or controversy arise about Scripture, let 
them follow that interpretation which the lights of 
the Church and the doctors have left in their 
writings. By which they shall more deserve com- 
mendation, than by making private interpretations, 
which if they adhere to, they are in danger to fall 
from the truth." 

"To this agrees the Canon made in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, anno Dom. 1571^. The Preachers 
chiefly shall take heed that they teach nothing in 
their preaching, which they would have the people 
religiously to observe and believe, but that which 
is agreeable to the doctrine of the Old Testament 
and the New, and that which the catholic Fathers 
and ancient Bishops have gathered out of that doc- 
trine." These golden Canons, had they been duly 
observed, would have been a gi'eat preservative of 
tnith and the Church's peace. 

" Tom. vi. p. 1152. r Sparrows Articles, &c. p. 238. 

o ( 

O ' o 


The sermon was not above an hour long. Cyril, 
Catech. xiii. cap. viii. p. 186. 

Before the sermon, no prayer is appointed but 
the Lord's Prayer, the petitions being first consign- 
ed upon the people by the preacher or minister, 
who is appointed to bid the prayers, as it is in 
Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth's Injunctions''; 
that is, to tell the people beforehand what they 
are at that time especially to pray for in the Lord's 
Prayer'; which is called moving the people to join 
with the preacher in praying the Lord's Prayer. Of 
old, nothing was said before the sermon but gemina 
salutalio, "the double salutation"." The Bishop 
or Priest never begins to speak to the people ; but 
first in the name of God he salutes the people, and 
the salutation is doubled, that is, the preacher says, 
" The Lord be with you," and the people answer, 
" And with thy spirit." Much after this manner 
was the Jews' practice, " Ezra the scribe stood 
upon a pulpit of wood, ^c. and opened the book 
in the sight of all the people ; and when he opened 
it all the people stood up, and Ezra blessed the 
Lord, the great God, and all the people answered, 
Amen, Amen, and worshipped. Then Ezra read 
in the book, and gave the sense, and caused them to 
understand the reading'." So we see, that both 

1 Sparrow's Articles, p. 83. • Canon LV. A. D. 1603. p. 19. 
• Clement. Constit. 1. viii. c. v. Pat. Ap. torn. i. p. 395. Opta- 
tus de Schis. Donat. 1. vii. p. 99. 
' Nehem. viii. 4 — 8. 

o 6 

o o 


amongst Jews and Christians of old, the preacher 
before his sermon used only a short salutation, or 
blessing, to which the people having answered, the 
sermon began. And though the Church of Eng- 
land uses not the very same form, yet in this she 
follows the ancient practice, prescribing only the 
short prayer of our Lord ; and indeed what need 
any more ? For whatsoever we can desire, is abun- 
dantly prayed for before in the Liturgy, and needs 
not be prayed over again immediately. And there- 
fore there being no need of such a solemn prayer, 
the Church hath appointed none, but only the 
Lord's Prayer; and no other being appointed, no 
other should be used by the preacher. For, as 
hath been shewn, "No prayers should be used 
publicly but those that are prescribed, lest through 
ignorance or carelessness any thing contrary to the 
faith should be uttered before God." p. 1. How 
necessary such restraint of private men's prayers in 
public is, and how good that reason is for such a 
restraint, a little experience of licentious times will 
abundantly shew. The pulpit is no security from 
errors. Men may as well speak blasphemy or 
vanity before the sermon as in it. Is it not reason 
then that the Church should take care what she 
can to prevent this danger, by restraining that 
liberty which is so likely to run men into it ? Sup- 
pose some preachers should be so careful as not to 
vent any thing unsavory, yet the Church cannot be 

c ■ o 

o • o 


secured of all, and therefore must not allow a 
general liberty. Nay, suppose the Church could 
be assured of all preachers' care in this particular, 
that their prayers should be for matter sound and 
good; yet how should it be reasonable for the 
Church to allow any private person or preacher to 
offer up to God a prayer in the name of the con- 
gregation, as their joint desire, to which they never 
before consented themselves, nor their governors 
for them. A preacher may pray for his auditory 
by himself, though they Icuow it not, nor consented 
to it beforehand ; but it is not imaginable how he 
should offer it up in their name, or call it their 
prayer to God, as sometimes the use hath been, 
which neither they themselves, nor their governors, 
whom Christ hath empowered to make prayer for 
them, have consented to or acknowledged for theirs ; 
no more than any man can call that the petition of 
a town, which he shall present in their names, 
though they never before consented to it, or so 
much as saw it before it was presented. 

This form of bidding prayers is very ancient ; 
we may see the like in St. Chrysostom, and other 
Liturgies, which they called irpoarpaviiffus, allocu- 
tions, in which the deacon speaks to the people 
from point to point, directing them what to pray 
for, (as hath been said before.) This is all the 
difference betwixt them an i this ; that in them the 
people were to answer to every point severally, 

o o 

o . o 


" Lord have mercy," <Scc. In this, they are taught 
to sum up all the petitions in the Lord's Prayer, 
and to pray for them all together. 

This was the practice in King Edward the Sixth's 
time, as appears by Bishop Latimer, Jewel, and 
others in those days, whose forms of bidding prayers 
before sermon, are to be seen in their writings. 

If there be no sermon, there shall follow 
ONE Of the Homilies set forth. So was it of 
old appointed, if the parish priest be sick, or can- 
not preach, let the Homilies of the holy fathers be 
read by the deacon ". 

Part II. The offertory^ follows, which ai'e 
certain sentences out of Holy Scripture, which were 
sung or said while the people offered y. 

Offerings or oblations are a high part of God's 
service and worship, taught by the light of nature 
and right reason ; which bids us to " honour God 
with our substance," as well as with our bodies and 
souls ; to give a part of our goods to God as a 
homage or acknowledgment of His dominion over 
us, and that all that we have comes from God ; 
" Who am I, and what is my people, that we should 
be able to offer so willingly after this sort ; for all 

" Cone. Vas. II. can. ii. torn. iv. p. 1680. 

» Offertory. The Rubric here was different to the present. 
" Then shall the Churchwardens, or some others by them ap- 
pointed, gather the devotions of the people, and put the same 
into the poor man's box ; and, upon the offering days appointed, 
every man and woman shall pay to the Curate the due and 
accustomed offerings." 

y Durant. de rit. Eccles. 1. ii. cap. xxvi. p. 1"". 

o o 

o — o 


things come of Thee, and of Thine own have we 
given Thee^?" To "bring presents to Him that 
ought to be feared*." This duty of offerings was 
practised by the fathers before the Law, with a 
gracious acceptation. Witness Abel, Gen. iv. 4. 
Commanded in the Law : " Speak to the children 
of Israel that they bring Me an offering'^." So 
Deut. xvi. 16, confirmed by our Saviour in the 
Gospel: "Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the 
x\ltar, and there remeniberest that thy brother hath 
aught against thee, leave there thy gift before the 
Altar, and go thy way ; first be reconciled to thy 
brother, and then come and offer thy gift"." If 
any man conceive that this offering here mentioned 
was a Jewish perishing rite, not a duty of the Gospel 
to continue, let him consider, 

I. That there is the same reason for this duty 
under the Gospel, as there was under or before the 
Law, God being Lord of us and ours as well as of 
them ; and therefore to be acknowledged for such 
by us, as well as by them. 

II. That all the rest of our Saviour's sermon 
upon the mount was Gospel, and concerning duties 
obliging us Christians ; and it is not likely that our 
Saviour should intermix one only Judaical rite 
amongst them. 

III. That our Saviour, before all these precepts 

' 1 Chron. xxix. 14. ' Psalm Ixxvi. 11. 

^ Exod. XXV. 2. = St. Matt. v. 23, 24. 


) Q 


mentioned in this His sernion, whereof this of 
oblations is one, prefaces this severe sanction ; 
" Whosoever shall break one of the least of these 
commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be 
called the least in the kingdom of heaven'' ;" which 
could not be truly said concerning the breach of a 
Jewish outward rite. 

IV. That our Saviour hath carefully taught us 
there the due manner of the performance of this 
duty of oblations, like as He did concerning alms 
and prayers, and no man can shew that ever He 
did anywhere else ; nor is it probable that He 
should here carefully direct us how to do that 
which was presently to be left, and was already out 
of force, as this was, supposing it to be a Jewish 
rite. We may then, I conceive, suppose it for a 
truth, that oblations are here commanded by our 

Add to this, that offerings were highly com- 
mended by the gospel, in the wise men that 
offered " gold, frankincense, and myrrh "=,"' and that 
they were practised by the fathers in the Christian 
Church, So says Epiphanius' and Irenseus^. " By 
a gift to the king, his honour and our affection is 
shewn ; therefore our Lord, willing us to offer with 
all simplicity and innocency, preached, saying. 

* St. Matt. V. 19. • St. Matt. ii. 11. 

' Hieres. LXXX. cap. v. torn. i. p. 1072. 

8 Contra Haereses, 1. iv. cap. xviii. torn. i. p. 250. 

6 6 

o c 


'l^Tien thou bringest thy gift to the Altar,' &c. 
We must therefore offer of our goods to God, ac- 
cording as Moses commanded, ' Thou shalt not 
appear before the Lord empty.' There are offer- 
ings under the Gospel, as well as under the Law : 
the kind of offerings is the same : here is all the 
difference, they were offered then by servants, now 
by sons'"." " The axe is laid to the root of the tree, 
if I bring not my gift to the Altar ; nor can I plead 
poverty, since the poor widow hath cast in two 
mites '." We should do well to think of this. 

Though oblations be acceptable at any time, yet 
at sometimes they have been thought more neces- 
sary, as, 

I. When theChurch isin want, Exod. xxxv. 4, &c. 

II. When we have received some signal and 
eminent blessing from God, Psalm Ixxvi. When 
David had recounted the great mercy of God in 
breaking the bow and the shield of the Church's 
enemies; at ver. ll,he presses this duty, "bring 
presents to Him that ought to be feared." 

III. At our high and solemn festivals, " three 
times in the year shall they appear before Me, and 
they shall not appear empty ''," especially when we 
receive the holy Communion. Theodoret' tells 
us, " that it was the ancient custom, before the 
receiving of the holy Sacrament, to come up into 

I" Iren. con. Hser. 

' S. Hierom. Epist. V. ad Heliodorum, torn. iv. pt. ii. p. 10. 

^ Deut. xvi. 16. ' Hist. lib. v. c. xviii. p. 222. D, 

o 6 

o ^ o 


tlie choir and offer at the holy table." And surely 
it becomes not us to be empty-handed when God 
comes to us full-handed, as in that Sacrament He 

Next to the offertory is that excellent prayer"" 
for the CHURCH militant, wherein we pray for 
the Catholic and Apostolic Church ; for all 
Christian kings, princes, and go^t^rnors, for 

THE whole clergy AND PEOPLE; FOR ALL IN AD- 
VERSITY. Such a prayer hath St. Chrysostom in his 
Liturgy n, a little before the consecration. 

After which follow some wholesome Exhorta- 
tions" to those that are coming to the holy Com- 

"■ The concluding clause in the present prayer for the Church 
militant, "And we also bless Thy holy name," was not inserted 
till after Bishop Sparrow published his last edition of this 

" Goar, p. 78. 

"> In the old books there followed this exhortation, which is 
similar to the second in the present book. I have only inserted 
here the passages which were left out at the last revision. 

The Ruljvicis, — "Tlien shall follow this exhortation at certain 
times, when the Curate shall see the people negligent to come to 
tlie holy Communion. 

" We be come together at this time (dearly beloved brethren) 
to feed at the Lord's Supper," &c. &c. "And whereas you offend 
God so sore in refusing this holy banquet, I admonish, exhort, 
and beseech you, that unto this unkindness you will not add any 
more ; which thing ye shall do, if ye stand by as gazers and look- 
ers on them that do communicate, and be not partakers of the 
same yourselves. For wliat thing can this be accounted else than 
a further contempt and unkindness unto God ? Trulj- it is a great 
unthankfulness to say nay when ye be called ; but the fault is 
much greater when men stand by and will neither eat nor drink 
this holy Communion with other. I pray you, what can tliis be 
else, but even to have the mysteries of Christ in derision ? It is 
said unto all, ' Take ye, and eat, take and drink ye all of this ; 
do this in remembrance of Me.' With what face then, or with 
what countenance sliall ye hear these words ? What will this be 
else but a neglecting, a despairing, and mocking of the Testament 


; Q 


munion, seriously exhorting the unprepared to for- 
bear. So was the custom of old in the Greek 
Church. The priest admonishes all that are com- 
ing to that holy Sacrament, driving away the un- 
worthy, but inviting the prepared, and that with a 
loud voice, and hands lifted up, standing aloft, 
where he may be seen and heard of all''. 

Those that after these exhortations stay to re- 
ceive, the Church supposing prepared, invites to 
draw near; and after their humble confession, the 
priest or Bishop absolves and comforts them with 
some choice sentences taken out of Holy Scripture. 
After which the priest says, Lift up youk hearts. 
For certainly at that hour wheu we are to receive 
the most dreadful Sacrament, it is necessary to lift 
up our hearts to God, and not to have them grovel- 
ling upon the earth; for this pui-pose the priest 
exhorts all to leave all cares of this life and do- 
mestic thoughts, and to have our hearts and minds 

of Christ ? Wherefore, rather than ye should so do, depart you 
hence, and give place to them that be godly disposed. But when 
you depart, I beseech you ponder with yourselves from whom ye 
depart; ye depart from the Lords table, ye depart from your 
brethren, and from the banquet of most heavenly food," &c. &c. 

Then follows in the old books what is similar to the first ex- 
hortation in the present book. 

And sometimes shall this be said also at the discretion of the 

" Dearly beloved, forasmuch as our duty is to render to 
Almighty God, our heavenly Father, most hearty thanks, for that 
He hath given His Son, our Saviour Jesus Christ, not only to die 
for us, but also to be our spiritual food and sustenance, as it is 
declared unto us, as well by God's word, as by the holy Sacra- 
ment of His blessed Body and Blood," &c. &c. 

P Chrys. in Heb. vi. Hom. IX. torn. xii. p. 100. 

c o 



in heaven upon the Lover of mankind. The people 
then answer, We lift them if into the Lord, 
assenting to the priest's admonition. And it be- 
hoves us all to say it seriously ; for as we ought 
always to have our minds in heaven, so especially 
at that hour we should more earnestly endeavour it. 

The priest then goes on, Let us give thanks 
TO ouB Lord God, and many thanks we ought to 
render Him that calls and invites such unworthy 
sinners as we be to so high grace and favour, as to eat 
the flesh and drink the blood of the Son of God. 

The people answer, It is meet and bight so 
TO do; for when we give thanks to God, we do 
a work that is just, and of right due to so much 

"Then follow for great days some proper pre- 
faces, containing the peculiar matter or subject of 
our thanks that day, which are to be said seven 
days after," (Rubric,) except Whitsunday preface, 
which is to be said but six days after, because 
Trinity Sunday is the seventh day after, which hath 
a peculiar preface. By this it appears that the 
Church intends to prorogue and continue these high 
feasts several days, even eight days together, if 
another great feast comes not witliin the time, 
which requires a peculiar service. But when we 
say that the Church would have these high feasts 
continued so long, it is not so to be understood, as 
if she required an equal obser\-ance of those several 

o o 

o o 


days, for some of those days she commands by her 
canons and rubrics, some she seems only to com- 
mend to lis to be observed ; some are of a higher fes- 
tivity, some of less. The first and the last, namely, 
the octave of the first, are usually the chief days for 
solemn assemblies ; yet every of those days should 
be spent in more than ordinary meditation of the 
blessings of the time, and thanksgiving for them ; 
according to that which the Lord commanded to 
the Jews concerning the feast of tabernacles. Lev. 
xxiii. 36. Upon every one of the days of that feast 
an offering was to be made, but the first and last 
were the solemn convocations. 

The reason of the Church's proroguing and length- 
ening out these high feasts for several days, is plain. 
The subject-matter of these feasts, as namely, 
Christ's Birth, Resurrection, Ascension, the sending 
of the Holy Ghost, is of so high a nature, so nearly 
concerning our salvation, that one day is too little 
to meditate of them, and praise God for them as we 
ought. A bodily deliverance may justly require a 
day of thanksgiving and joy ; but the deliverance 
of the soul, by the blessings commemorated on 
those times, deserves a much longer feast. It were 
injurious to good Christian souls to have their joy 
and thankfulness for such mercies confined to a day ; 
therefore holy Church, upon the times when these 
unspeakable blessings were wrought for us, by her 
most seasonable commands and counsels, here 

o o 

O — o 


invites us to fill our hearts with joy and thank- 
fulness, and let them overflow eight days together. 

See above, of the continuation of great solemn- 
ities, pp. 101, 139, 143, and of the service of octaves, 
p. 142. 

But two queries here may he fit to be satisfied. 

I. Why eight days are allowed to those high 
feasts, rather than another number ? 

For which the reasons given are divers ; one is 
from the example which Almighty God sets us, com- 
manding His people, the Jews, to keep their great 
feasts some of them seven days, and one, namely, 
the feast of tabernacles, eight days, Lev. xxiii. If 
the Jews were to keep their feasts so long by a 
daily burnt-offering, (which were but as types of the 
Christians' great feasts,) the Christians ought by no 
means to come short of them, but offer up to God 
as long, daily, hearty thanksgivings, presenting our- 
selves, souls and bodies, a reasonable, holy, and 
lively sacrifice unto Him. Other reasons for an 
octave to great feasts are given, which are mystical. 
The octave, or eighth day, signifies eternity ; for 
our whole life is but the repetition or revolution of 
seven days ; then comes the eighth day of eternity, 
to which, by God's mercy, we shall be brought, if 
we continue the seven days of our life in the due 
and constant service and worship of God : or else, 
which is much the same in sense, the eighth day is 
a returning to the first, it is the first day of the 

o o 

o- o 


week begun again, signifying, that if we constantly 
serve God the seven days of our life, we shall re- 
turn to the first happy estate that we were created 

II. How the prefaces appointed for these eight 
days can be properly used upon each of them ; for 
example, how can we say eight days together, 
" Thou didst give Thine only Son to be born this 
day for us ?" as it is in the preface. 

To which the answer may be, that the Church 
does not use the word day for a natural day of 
twenty-four hours, or an ordinary artificial day, 
reckoning from sun to sun : but in the usual ac- 
ception of it in Holy Scripture, where by the word 
day is signified the whole time designed to one 
and the same purpose, though it lasts several 
natural days. Thus all the time that God appoints 
to the reclaiming of sinners by merciful chastise- 
ments or threateuings, is called " the day of their 
visitation," Luke xix. 42, 44. So all the time allotted 
us for the working out of our salvation, though 
it be our whole life long, is called a day, " Work 
while it is day, the night comes when no man can 
work ;" and most directly to our purpose speaks 
St. Paul, " Exhort one another daily, while it is 
called to-day i," or this day, that is, while you live 
in this world. In like manner, all that time which 
is appointed by the Church for the thankful com- 

1 Heb. iii. 13. I 

c o 

O Q 


memoration of the same grand blessing, for the 
solemnity of one and the same feast, is as properly 
called a day, and all that time it may be said daily, 
to-day, as well as all our life, St. Paul says is called 
hodie, this day. 

After which follows the thrice holy and triumph- 
ant song, as it was called of old, Thekefobe with 


SAYING, " Holy, holy, holy," &c. Here we do, 
as it were, invite the heavenly host to help bear a 
part in our thanks to make them full. " O praise 
the Lord with me, and let us magnify His name 
together." And in this hymn we hold communion 
with tlie Church triumphant. Which sweet hymn 
in all Communions is appointed to be said; and 
though it should be said night and day, yet could 
it never breed a loathing'. All that is iu our 
Sei-vice from these words. Lift up your heaki-s, to 
the end of the Communion Service, is witli very 
little difference to be seen in St. Chrysostom's 
Liturgys, and in St. Cyril's Catech. Lectures'. 

Part III. Next is the Consecration. So you 
shall find in Chrj'sostom and Cyril last cited. Which 
consecration consists chiefly in rehearsing the words 

' Cone. Vas. II. can. iii. torn. iv. p. 1680. 

• Goar, p. 75. 

■ XXIII. Myst. V. de Sacra Liturg. cap. iv. p. 326. 

6 01 

o ■ o 


of our Saviour's institution, This is My body, and 
THIS IS My blood, when the bread and wine is pre- 
sent upon the Communion table". "The holy 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper," says St. Chrysos- 
tom ^, " which the priest now makes, is the same 
that Christ gave to His Apostles. This is nothing 
less than that. For this is not sanctified by men, 
but by Him that sanctified that ; for as the words 
which God our Saviour spake are the same which 
the priest now uses, so is the Sacrament the same." 
Again", " Christ is present at the Sacrament now, 
that first instituted it. He consecrates this also : 
it is not man that makes the body and blood of Christ 
by consecrating the holy elements, but Christ that 
was crucified for us. The words are pronounced 
by the mouth of the priest, but the elements are 
consecrated by the power and grace of God. 'This 
IS,' saith He, 'My body:' by this word the bread 
and wine are consecrated." 

" Before these words ' This is My body',' the 
bread and wine are common food fit only to nourish 
the body ; but since our Lord hath said, ' Do this 


THIS IS My body, this is My blood :' as often as 
by these words and in this faith they are conse- 
crated, the holy bread and blessed cup are profit- 

» Canon XXI. p. 8. 

• Chrys. 2 Ep. Tim. cap. i. Horn. II. torn. xi. p. 671. E. 

' Chrya. Horn, de Proditione Judae. ed. Lat. torn. iii. p. 300, &c. 

o o 

F I 

o o 


able to the salvation of the whole tnany." The 
same says St. Ambroses St. Austin", and others. 

After the Consecration, the priest first receives 
himself So is it ordained by the twelfth Council of 
Toledo'', wherein it is decreed that, "The priest shall 
receive whensoever he offers up the Sacrifice. For 
since the Apostle hath said, 'Are not they which eat 
of the Sacrifice partakers of the Altar "^P' it is certain, 
that they who sacrifice and eat not, are gmlty of the 
Lord's Sacrament." 

After he hath received, he is to deliver it to the 
people in their hands. So was it in Cyril's time'' ; 
and, " Let every one be careful to keep it, for who- 
soever carelessly loses any part of it, had better lose 
a part of himself," says he : and, " whosoever wil- 
fully throws it away, shall be for ever excluded from 
the Communion^." 

It is to be given to the people kneeling ; for 
"a sin it is not to adore when we receive this 
Sacrament '." And the old custom was to receive 
it after the manner of adoration s. 

This Sacrament should be received fasting h. And 
so was the practice of the universal Church, says St. 

y Cyprian, de Coen. Dom., torn. ii. p. 39. 

' S. Ambros. de Sacrament., 1. iv. cap. iv. et v. torn. ii. p. 368. 

• S. Austin, Serm. LXXXIV. torn. v. p. 152. F. app. 

'■ Cone. Tolet. xii. can. v. torn. vi. p. 1230. B. <^ 1 Cor. x. 18. 

-i Cat. XXIII. Myst. v. cap. xxi. p. 331. 

« Cone. Tolet. xi. torn. vi. p. 552. 

f S. August, in Psalm, xcviii. torn. iv. p. 1065. 

K Cyril, Cat. XXIII. Myst. v. cap. xix. p. 351. 

h Cone. Carth. III. can. xxix. torn. ii. p. 1171. C. 


o o 


Augustine ', which is authority enough (in things of 
this nature, namely, circumstances of time, &c.) to 
satisfy any that do not love contention, 1 Cor. xi. 16. 
Yet it will not be amiss in a word to shew the reason- 
ableness of this catholic usage. And the first reason 
may be this ; because our minds are clearest, our 
devotion quickest, and so we fittest to perform 
this most high service, when we are in our virgin 
spittle, as Tertullian '' expresses it. A second is 
tliis ; it is for the honour of so high a Sacrament, 
that the precious body of Christ should first enter 
into the Christian's mouth before any other meat. 
" It is true that our Saviour gave it to His disciples 
after supper ; but dare any man quarrel with the 
universal Church of Christ, for receiving it fasting.'' 
This also pleased the Holy Ghost, that, for the 
honour of so great a Sacrament, the body of Christ 
should first enter into the Christian's mouth before 
all other meats ; neither, because our Saviour gave 
it to His disciples after supper, will it necessarily 
follow that we should receive it so, mingling the 
Sacrament with other meats ; a thing which the 
Apostle seems to reprehend, 1 Cor. xi. There was 
a special reason for our Saviour's doing so. His 
supper was to succeed immediately to the Pass- 
over ; and therefore, as soon as that was over He 
instituted His ; and that He might the more deeply 
imprint the excellency of this mystery into the minds 

' S. Aug. Epist. liv. torn. ii. p. 123. 
I" Tertull. Apol. xxxix. p. 54. 

o c 

O— — Q 


and hearts of His disciples, He would give it them 
the last thing He did, before He went from them 
to His Passion, kno\ving that dying men's words 
move much : but He no where appointed what hour 
and time it should afterward be received, but left 
that to be ordered by them that were after His de- 
parture to settle the Churches, namely, the Apo- 
stles; and accordingly we find St. Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 
rectifying some abuses, and prescribing some rules 
for the better ordering of some rites and ceremonies 
about the Sacrament, and promising when he should 
come to settle and order for the rest, ver. 34, from 
whom St. Augustine seems to think that the Catholic 
Church received this custom of receiving the Sacra- 
ment fasting'." 

" When the priest hath said at the delivery of 
the Sacrament, The body of our Lord Jesus Christ 
v.'hich was given for thee, preserve thy body and 
soul into everlasting life, the communicant is to 
answer, Amex"." By this Amen professing his 
faith of the presence of Christ's Body and Blood in 
that Sacrament. 

The people were of old called out of the body of 
the church into the chancel, even up to the rails of 
the holy table, there to receive it of the priest" ; 
so in the Clementine Constitutions" ; " Afterwards 

' Epist. LIV. cap. vi. torn. ii. p. 12G. 
'" Cyril. Catech. XXIIl. Myst. v. cap. xxi. p. 331. 
" Niceph. Eccl. Hist. Ixviii. cap. xlv. torn. ii. p. 869. 
° Lib. ii. cap. Ivii. torn. i. p. 2GS. 

0- J 

o o 


let the sacrifice be made, all the people standing 
and praying secretly ; and after the oblation, let 
every order apart receive the body and precious 
blood of the Lord, coming np in their order with 
fear and reverence as to the body of a king." 
Where yon see they were to come up to the Sacra- 
ment, and to, or near the rails of the holy table, 
says St. Chrysostom's Liturgy p. For after the priest 
and deacons have received, the deacon goes to 
the door of the rails, irphs ttjv Bvpai' rod ayiov fi-ftfiaros, 
and lifting up the holy cup shews it to the people, 
saying, " In the faith and fear of God, irpoa-eKdeTe, 
come hither," or as our Liturgy says, "draw near;" 
the people answer, " Amen, Amen, Amen, Blessed 
be he that comes in the name of the Lord," and so 
come and receive in both kinds. 

" Every parishioner shall communicate at the 
least three times in the year, whereof Easter to be 

In the primitive Church, while Christians con- 
tinued in their strength of faith and de\ otion, they 
did communicate every day. This custom con- 
tinued in Africa till St. Cyprian's time'. "We 
daily receive the Eucharist, for to be our food of 
salvation." And after him tiU St. Augustine's time'. 
Insomuch as these words in our Lord's Prayer? 
" Give us this day our daily bread," they interpreted 

f Goar. p. 84. 1 Last Rubric after the Communion. 

' Cyprian, de Oratione Dominica, p. 147. 

' Epist. XCVIII. ad Bonifac, vol. ii. p. 267. D. 

; Q 

o — o 


of the Eucharist, as being daily to be celebrated. 
But afterward, when charity grew cold and devotion 
faint, the custom grew faint withal ; and within a 
small time began to be left by little and little; and 
some upon one pretence, and some upon another, 
would conmiunicate but once a week. In the East 
Church they grew to a worse custom betimes, which 
in after ages came into the Latin Churches too. 
They fell from every day to Sundays and holydays 
(mly, and from thence to once a year and no oftener. 
St. Ambrose* is cited as a proof of this. But this 
wicked custom of receiving the Eucharist but once 
a year, was but of some Greeks in the East, says 
St. Ambrose there ; which cannot properly be un- 
derstood of any but the diocese, (as it was anciently 
called,) or patriarchate of Antioch. For though 
tlie Eastern empire, whereof Constantinople was 
the metropolis, contained many provinces, yet the 
Easteni Church, or Greeks in the East, were pro- 
perly those of Antioch". And possibly some of 
these might be so supine, as hath been observed, 
but of the Greeks in general no such careless cus- 
tom can be affirmed ; for St. Chrysostom tells us, 
that in his time, " in every meeting or congregation 
of the Church, the healthful mysteries of the Eu- 
charist are celebrated''." In regard of this neglect, 

* De Sacramentis, 1. iv. cap. iv. torn. ii. p. 368. 
» Theodoret. Hist. Eccles. 1. v. cap. xix. p. 211. 
» S. Chrysost. in S. Matt. cap. viii. Horn. XXV. torn. vii. 
p. 310. D. 

6 o 

o ^ o 


after Councils did, as the Churcli of England, make 
canons, that if men could be got to receive it no 
oftener, yet they should be forced to receive it at least 
three times in the year; Christmas, Easter, and 
Whitsuntide. " Nor was he to be reckoned among 
good Catholic Christians, thatdid not receive at those 
feasts," say the councils of Agde^ and Eliberis^, as 
they are cited by Gratian". Three times a year at 
the least they were to receive, whereof Easter to be 
one ; and good reason : for when Christ our Passover 
was sacrificed for us, then of all times let us keep a 
feast with this holy banquet, 1 Cor. v. 7. These ca- 
nons were made for the laity, but for those of the 
clergy that lived in cathedral and collegiate churches, 
(where there were enough of themselves to make a 
sufficient company to receive the Sacrament,) they 
were bound to receive much oftener, every day, every 
Sunday at theleast (Rubric 4.) after the Communion. 
Thus we see holy Church her care to bring all her 
children, clergy and laity, to the heavenly banquet 
of the body and blood of Christ ; she invites all to a 
frequent and due receiving of this holy Sacrament in 
most passionate and kind manner, in that most ex- 
cellent exhortation, next after " the prayer for the 
Catholic Church militant here on earth." An ex- 
hortation fit to be read weekly by the priest, and 

r Cone. Agathens. can. xviii. tom. iv. p. 1386. 
' Cone. Elib. ean. xlvii. tom. i. p. 975. C. 
• Decret. p. III. DeConseerat. Distinet. II. cap. xvii. .iviii. xix. 
p. 2009. 

O -Q 

o o 


seriously considered daily by all the people. In 
which holy Church one while exhorte us by the 
mercies and bowels of Christ, to come to this holy 
feast ; another while terrifies us by the indignation 
of God against those that despise His so great love, 
and refuse to come ; she sends her ministers, as the 
man in the Gospel, to tell them "all things are 
ready >>," and to bid them in the name of God, to 
call them in Christ's behalf, to exhort them as they 
love their own salvation, to come to this holy 
supper; and those that, notwithstanding all this 
bidding, shall go about to make excuses, because 
they had bought a farm, or would try their yoke of 
oxen, or because they were married, holy Church 
by her canons and laws endeavours to compel to 
come in at least three times in the year. J^nd it 
were to be wished that all those that despise the 
Church's passionate exhortations, and contemn her 
wholesome canons and commands in this particular, 
would seriously at last think of that dreadful sen- 
tence of our Lord upon those that stiU refuse so 
great mercy ; " I say unto you, that none of those 
men which were bidden shall taste of My suppers" 
None of those that are thus bidden by Christ and 
His Church to His holy Supper, the holy Commu- 
nion, and shall refuse to come, shall ever taste of 
His great supper hereafter, or eat and drink with 
Him at His table in His kingdom ''. 

» St. Luke xiv. 17. » Ibid. 24. <" Ibid. xxii. 29. 

O U 

o o 


" If any of the bread and wine remain, the 
curate shall have it to his own use*." That is, if it 
were not consecrated ; for if it be consecrated, it is 
all to be spent with fear and reverence by the com- 
municants in the church f. 

Part II. After all have received, we say the 
Lord's Prayer according to ancient custom 8, "The 
people are to repeat every petition after the priest''." 
If the Church did ever devise a thing fit and con- 
venient, what more than this ? That when together 
we have all received those heavenly mysteries, 
wherein Christ imparts Himself to us, and gives 
visible testification of our blessed communion with 
Him, we should in hatred of all heresies, factions, 
and schisms, declaredly approve ourselves united as 
brethren in one, by off"ering up with all our hearts 
and tongues that most effectual prayer, "Our 
Father," &c. In which we profess ourselves sons of 
the same Father, and in which we pray for God's 
pardon no otherwise than as we " forgive them that 
trespass," Ike. For which cause communicants 

* Rubric v. after the Communion Service. Here also there 
has been an alteration ; for these words have been added, " but 
if any remain of that which was consecrated, it shall not be 
carried out of the church, but the priest, and such other of the 
communicants as he shall then call unto him, shall, immediately 
after the blessing, reverently eat and drink the same." 

f Gratian. de Consecratione, Distinctio II. cap. xxiii. p. 2011. 
Constant. Tribus Concil. Interrog. Monachorum Respons. ad 
quaest. V. ap. Balsamon. in Canones, p. 230. Theophil. Alex. 
Canones, can. vii. Synod. Beveridg. torn. ii. pars I. p. 172. 

8 Ambros. de Sacramentis, 1. v. cap. iv. torn. ii. p. 376. F. 

i" Rubric. 


o o 


have ever used it, and we at that time do shew we 
use, yea, everj' syllable of it, as communicants, say- 
ing it together with one consent and voice. 

This done, the priest offers up the sacrifice of 
the holy Eucharist, or the sacrifice of praise and 
thanksgiving for the whole Church, as in all old 
Liturgies it is appointed, and together with that is 
off'ered up that most acceptable sacrifice of our- 
selves, souls and bodies, devoted to God's service. 
Of which see Rom. xii. and S. August, de Civit. 

Then we say or sing the angelical hymn, '*Gi.ory 
BE TO God on high," Sec, wherein the ecclesiastical 
hierarchy does admirably imitate the heavenly, 
singing this at the sacrament of His body which 
the Angels did at the birth of His body. And good 
reason there is to sing this for Christ's being made 
One with us in the Sacrament, as for His being- 
made One of us at His birth. And if ever we 
be fit to sing this Angels' song, it is then when we 
draw nearest to the estate of Angels, namely, at 
the receiving of the Sacrament. After the receiv- 
ing of the holy Sacrament, we sing a hymn in 
imitation of our Saviour; who after His supper 
sung a hymn to teach us to do the likek. And 
when can a psalm or hymn of thanksgiving be 
more seasonable and necessary, than after we have 

' Lib. X. c. vi. torn. vii. p. 242. 

"■ Chrys. Horn. LXXXII. in S. Matt. c. xxvi. 30. torn. vii. 
p. 784. B. 

c 6 

o__ o 


received this heavenly nourishment ? Is it possible 
to hear these words, " This is My boily, take and 
eat it ; drink ye all of this, this is My blood :" and 
not be filled, as with a kind of fearful admiration, 
so with a sea of joy and comfort for the heaven 
which they see in themselves ? Can any man re- 
ceive this cup of salvation, and not praise and bless 
God with his utmost strength of soul and body ? 
The ancients did express their joy at this time in 
the highest manner that they could. Some were 
so ravished with joy, that they immediately offered 
themselves to martyrdom, impatient of being longer 
absent from their so gracious Lord, unable to keep 
themselves from expressing their love to Christ, by 
dvHng for Him, the highest expression of love. All 
men then counted it a sin to sully the day of their 
receiving the Eucharist with any sorrow or fasting ; 
these days they called days of mirth, days of re- 
mission, days of immunity, solemn days, festival 

This angelical hymn " was made of old by eccle- 
siastical doctors, and who refuses it let him be 

The hymn being ended we depart with a bless- 
ing ; Goar, in Euch. p. 154, tells us, that of old, 
when the Communion service was ended, and the 
deacon had dismissed the people, they would not 
for all that depart till they had the blessing; by 

' Cone. Tolet. IV. can. xiii. torn. v. p. 1710. B. 

o o 

o o 


this stay, saying in effect the same to the priest 
that Jacob did to the Angel, " We will not let Thee 
go unless Thou blessest us." The priest therefore 
departing from them, as our Saviour from His 
disciples, with a blessing ; but first he comes down 
from the Altar, by this descending shewing his 
condescension to the people in affection as well as 
in body ; and standing behind the pulpit, {retro 
ambonem, whence the blessing was called eux^ 
oTTLa-edfjL^uyos'",) in the midst of the people, in this 
also imitating our Saviour, St. John xx. 19, who 
there gave the blessing or peace of God " standing 
in the midst," by the place shewing how equally He 
stood affected to all, how He would have His bless- 
ings spread upon all. 

Holy Church's aim being in all her services to 
make them reasonable, that according to St. Paul, 
1 Cor. xiv., we may all join with her in her offices, 
both with our spirit and understanding, she hath 
been careful not only to put them into a known 
tongue, but also to instruct us in the nature of 
them ; making thus her Prayer Book a sum of 
divinity. Therefore here in the beginning she 

" Goar, Euchol. p. 85. 

c o 

c o 


instructs out of Holy Scripture concerning the ne- 
cessity and efficacy of Baptism, as very briefly, so 
very pithily and fully. First, laj-ing down this for 
a I'ule, that we are all born in sin, as it is Rom. v. 
18, 19, all guilty in Adam's fall, (so the Catholic 
Church spread over the world always understood 
it",) and therefore by our first birth have no right 
to heaven, into which " no unclean thing shall enter"." 
Secondly, That therefore there is need of a second 
birth, to give us right to that, as it is St. John iii. 3, 
" Except a man be born again, he cannot enter 
into the kingdom of God." Thirdly, That this 
second or new birth is by water and the Holy 
Ghost (ver. 5.) ; " Except a man be born again of 
water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the 
kingdom of God." By water and the Holy Ghost 
is there meant holy Baptism. For first, this is the 
most literal interpretation of the words, (for what 
is Baptism but water and the Holy Ghost ?) and 
therefore the best ; for that is certainly the sense of 
the Holy Ghost, who, as we all believe, was the 
Author of the letter of the Scriptures, and there- 
fore of the literal sense, where that is not contrary 
to, but agreeable with, the other Scriptures. Now 
this literal sense given is agreeable to other texts ; 
as namely, to Acts viii. 38, and x. 47, where water 
is declared to be the element of Baptism. And 

" Cone. Milevit. II. can. ii. torn. ii. p. 1538. 
" Eph. V. 5. 

c o 



expressly again, " Christ loved the Church, and 
gave Himself for it, that He might sanctify and 
cleanse it with the washing of water p." And as 
this is the most literal, so is it the most catholic 
interpretation of the words, and therefore also the 
best, by St. Peter's rule, " Knowing this first, that 
no prophecy of Scripture is of private interpreta- 
tion ■)." That this is the most catholic interpreta- 
tion appears by St. Augustine % Tertullian*, and all 
the ancient interpretere upon the place, who ex- 
pound it all of Baptism. And indeed, if it were 
lawful to expound it otherwise, seeing no other 
Scripture contradicts this literal sense, I know not 
how it can be avoided, but that men may lose all 
their Creed by playing so with Scripture, leaving 
the letter for figures. Thus are we instructed in 
the nature, necessity, and efficacy of holy Baptism, 
that it is the only ordinary means of our regenera- 
tion or second birth, which gives us a right and 
title to heaven. 

Then is prescribed a prayer, usually called tlie 
benediction or consecration of the water, which is 
used only for reverence and decency, not for neces- 
sity, as if the water without this were not available 
to Baptism; for, as the prayer hath it, "Jobdan 



p Eph. V. 26. 1 2 St. Peter i. 20. 

' De peccatorum merit, et remiss, lib. i. cap. xxx. torn. x. p. 32. 

■ De Baptismo, p. 25d. 

C O 



there needs no consecration here, as in the other 
Sacrament there is, where the bread and wine must 
be blessed by us, saith St. Paul, before it be " the 
communion of the body and blood of Christ to us'." 
And that the Church does not think any consecration 
of water necessary, appears in her office of peivate 
Bafiism, where, haste admitting no delays, no such 
prayer or blessing is used. 

Then follows a prayer for God's merciful accept- 
ance of the infant that is brought, that as he is to 
receive the Sacrament, so he may receive all the 
benefits of it. And lest any should doubt whether 
Christ will accept an infant to Baptism, and the 
effects of it, holy Church propounds to us St. Mark 
X. 13, out of which she concludes Christ's lore and 
good-will to children in general ; " For He com- 
manded THEM TO BE BROrGHT TO HxM ; He RE- 
buked those that wocld have kept them from 
Him ; He embraced them in His arms, and 
BLESSED THEM :" which are all plain arguments 
that He will receive them when they are brought to 
Him ; yea, and that He will so far embrace them 
as to receive them to eternal life, if they be brought 
to Him, is plain by His own words in that Gospel ; 
" Suffer little children to come unto Me, for 
TO such," and therefore to themselves (for qund in 
uno similium valet, valebit in altera, what belongs 
to others because they are si^ch as children are, 

« 1 Cor. X. 16. 

c-^ o 

Q __ O 


must needs belong to the children) " belongeth 
THE KINGDOM OF GoD." Since then they be capable 
of the kingdom of heaven, and there is no ordinarj' 
way for them to the kingdom of heaven but by a 
new and second birth of water and the Holy Ghost, 
that is Baptism ; " Doubt ye not, but that He" 
— who expressed so much love to them as is men- 
tioned in the Gospel—" will favoubably beceive 


Him." Thus holy Church concludes out of Scrip- 
ture according to the practice and doctrine of the 
Catholic Church. 

Cyprian tells us that no infant is to be hindered 
from Baptism". This was the sentence of that 
Council, anno Dom. 256, and this was no new 
decree,but/f/es Ecclesim firmisshna,'-'' the most esta- 
blished faith of the Church," says St. Augustine ad 
Hieronymum. HcecsententiaoliminEcclesia Catho- 
lica summti authoritate fundata est^ ; " This defini- 
tion was long before St. Cyprian settled in the Catho- 
lic Church by the highest authority y." Let no man 
whisper to you any strange doctrines. This the 
Church always had, always held ; this she received 
from our forefathers, and this she holds constantly 
to the end. And, Quicunque parvulos recentes, ah 

" Epist. LXIV. p. 158. 

• S. Aug. Epist. CLXVI. cap. viii. torn. ii. p. 593. A. 

y S. Aug. de Verb. Apost. serm. CCXCIV. cap. i. torn. v. p. 1183. B 

6 o 

o o 


uteris matrum baptizandns negat, anathema sit, saith 
the second Council of Milevis^, being the one hun- 
dred and tenth in the African code. That council 
pronounced anathema to any that shall deny the 
Baptism of infants. And that council is confirmed 
by the fourth and sixth general councils. 

Next follows a thanksgiving for our Baptism, 
which we are put in mind of by this occasion, with 
an excellent prayer for ourselves and the infants 
before us, that we may walk worthy of baptism, 
and they be accepted to it graciously. 

Then shall the priest demand of the Godfathers, 
&c. these questions, " Dost thou fobsake," &c. 
This form of interrogating the Godfathers in the 
name of the child, is very ancient and reasonable. 

For the antiquity of it see St. Chrysostom". 
Adducit quispiam infantem adhuc ubera swjentem, 
ut bapfizetiir, et statim sacerdos exigit ab infirma 
(State, pacta, conventa, assensiones, et minoris cetate 
fidei jtissorem accipit svsceplnrem, et interrogat an 
renunciat Satame P " The sucking infant is brought 
to Baptism. The priest exacts of that infant cove- 
nants, contracts, and agreements : and accepting 
of the Godfather in the infant's stead, he asks 
whether he does forsake the devil," &c. " We re- 
nounced the world when we were baptized'' ;" and 
their form of abrenunciation was much like ours, as 

' Can. ii. torn. ii. i>. 1538. 

* In Psal. xvi. torn. i. p. 284, &c. ed. Lat. 

"^ Cyprian, Epist. XIII. p. 30. 


H h 

o — o 


you may see in Salvian, in his book de Guberna- 
tioue Dei ; St. Augustine in his Epistle to Boni- 
face ; and in the Catechetical Lectures of St. CyriP ; 
where you may see at large the ancient form and 
manner of abrenunciations. "First, you entered 
into the church porch, the place of the font or 
baptistery, and standing towards the west, you heard 
it commanded you, that with hands stretched out 
you should renounce the devil, as if he were there 
present. It behoves you to know that a type or 
sign of this you have in the Old Testament. When 
Pharaoh, the most bitter and cruel tyrant, oppressed 
the free people of the Jews, God sent Moses to 
deliver them from the grievous servitude of the 
Egyptians, the posts of the doors were anointed 
with the blood of the Lamb, that the destroying 
angel might pass by the houses which had that 
sign of blood; and the people were delivered 
beyond expectation. But after that the enemy 
saw them delivered, and the Red sea divided, 
he followed and pursued them, and was over- 
whelmed with the waves of the sea. Pass we from 
the figure to the truth: there was Moses sent 
by God into Egypt, here Christ is sent into the 
world; he to deliver the people oppressed by 
Pharaoh, Christ to deliver the devil's captives; 
there the blood of the Lamb turned away the 

= Salvian. 1. vi. de Gubernallone Dei, Bib. Pat. torn. v. pars 
III. p. 348. S. Austin. Epist. XCVIII. ad Bonifacium, torn. ii. 
p. 263. Cyril. Cat. XIX. Myst. i. cap. ii. p. 300. 

6 o 

o ,0 


destroyer ; here the blood of the immaculate Lamb, 
Christ Jesus, is the defence against the devil: that 
tpant followed our fathers to the Red sea, this 
impudent prince of wickedness, the devil, follows 
thee even to the waters of salvation ; he was drowned 
in the sea, this is stifled in the waters of life. Hear 
now what, with a beck of the hand, is said to the 
devil as present, ' I renounce thee, Satan :' it is 
worth the while to explain why you stand to the 
west when you say this. The sunset is the place 
of darkness, and the devil is the prince of darkness ; 
and therefore in token of this ye renounce the 
prince of darkness, looking towards the west, ' I 
renounce thee, Satan,' thou cruel tyrant, I fear thy 
force no more, for Christ hath dissolved the power 
of darkness; I renounce thee, subtle serpent, who 
under the show of friendship actest all thy villainy. 
Then he adds, 'and all thy works.' Those are 
sins of all sorts, which you must of necessity 
renounce. And this you must not be ignorant of, 
that whatsoever thou sayest in that dreadful hour 
is written down in God's book, and shall be ac- 
counted for. After this you say, 'and all his 
pomp,' all vain shows from which holy David prays 
to be delivered, 'Turn away mine eyes lest they 
behold vanity '';' 'and all thy worship,' all idola- 
try and superstition, all magic and soothsaying, all 
woi-ship of and prayers to the devil. Take heed 

'' Psalm cxix. 37. 

o ^ o 

o ; 

236 OF B.iPTISAI. 

therefore of all these things which thou hast re- 
nounced ; for if after the renunciation of the devil, 
you fall back again into his captivity, he will be a 
more cruel master than before; 'the last state of 
that man is worse than the beginning.' 

" When you have renounced the devil, then the 
paradise of God is opened to you, which was 
planted in the east ; and therefore as a type of this 
you are turned from the west to the east, the 
region of light." 

We have seen that it was ancient ; and that it is 
reasonable we shall perceive, if we consider, that in 
Baptism we are making or concluding a covenant, 
the new covenant of the Gospel ; in which cove- 
nant God's part is promises, precious promises, as 
St. Peter calls them, 2 St.Peteri. 4, for perform- 
ance of which He hath given His word; and there- 
fore good reason it is that we also should give our 
word, and promise for perfonnance of conditions 
on our parts, viz. to renounce the devil and the 
world, and swear fidelity to our Lord. In all 
other covenants and contracts it is thought reason- 
able, that the several parties should mutually en- 
gage for performance of conditions, and that at the 
making and concluding of the contract. 

And why should not that which is thought rea- 
sonable in all other contracts, be thought reason- 
able in this ? As thus to give our faith and w ord 
for performance of conditions is reasonable, so, if it 

C 6 

o n 


be done with grave solemnity and in public, it is 
so much the better, and more obliging ; for grave 
solemnities make a deep impression upon the 
apprehension ; (whence it is that a corporal oath 
vested with the religious solemnity of laying on the 
band upon, and kissing the holy Gospels, is more 
dreaded than a naked and sudden oath;) and pro- 
raises made in public bind more, because of the 
shame of falsifying where so many eyes look on ; 
which very shame of being noted to be false oft- 
times is a greater bridle to sin than the fear of 
punishmeut, as the world knows. 

And this use the ancient Fathers made of it, to 
shame gross offenders by remembering them of their 
solemn promise made in Baptism to renounce the 
devil, and give up themselves to God. " Childres, 


perform" this solemnity, have appointed them by 
the Church Susceptores, Godfathers, who shall in 
the name of the child do it tor them. As, by the 
wisest laws of the world, guardians may contract 
for their minors or pupils to their benefit; and 
what the guardians in such cases undertake, the 
minors or pupils are bound, when they are able, to 
perform. For the law looks upon them, not the 
guardians, as obliged. So did the Church always 
account, that these promises, which were made by 
the Godfathers in the name of the child, did bind 
the child as if in person himself had made it. Aud 

c o 

o o 

238 OF bXpi'ISM. 

when the ancients did upbraid any offenders with 
the breach of their promise made in Baptism, none 
of those that were baptized in their infancy were so 
desperate as to answer scornfully, it was not I but 
my Godfathers that promised ; and if any should so 
have answered, he would have been loudly laughed 
at for that his empty criticism. 

Though this promise of abrenunciation made ifa 
Baptism be ancient and reasonable, yet is it not 
absolutely necessary to Baptism ; but when danger 
requires haste it may be omitted, as the Church 
teaches in private Baptism ; yet if the child lives, 
it is to be brought to church, and this solemnity to 
be performed after Baptism '. 

Then follow certain short prayers, "O mebcifcl 
God," &c. which I conceive to be the same in sub- 
stance with the ancient exorcisms, which were certain 
prayers taken out of holy Scripture f, and composed 
by the Church*, for the dispossessing of the person 
to be baptized ; who, being born in sin, is under 
the devil's tyranny, from which the Church by her 
prayers endeavours to free him. And so available 
they were, that oftentimes those that were corpo- 
rally possessed were freed by them ; and thereupon 
Cyril'', Nazianzen', Gennadius^, and others, ear- 

' Rubric at Private Baptism. 

' Cyril. Catech. Procatech. ix. p. ?. 

f Cone. Carthag. IV. can. vii. torn. ii. p. 1200. 

i* Procatech. p. 7. B. 

' Oratio XL. in Sanct. Baptis. torn. i. p. 657. B. 

'' Cap. xxxi. p. 17. 

c o 

o o 


nestly persuade not to despise the Church's exor- 
cisms. That it was ancient to use these exorcisms 
before Baptism, Nazianzen, in Sanctum Baptismum, 
Cyprian, and Gennadius witness, who says, that it 
was observed uniformiter in universo mundo, " uni- 
formly throughout the world." 

Next follows the commemoration of Christ's in- 
stitution of Baptism ; and His commission to His 
disciples to baptize. Thus the priest reads his 
commission, and then acts accordingly ; and be- 
cause "no man is sufficient for these things'-,' 
therefore he prays for God's assistance and accept- 
ance of his ministration. 

Then the priest asks the child's name. As 
under the law at circumcision the name was given, 
so now at Baptism ; because then we renounce our 
former lord and tyrant, and give up our names to 
God as His servants. 

Then the minister Baptizes the child, dip- 
ping OK SPRINKLING IT, &c., either of which is 
sufficient™. For it is not in this spiritual washing, 
as it is in the bodily, where, if the bath be not large 
enough to receive the whole body, some part may be 
foul when the rest are cleansed. The soul is cleansed 
after another manner, totum credentibus conferunt 
divina compendia, a little water can cleanse the 
believer as well as a whole river". 

' 2 Cor. ii. 16. " Gennadius de Eccles. Dog. cap. Ixxxiv. p. 39. 
" Cyi)rian. Epist. LXIX. p. 186. 

o o 

o o 


The old fashion was to dip or sprinkle the person 
thrice, to signify the mystery of the Trtnity, and 
the Apostolical Canon" deposes him that does other- 
wise. The Church so appointed then because of 
some heretics that denied the Trinity ; upon the 
same ground afterwards it was appointed to do it 
but once, (signifying the unity of substance in the 
Trinity,) lest we should seem to agree with the 
heretics that did it thrice p. 

This Baptizing is to be at the font. What the 
font is every body knows, but not why it is so 
called. The rites of Baptism in the first times 
were performed in fountains and rivers, both be- 
cause their converts were many, and because those 
ages were unprovided of other baptisteries: we 
have no other remainder of this rite but the name. 
For hence it is that we call our baptisteries fonts ; 
which, when religion found peace, were built and 
consecrated for the more reverence and respect of 
the Sacrament. These were set at first some dis- 
tance from the church '•, after in the church porch, 
and that significantly, because Baptism is the 
entrance into the Church mystical, as the porch to 
the temple. At the last, they got into the church, 
but not into every, but the city church, where the 
Bishop resided, hence called the mother church, 
because it gave spiritual birth by baptism ; after- 

" Can. Apost. XLII. Coteler, torn. i. p. 499. 
r Cone. Toletan. IV. can. vi. torn. v. p. 1706. 
1 Cyril. Cat. xix. Myst. I. p. 306. 


o o 


ward they were brought into rural churches. Where- 
soever they stood, they were had in high veneration. 
St. Athanasius' complains sadly of impiety in his 
time ; such as never was heard of in war, that men 
should set fire to churches and fonts ; and after 
mentioning the fonts, says, " Good God ! Christ- 
killing Jews, and heathenish atheists, have without 
all reverence entered and defiled the fonts." 

After the priest hath baptized the child, he re- 
ceives it into the congregation, by this solemnity 
declaring that he is by Baptism made a member 
of the Church ; " We are all baptized into one 
body^" And when he thus receives it, he signs it 
with the sign of the cross, as of old it was wont', 
and on the forehead, the seat of blushing and 
shame, that he may not hereafter blush and be 
ashamed of the disgraced cross of Christ". By 
this badge is the child dedicated to His service, 
whose benefits bestowed upon him in Baptism, the 
name of the cross in Holy Scripture does represent. 
Whosoever desires to be fully satisfied concerning 
the use of the cross in Baptism, let him read Canon 
XXX. of our Church, anno 1603. 

After thanksgiving for God's gracious admitting 
the child to Baptism, and a most Divine prayer, 
that he may lead his life according to that begin- 
ning, this office ends with a grave and pious ex- 

' Kp. ad Episc.tom. i. p. 113. C. ■ 1 Cor. xii. 13. 

' S. Aug. in Ps. XXX. torn. iv. p. 165. F. 
° Cypr. Epist. LVIII. p. 125. 

6 ^ 6 

o • o 


liortation to the Godfathers, to remember their duty 
towards the infants ; the like to which you may 
read, S. Aug. de Temp.* 

Though holy Church prescribes the font for the 
place, and Sundays and holydays for the usual times 
of Baptism, that she may conform as much as con- 
veniently may be to the usages of primitive anti- 
quity, (which is her aim in all her services,) and for 
other reasons mentioned*; yet, in case of necessity, 
she permits and provides that a child may be bap- 
tized in any decent place at any time ; in such cases, 
requiring the performance only of essentials, not 
of solemnities of Baptism ; according to the practice 
of the Apostles, who baptized at any time as occa- 
sion required, and in fountains and rivers ; and 
according to the use of succeeding ages'*. " He 
that is baptized himself, may in a case of necessity 
baptize, if there be no church near." Nor can I see 
what can be reasonably objected against this tender 
and motherly love of the Church to her children, 
who chooses rather to omit solemnities than hazard 
souls ; which indulgence of hers cannot be inter- 

» Append. Serm. CCLXVII. torn. v. p. 439. 

» Rubric I. before Baptism. 

>• Cone. Matiscon. II. can. iii. torn. v. p. 981. E. Decretal, pars 
III. de Consec. Distinctio. iv. cap. xvi. xvii. p. 2072. A. B. Cone. 
Eliberit. can. xxxviii. torn. i. p. 974. E. 

o 6 

c — 9 


preted any irreverence or contempt of that venerable 
Sacrament, but a yielding to just necessity, (which 
defends what it constrains,) and to God's own rule, 
" I will have mercy and not sacrifice "." 

If it be objected that this may be an occasion of 
mischief, that the form of Baptism may be vitiated 
and corrupted in private by heretical ministers, and 
so the child robbed of the benefits of Baptism ; it 
is answered, that this is possible : but were it not 
great folly to prevent a possible danger by a certain ? 
to deny all infants in such cases Baptism, lest some 
few should be abused by the malice of the priest ? 
which possible, but scarce probable mischief, the 
Church hath taken all possible care to prevent. Fob 


CHURCH'', and there the priest is to demand by 


MATTER AND WORDS; and if he perceives plainly 
that it was well baptized for the substance, then 
shall he add the usual solemnities at Public Bap- 
tism, that so the child may want nothing, no not 
of the decent pomp ; but if he cannot by such ques- 
titming be assured that it was truly baptized for 
essentials, then shall he baptize it thus. If thou be 


ordered Cone. Carth. V. can. vi. torn. ii. p. 1216, C 

' St. Matt. xii. 7. ■■ Rubric I. in Private Baptism. 

• The address to the Sponsors formerly ended tlms ; after the 
words, " which the Lord Himself taught," " and in declaration 
of our faith let us write the articles contained in our Creed." 

o o 

o o 


Of ©onfirmatfonf. 

It is orderecU "that none should be confirmed 
till thej' come to the use of reason, and can say 
their Catechism," for these reasons : 

I. Because then they may vvith their own mouth 
ratify and confirm the promise made for them by 
their Godfathers. 

II. Because they then begin to be in danger of 
temptation, against which they receive strength in 

III. Because this is agreeable with the usage in 
times past ; by times past, we must not understand 
the first times, (for then Confirmation was ad- 
ministered presently after Baptism,) but later times; 
in which the first order hath been of a long time 
omitted for these reasons given, and this order, 
which our Church observes, generally received 
throughout Christendom. 

Lest any man should think it any detriment to 
,the child to stay till such years, holy Church 
assures us out of Holy Scripture, that childbex 
BAPTizED, till they come to years to be tempted, 
have no need of Coufinnation, having all things 
NECESSAEY FOR THEiE, that is, children's salva- 

' Rubric I. is now the preface in the Confirmation Service, and 
generally read by the Bishop's chaplain, 
g Rubric I. at Confirmation. 

o o 

o o 



says antiquity ; " You are coming to the holy font, 
ye shall be washed in Baptism, ye shall be reneAved 
by the saving laver of regeneration; ascending 
from that laver, ye shall be without all sin : if so, 
then safe ; for blessed is the man whose iniquities 
are forgiven''." Quemadmodum corpus Christi 
sepultum in terra fructum tiilit, universi orbis salu- 
tem, ita et nostrum sepultum in Baptismo, fructum 
tulit,justitiam,sanctiJicationem, adoptionem,injinita 
bona, feret autem et resurrectionis postea donum'. 
" Tlie body of Christ buried in the earth, brought 
forth fruit, namely, the salvation of the whole world ; 
so our body buried in Baptism hath brought forth 
fruit, righteousness, sanctification, adoption, infinite 
good things, and shall afterwards have the gift of 
the resuiTection." It were too long to cite parti- 
culars, take the Council of Milevis'' for all ; Idea 
parvuli qui nihil peccatorum in semetipsis committere 
potuerunt, in peccatorum remissionem veraciter bap- 
tizantur, ut in eis regeneratione mundetur, quod 
generatione contraxerunt. " Therefore infants, who 
could not sin actually, are truly baptized for the 
remission of sins, that that which they have con- 
tracted by their birth might be cleansed by their 
second birth." And the council pronounces ana- 

"> S. August Senn. CCXIII. in trad. Symb. II. cap. viii. torn, 
v.p. 942. B. ' S. Chrys. Horn. XI. in Epist. ad Rom. cap. 

vi. ver. 5. torn. Lx. p. 530. ^ Tom. ii. can. ii. p. 1538. D. 

6 O 

c^ — c 


tlieraa to them that deny it. But more than all 
this is the express words of Scripture, Gal. iii. 26, 
where St. Paul proves that they were the " children 
of God," for or because they were baptized ; " If 
they be children, then are they heirs" of God 
Rom. viii. 17: 1 St. Peter iii. 21, "Baptism saves us." 
Again, "As many of you as have been baptized 
into Christ, have put on Christ '," and that surely 
is enough for salvation. By all this, we see the 
effect of Baptism is salvation : now if children be 
capable of Baptism, as hath been proved, then sith 
they no way hinder or resist this grace, it necessarily 
follows that they are partakers of the blessed effects 
of Baptism, and so are undoubtedly saved. 

The children that are to be confibmed are to be 
BROUGHT to THE BisHOP by ouc that shall be their 
Godfather, who may witness their Confirmation. 
The Godfather may be the same that was at Baptism, 
but in most places the custom is to have another a*. 

And the Bishop shall Confirm them" : so was 
it of old" ; St. Chrysostom'' speaking of Philip, when 
he had baptized, says, " He did not give the Holy 
G host to the baptized, for he had no power, for this 
was the gift of the Apostles alone." Before him St. 
Cyprian says, " Those that were baptized by Philip 
the Deacon, were not baptized again, but that which 

" GaL iii. 27. >" Decret. pars III. Dist. iv. cap. 100. p. 3004. D. 

° Rubric before Confirmation. 

° S. Aug. de Trinit. 1. xv. cap. xxvi. torn. viii. p. 999. A. 

P Chrys. Horn. XVIII. in Act. Apost, cap. viii. torn. ix. p. 14B. 

o o 

O : 


was wanting was supplied by Peter and John, by 
whose prayers and imposition of hands the Holy 
Ghost was called upon, and poured npon them : 
which very thing is done amongst us now. They 
that are baptized are offered up to the Bishops of 
the Church, that by our prayer and imposition of 
hands they may receive the Holy Ghosf." Before 
him Urban, anno Dom. 222, tells us, that Bishops 
only did Confirm'. And St. Jerome, dial. adv. Luci- 
ferum", says it was, Tothis orbis consensus in hanc 
partem, " the general acknowledgment of the whole 
Christian world." 

The office begins on this wise, " Our help 


such short ejaculations in general hath been said in 
the Morning Prayer ; concerning these in particular, 
that they are fitted to the office, will appear to 
them that consider that Confirmation is appointed 
for the strengthening of us against all our ghostly 
enemies ; which, though they be many and great, 
yet is there no reason to despair of obtaining strength 
enough to resist them, for " our help stands in the 
name of the Lord, Who hath made heaven and 
earth : " Who is therefore able enough and willing 
also to help them that call upon His name, " Blessed 

1 Cyprian, Epist. LXXIII.p. 202. 

' Urban, lipist. cap. vii. Cone. tom. i.p. 621. 

• Tom. iv. p. 204. 

' The Office now begins with the Exhortation, "To the end," 
&:c. The Bishop's question, " Do you here," &c. was added at 
the last review. 

c o 

o o 


therefore be the name of the Lord henceforth and 
for ever." 

After these Versicles follows a prayer, that God 
would strengthen the baptized, with the Holy 
Ghost the Comforteb, who had in their Baptism 
received Him as a Sanctifier. These two ways, to 
omit others, we are taught in Holy Scripture, that 
the Holy Ghost may be received as a Sanctifier and 
Cleanser in holy Baptism, " He saved us by the 
washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost" ;" and after Baptism we may receive Him 
again as a Comforter and Strengthener. The Apo- 
stles, who received Him the first way in Baptism, 
are promised to receive Him the second ; St. John 
xvi. 7, Acts i. 8 ; which was performed. Acts ii. 4 ; 
"they were filled with the Holy Ghost." 

Then shall the Bishop lay his hands upon 
THEM severally; by this sign certifying them of 
God's goodness towards them, and consigning it 
upon them. This is the most ancient and Apo- 
stolical rite of Confirmation, Acts viii. 17, and by 
this name it is known, Heb. vi. 1,2;" The doctrine 
of baptisms, and laying on of hands." 

After a most excellent prayer for their continu- 
ance in God's love, and obedience to Him, the 
Bishop departs them with a blessing. Of such 
blessings hath been said already. 

This holy rite hath been too little understood by 

" Titus iii. 5. 

O — 

o o 


many, and therefore too liglitly esteemed and 
valued ; for the remedy whereof it may not be 
amiss to shew the benetit of it in these conclusions 

I. The Holy Ghost was given to persons bap- 
tized, by the Apostles' prayers and laying on of hands. 
Acts viii. 14 — 17 ; xix. 6. 

II. This gift of the Holy Ghost so given, was not 
only, nor principally, the gift of miracles, or speak- 
ing with tongues. For first, Confimiation is reck- 
oned by St. Paul amongst fundamentals, Heb. vi. 
1 , 2, which were necessary to all ages of the Church ; 
but the gift of miracles was not such, for that lasted 
but a while, as experience hath taught us. Again, 
Confirmation was administered to all baptized per- 
sons, Acts viii. 15 ; xix. 16 ; but all baptized persons 
were not to have the gift of miracles : " To one is 
given by the Spirit the word of wisdom, to another 
the working of miracles"." And again, "Are all 
workers of miracles^ ?" It is true, that in the 
Apostles' times, the inward grace of Confinnation 
was attended with miracles, but it will not thence 
follow that miracles were the principal intended 
gift in Confirmation, no more than that the visible 
opening of heaven is the proper effect of Baptism, 
because at our Saviour's Baptism the heavens were 
so opened, St. Matt. iii. 16, or that the proper effect 
of preaching is to work miracles, because that at the 

' 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9. ' Ver. 29. 

c ^ o 

K k 

o — — o 


Apostles' preaching miracles were wrought, Acts 
X. 44. In those first times, the Holy Ghost fell upon 
believers, and they spake with tongues. Signa erant 
tempori opportuna, " those signs were seasonable 
to those times." Does any man now expect that 
those that receive the Holy Ghost by our prayers 
and imposition of hands should speak with tongues ? 
and if they do not speak with tongues, is any man 
of so perverse a heart as to say that they have not 
received the Holy Ghost ""P " In the beginning 
of spiritual and marvellous dispensations, outward 
signs appeared to confirm the new preached faith ; 
but now that the faith is suflSciently confirmed, 
although such miracles be not wrought, yet we re- 
ceive those inward graces and virtues, which were 
signified and demonstrated by those signs'^." 

III. The proper and principal eff'ect of Confirma- 
tion was, and is, ghostly strength, and power 
TO RESIST TEMPTATIONS, as our Church teaches". 
That the baptized, when they come to years and 
the use of reason, may have, not their Baptism con- 
firmed, (which needs no Confinnation to perfect it,) 
but themselves and their souls, by some new virtue 
and power, or by an addition and increase of 
former graces, by which they may be enabled 
against those temptations that shall assault them, 

^ S. Austin, in Epist. Johan. tract. VI. torn. iii. pars II. 
' Chrys. in S. Matt. Horn. XIII. torn. vii. p. 1C7. 
^ Rubric I. before the Catecliism. Tliis Rubric is now re- 
moved. — See Wheatly on the place. 

o o 

o o 


whence it is called Confirmation : Regeneramur ad 
vitamper haptismum, in hoc confirrnamur ad pugnam. 
" By Baptism we are regenerated to life, in Con- 
firmation we are strengthened to fight against our 
enemies," saj's Malchiades about the year 31 1 <^. In 
Confirmation, the Holy Ghost is given for strength, 
as He was given to the Apostles at Pentecost, that 
Christians may boldly confess the name of Christ'. 
For our fuller persuasion of this, it will be neces- 
sary to consider that our Lord Christ promised to 
His Apostles, after they had been baptized, that, 
" \^^len He went away. He would send them the 
Holy Ghost to be their Comforter or Strengthener^," 
to make them able to bear witness of Christ, not- 
withstanding all the threats and terrors of men. 
St. John XV. 27 ; xvi. 1 — 3. And He promises 
them, that, "not many days hence they should 
receive the Holy Ghost ''," or the power of the 
Holy Ghost, whereby they (that forsook Him for- 
merly and fled) should be henceforth emboldened 
and encouraged to bear witness to Him all the 
world over, Acts i. 8. This promise was performed 
at Pentecost ; " They were filled with the Holy 
Ghost, and began to speak'," and to bear witness of 
Christ with courage''. This very promise made to 
the Apostles formerly, and performed at Pentecost, 

• Melchiad. Epist. cap. ii. ad Episc. Hispan. Concil. tom. i. p. 
1398. B. f Concil. Florent. Gener. tom. xiii. p. 536. Tertull. 
De Bapt. p. 255. Cyprian, ad Donatuin, p. 4. b St. Jolin xvi. 7. 

I" Acts i. 5. • Ibid. ii. 4. i- Verse 36. 

o 6 

o o 


belongs to every one of us tliat are baptized ; " Re- 
pent and be baptized every one of you in the name 
of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye 
shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost'." "For 
this promise" of the Holy Ghost fulfilled on us, "is 
unto you and to your children, and to all that are 
afar off'"." And what St. Peter here promises them 
was fulfilled l)y him and the other Apostles ; for by 
their prayer and imposition of hands, they received 
after Baptism the Holy Ghost, not only enabling 
them to speak miraculously, but also strengthening 
and comforting them inwardly, as He did the Apo- 
stles. For the same that was promised to the 
Apostles, belonged to them and their children, and 
was given by imposition of hands. Now that which 
was promised to the Apostles, was principally 
ghostly strength and comfort, on which that gift of 
miracles was an attendant, as we have seen: this 
then is the principal effect of Confirmation, the 
gift of the Holy Ghost by way of eminence. Acts 
ii.38. Hence this phrase, " full of the Holy Ghost," 
is interpreted by Scripture to be the same in effect 
with this, "full of ghostly courage and strength";" 
" they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and 
spake with boldness the word of the Lord";" and 
" Stephen, full of faith and the Holy Ghostp," 
that is, " full of faith and power''." 

' Acts ii. 38. ■» Verse 39. • Acts iv. 8, 31. 

I » Acts iv. 31. V Ibid. vi. 5 ; vii. 35. i Ibid. vi. 8. 

o o 



IV. This office of Confirmation, as well as that 
of Baptism, is to continue in the Church as long as 
that shall be militant here on earth. For St. Paul, 
Heb. vi. 1, 2, joins them together, calling them fun- 
damentals ; and a fundamental in one age is so in 
another. Besides, we have seen that Confirmation 
was the means used by the Apostles (and doubtless 
not without their Lord's direction and guidance of 
His Spirit) for conveying the Holy Ghost the Com- 
forter into persons baptized: and since that all 
ages have as much need of that ghostly strength 
as the age of the Apostles had, and that the pro- 
mise of it belongs to us all, as well as to them, as 
formerly hath been proved ; and since that we find 
no other means appointed instead of Confirmation, 
for the conveying of the gift of the Holy Ghost, 
then given by Confirmation ; it remains, that we 
conclude that Confirmation is still to continue. 
And so the Church Catholic hath taught us both 
by her doctrine and practice, as may be seen by 
the quotations cited above. 

V. That Bishops, who succeed the Apostles, are 
to be the ministers of this holy rite hath been 
shewn above. 

O o 

o o 


©f itlattfmottg. 

First, holy Church instructs us in the ends of 
Matrimony, which are three: I. The pbocreation 


Then the priest requires the parties to be mar- 
ried, by the terror of the dreadful judgment-day, to 
declare, if they know any impediment, why they 
may not be lawfully married? which is as much 
care and caution as can be used by those that are 
not able to discern the secrets of the heart. 

Then follows the contract in the future tense, 
whereby these persons mutually promise to the 
priest, God's minister, before the congregation, to 
enter into that holy state of wedlock, and strictly 
to keep those sacred laws of marriage which Al- 
mighty God hath ordained. This is that, as I 
conceive, which St. Augustine calls Votorum so- 
lennitatem, " the solemnities of vows and pro- 
mises," which was in his time and formerly a 
usual ceremony of marriage: and of very good 
use is this solemnity, for by this have the persons 
bound themselves to their duty, by all the obliga- 
tions that a sacred solemn vow or promise can 
lay upon the soul. 

' De Gen. ad lit. 1. xi. cap. xli. torn. iii. pars I. p. 295. 

o o 

o o 


Then the priest asks, " Who gives this woman 


custom, that the bride should be given by the 
father or friend ' ; to whicli St. Paul may be 
thought to allude, " I have espoused you to one 
husband, that I might present you as a chaste 
virgin to Christ*." And "the queeu," the spouse, 
"shall be brought to the king"." The reason of 
this, saith learned Mr. Hooker, was, " That in 
ancient times, all women which had not husbands 
or fathers to govern them, had their tutors, with- 
out whose authority there was no act which they 
did warrantable ; and for this cause they were in 
marriage delivered unto their husbands by others, 
which custom retained hath still this use, that it 
puts women in mind of a duty, whereto the very 
imbecility of their sex doth bind them, namely, 
to be always directed and guided by others"." 
Whether this were the very cause of this custom, 
I will not determine, nor what else was ; but what- 
soever was the first cause of it, this is certain, that 
it is a decent custom. For it cannot be thought 
fit, that a woman, whose chiefest ornament is 
modesty and shamefacedness, should ofier herself 
before the congregation to marriage to any person, 
but should rather be led by the hand of another, 
and given by him. 

• Aug. de Gen. ad lit. 1. xii. cap. xli. torn. iii. pars I. p. 295. 
' 2 Cor. xi. 2. » Psalm xlv. 13, 14. 

» Eceles. Polity, b. v. ch. Ixxui. § 5. vol. ii. p. 547. 

c o 

o o 


After the marriage itself, The man puts a ring 
UPON THE woman's FINGER. The ling hath been 
always used as an especial pledge of faith and 
fidelity. Nothing more fit to serve as a token of 
our purposed endless continuance in that which we 
never ought to revoke ; and therefore fitly used in 
marriage, which is a contract not to be dissolved 
but by death. Aurum nulla norat prcBter uno 
digito, quern sponsus oppignorasset pronubo annulof. 
No woman was permitted to wear gold, save only 
upon one finger, which the husband had fastened 
to himself with a wedding ring. This he puts 


because there is a vein that goes from thence to the 
heart; by which is signified that the love should 
be hearty, say some Rituals. 

Then follows, " With my body I thee worship," 
&c. For the better understanding of this phrase, 
we must know that anciently there were two sorts 
of wives ; one whereof was called the primai-y, or 
lawful wife ; the other was called the half wife, or 
concubine. The difference betwixt these two, was 
only in the differing purpose of the man, betaking 
himself to the one or the other. If his purpose 
was only fellowship, there grew to the woman 
by this means no worship at all, but the con- 
trary. In professing that his intent was to add 
by his person honour and worship unto hers, he 

» Tertull. Apol., cap. vi. p. 7. C. 

o o 

o o 


took her plainly and clearly to be his wife, not his 
concubine. This is it which the civil law doth 
mean, when it makes a wife to differ from a concu- 
bine in dignity. The worship that grew unto her, 
being taken with declaration of this intent, was, 
that her children became by this means free and 
legitimate, heirs to their father. Gen. xxv. 5, 6 ; her- 
self was made a mother over his family. Last of 
all, she received such advancement of state, as 
things annexed unto his person might augment her 
with. Yea, a right of participation was thereby 
given her both in him, and even in all things which 
were his ; and therefore he says not only " With 


mer branch having g anted the principal, the latter 
grantetli that which is annexed thereto 2." 

The Jews anciently used the same phrase. "Be 
unto me a wife, and I, according to the word of 
God, will worship, honour, and maintain thee, ac- 
cording to the manner of husbands amongst the 
Jews, who worship, honour, and maintain their 
wives*." And that no man quarrel at this hann- 
less phrase, let him take notice, that to worship here 
signifies to make worshipful or honourable, as you 
may see, 1 Sam. ii. 30. For where our last transla- 

• Hookers Ecclesiastical Polity, b. V. ch. LXXIII. § 7. vol. ii. 
p. 551. 

• Godwin's Jewish Customs, b. vi. ch. iv. p. 231. 

6 = o 

L 1 

o o 


tion reads it, " Him that honours Me, I will honour," 
in the old translation, which our Common Prayer 
book uses, it is, " Him that worships Me, I will 
worship ;" that is, I will make worshipful, for that 
way only can God be said to worship man. 

After the priest hath prayed for grace and God's 
assistance for the married persons, to enable them 
to keep their solemn vow and contract, then does 
he as it were seal that bond and contract, by which 
they have mutually tied themselves, with God's 
seal, viz. " Those whom God hath joined together, 
let no man put asunder." 

The persons having consented together in 
wedlock, and witnessed the same before god 
AND THE Church, and plighted their troth 


HANDS; and the priest having sealed and ratified 
all, as it were, with God's seal, which no man must 
break, he pronounces them man and wife, in 

THE name of the FaTHER, SoN, AND HoLY GhOST; 

which proclamation, or pronouncing of the married 
persons to be man and wife, thus in the Church 
by the priest, was one of those laws and rites of 
marriage, which the Church received of the Apo- 

Then the priest blesses them solemnly according 

•i Euarist. Epist. I. ad omnes Episcop. Africanos. Concilia, 
torn. i. p. 534. 

c o 

__ o 


to the old rules ■=. Of the efficacy of which bless- 
ings hath been said formerly. 

After this follows Psalm cxxviii., which was the 
Epithalamium, or marriage song, used by the Jews 
at nuptials, says Masculus"*. 

Then pious and devout prayers for the married 
persons, and lastly the Communion «. Such reli- 
gious solemnities as these, or some of these, were 
used by the Jews at marriages ; for their rites and 
ceremonies of their maniage were publicly per- 
formed with blessings and thanksgivings; whence 
the house was called the house of praise, and their 
marriage song hillulim, praises'; the bridegroom's 
intimate friends sung the marriage song, who are 
called " children of the bridechambers^." The pri- 
mitive Chiistians had all these which we have. 
The persons to be married were contracted by the 
priest, the marriage was solemnly pronounced in 
the church, the married couple were blessed by 
the priest, prayers and thanksgivings were used, 
and the holy Communion administered to them. 

<^ Cone. Carthag. IV. can. xiii. torn. ii. p. 1201. 

■I In Ps. cxxviii. p. 1008. A. 

• The last two rubrics are different from those in the present 
book. They are as follow: — "Then shall begin the Communion. 
And after the Gospel shall be said a sermon, wherein ordinarily 
(so oft as there is any marriage) the office of a man and wife shall 
be declared, according to Holy Scripture. Or if there shall be no 
sermon, the minister sliall read this that followeth : 

"The new married persons (the same day of their marriage) 
must receive the holy Communion." 

' Godwin's Rites and Customs of the Jews, ch. iv. p. 228. 

B St. Matt. ix. 15. 

6 O 

C Q 


And these religious rites the Church received from 
the Apostles, says Euaristus''. And doubtless 
highly Christian and useful these solemnities are: 
for first, they beget and nourish in the minds of 
men a reverend esteem of this holy mystery, Ephes. 
V. 32, and draw them to a greater conscience of 
wedlock, and to esteem the bond thereof, a thing 
which cannot without impiety be dissolved. Then, 
are they great helps to the performance of those 
duties which God Almighty hath required in mar- 
ried pei"sons ; which are so many, and those so 
weighty, that whosoever duly considers them, and 
makes a conscience of perfonning them, must think 
it needful to make use of all those means of grace 
which God Almighty hath appointed. For if we 
duly consider the great love and charity that this 
holy state requires, even to the laying down of life ; 
" Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ loved 
the Church, and gave Himself for it';" of the 
weighty charge of the education of children, which, 
if well perfoi-med, procures a blessing and an ad- 
vantage to salvation ; " she shall be saved in child- 
bearing, if they continue in faith and charity *," &c. ; 
so, if it be carelessly performed, it procures a most 
heavy curse, 1 Sam. ii. 29, 31, &:c. Or la.stly, the 
chastity and holiness necessaiy to that state of 
marriage, heightened now up to the representation 

•" Epist. I. ad omnes Episc. African. Cone. torn. i. p. 534. 
* Ephes. V. 25. ^ 1 Tim. ii. 15. 

c: o 

o o 


of the mystical union of Christ with His Church, 
" this is a great mystery, but I speak concerning 
Christ and the Church';" to which holy conjunc- 
tion, our marriage, and all our works and affections 
in the same, should correspond and be conformable. 
I say, if we consider all these duly, can we think 
we may spare any of those Divine helps to perform- 
ance ; whether they be vows and holy promises to 
bind us, or our father's and mother's, God's and the 
Church's blessings, or holy prayers for God's assist- 
ance ; or, lastly, the holy Communion, that great 
strengthener of the soul ? If men's vices and licen- 
tiousness have made this holy service seem unsea- 
sonable at this time, reason would that they should 
labour to reform their lives, and study to be capable 
of this holy service, and not that the Church should 
take off her command for the receiving of the holy 
Communion for their unspeakable good. For 
would men observe God's and the Church's com- 
mands, and enter into this holy state — not like beasts 
or heathens at the best, but like Christians with 
these religious solemnities — the happiness would be 
greater than can easily be expressed. " I know 
not which way I should be able to shew the happi- 
ness of that wedlock, the knot whereof the Church 
doth fasten, and the Sacrament of the Church con- 
firm," saith Tertullian™. 

' Ephes. V. 32. " Ad Uxorem, 1. ii. p. 191. 

o ■ o 

o o 


■Fisitatton of ti)t ^ic'k. 

The priest entering into the sick man's house, 
shall say, Peace be to this house ; so our Lord 
commanded : " And if the son of peace be there, his 
peace shall rest upon it"." 

Then kneeling down, he prays those prayers 
and ejaculations following, which, whosoever reads 
and considers impartially, shall find them to be 
both very pious and suitable to the occasion. 

Then shall the priest exhort the sick per- 
son after this manner. The prayers are all 
prescribed, but the exhortation is left arbitrary 
to the discretion of the priest, who can hardly be 
thought to make a better. 

Then shall the priest examine the sick 
Christian. And this is very necessary, for if that 
be wrong, all is wrong. Christian religion consists 
in these two ; a right faith and a righteous life ; and 
as a right faith without a righteous life will not save, 
so neither will a righteous life without a right 
belief. He that hath said, " Do this and live," 
hath said, " Believe and live ;" and how then can 
we think him safe that lives indeed justly, but 
blasphemes impiously"? This then is a principal 
interrogatory or question to be put to the sick per- 

° St. Luke X. 5, 6. ° Cjiil. Catech. iv. cap. ii. p. 52. 


o o 


son, whether he believes as a Christian ought to 
do? And this he does by rehearsing to him the 
Creed ; and there can be no better rule to trj' it by. 
For whatsoever was prefigured in the Patriarchs, 
or taught in the Scriptures, or foretold by the Pro- 
phets concerning God the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, is all briefly contained in the Apostles' Creed''. 
" This Creed, it is the touchstone to try true faith 
from false, the rule of faith, contrary to which no 
man may teach or believe''." "This the Catholic 
Church received from the Apostles. Holding this 
rule, we shall be able to convince all heretics what- 
soever, that they be departed from the truth'." 

In the next place, holy Church directs the priest 
to examine the sick person concerning his life and 
conversation ; especially concerning these two par- 
ticulars : I. ^\Tiether he forgives all the world ; II. 
Whether he hath satisfied all injuries done to others: 
without which the medicine of repentance, which is 
necessary to the sick person's salvation, will not 
profit him. For the first, our Saviour tells us, St. 
Matt, vi, 15, that " unless we forgive others," 
neither our persons nor our prayers will be accepted : 
" God will not forgive us." And for the second, 
Non remittetur peccatum nisi restituatur ahlatwn : 

r S. August. Serm. CLX. tom. v. Append, p. 283. 

1 Ruffin. in Symb. ap. Cyprian, p. 17. Tertull. de Praescript. 
cap. xiii. p. 235. 

' Irenae. contra Haereses, 1. i. cap. x. tom. i. p. 49. et cap. 
xxii. p. 98. 

6 6 



" Repentance, without restitution and reparation of 
injuries, cannot be true and serious ; or if it can, it 
cannot profit'." " For if he that is injured by 
another cannot be forgiveli of God, unless he for- 
gives him that injured him ; how can he that in- 
jures others, and does not make him restitution, 
hope for pardons?" The priest, therefore, is to 
advise him, that whereinsoever he hath injured any, 
he should make satisfaction to the uttermost of his 
power. By the uttennost of his power, is not meant 
that he must give to the injured persons all his 
estate, nor that he must restore fourfold for inju- 
ries done, (which Avas required in some cases under 
Moses' Law, by way of punishment, rather than of 
satisfaction,) but that he be careful to the utter- 
most of his power, that the person injured be so re- 
paired that he be no loser by him ; which is all 
that by the law of j ustice, which commands to give 
every man their due, is required. " When I say to 
the wicked, he shall surely die ; if he turn from his 
sin, if he restoi'e the pledge, give again that he hath 
robbed" ;" it is not, if he restore fourfold, but if 
he restore that which he hath robbed, " he shall 
surely live." 

Then the priest is to admonish the sick person to 
settle his estate, fob the dischahging of his 
OWN conscience, and quietness of his ex- 

' S. Austin, Epist. CLIII. cap. vi. torn. ii. p. 532. A. 

• Chrysost. Horn. XV. in S. Matt, torn vii. p. 184. 

• Ezek. xxxiii. 14, 15. 

o o 

G O 


EcuTORs. But holy Church exhorts men to do this 
work in their health, that when they are sick they 
may not be troubled about the world, but may 
bestow their whole time and care, as it is fit, about 
settling and securing their future estate. And were 
men possessed with that fear and trembling that 
St. Paul speaks of, Phil. ii. 12, they would be care- 
ful to gain all the time that might be then, to work 
out their salvation. 

The minister may not forget to move the 
SICK person, and that most earnestly, to libe- 
rality TOWARDS THE POOR. Tliis is to have mercy 
upon our own souls, says St. Augustine, or Christum 
scribere heeredem, " to make Christ our heir." For 
when the poor receives from us, Christ stands by 
and reaches out His hand to receive with them''. 
" Inasmuch as ye have done it to one of these 
little ones, ye have done it to Me J"." As it. is 
always necessary to-be put in mind of this duty, so 
especially at this time of sickness. For then we 
are failing, and therefore most necessary it is then, 
to " make friends of the unrighteous Mammon, 
that, when we fail, they may receive us into ever- 
lasting habitations'." Then we are going to give 
up our account to God, and therefore then most 
necessaiy it is to do the best we can to procure a 
gracious absolution at the day of judgment. Now 

' Balsam, in Nomocan. Photii, tit. ii. cap. 1. ap. Bib. Pair, 
torn. vi. p. 1192. E. 

r St. Matt. XXV. 40. , ' St. Luke xvi. 9. 

C 6 

o . o 


nothing seems more powerful with God to procure 
that, than liberality to the poor ; " Come ye blessed, 
for I was hungry, and ye gave Me meat*." 

Hehe shall the sick person make a special 
confession, if he feel his conscience troohled 
w^iTH ANY WEIGHTY MATTER. It would be Con- 
sidered, whether every deadly sin be not a weighty 

After which confession the priest shall 
ABSOLVE him''. After which follows a most excel- 
lent prayer or two, and Psalm lxxi.,all very fit to a 
sick person's condition ; as will appear without an 
interpreter to the attentive reader. 

A most excellent and pious benediction of the 
priest concludes all, and so ends this office. 

(Bi t|)e ©ommunion of tj^c 5ttfe. 

The Church's care for the sick ends not here ; 
for besides all this, she appoints, that if the sick 
person desires it, the priest may communicate 

VERENTLY MINISTER ^ So was the ancient decree 

» St. Matt. XXV. 34, 35. 

'' The Rubric stands now; "the Priest shall absolve him [if he 
humbly and heartily desire it) after this sort." 

' Rubric before the Private Communion of the Sick. 

6 —0 

o o 


of holy Church, Nic. Can.^ Generaliter omni 
cuilibet in exitu posito, Eucharistice participa- 
tionem petenti, Episcopus cum examinatione ohla- 
tionem impartiaf. "To every man that is ready to 
depart out of this world, let the Bishop, after exa- 
mination and trial, give the holy Communion, if he 
desires it." For this, says the Council, is antiqua 
et canonica lex, ut siquis vita excedat, ultimo et 
necessario viatico minime priretur ^ . " This is the 
ancient law of the Church," says this Council there, 
" concerning him that is dying ; that whosoever he 
be, he shall not be denied the last and most neces- 
sary viaticum of his life." This viaticum, or pro- 
vision for the way, is the holy Communion, as is 
plain in the canon cited. For though, as learned 
Albaspinus^ observes, this word viaticum was ap- 
plied to more things besides the Eucharist, as to 
alms, to baptism, to absolution, which are all neces- 
sary helps in our journey to Heaven ; yet in this 
canon I conceive the viaticum, or provision for the 
way, to be the holy Eucharist. For in the first 
part of the canon it is called ultimum viaticum, 
" the last provision for the way;" which cannot be 
meant of any other properly, but of the holy 
Eucharist: for the rest, for instance, absolution, 
(of which Albaspinus^ understands this canon,) is 

* Cod. Eccles. Univ. Can. xiii. p. 32. 

• Nic. Cone. can. xii. torn. ii. p. 242. D. 
' L. i. Observ. xi. p. 74. 8 Ibid. p. 7."!. 

c o 

o- o 


reconciliatio Altaribus, " a reconciliation to the 
Altar, or Sacraments," as it was anciently called, a 
fitting or qualifying of the communicant for the 
holy Eucharist, and therefore to go before it '' ; and 
for alms they are part of the fruits of penance, and 
so necessary to fit us for absolution, and Baptism is 
janua Sacramentorutri, " the first admission into 
Christ's Church," which gives the first right to the 
Communion and sacraments of the Church; and 
therefore, all these being precedaneous to the holy 
Eucharist, cannot be called any of them ultimum 
viatiimm, " the last provision," but only the Eu- 
charist itself. Besides, in the last part of the Canon 
there is expressly mentioned the participation of 
the Eucharist, which must be the same with the 
viaticnm in the first part, as may appear by this : 
the canon immediately before this, had directed 
that penitents, especially those of the first or second 
degree, should fulfil the Church's tax before they 
were received to the Church's prayers : but if those 
should fall into danger of death, the ancient canon 
shall be observed, (saith this canon in the begin- 
ning,) that they shall be admitted, notwithstanding 
the former canon, to the last viaticum ; the reason 
is given in the latter part of this canon : because 
that to every one whatsoever, that shall in danger 
of death desire the Eucharist, it shall be given to 
him if he be found fit to receive it. This could be 

•■ Cone. Carthag. IV. cap. Ixxvi. torn. ii. p. 1205. E. 

c o 

c— — o 


no reason of the former part of the canon, namely, 
of giving the last viaticum to penitents in danger of 
death, unless that viaticum and the Eucharist here 
be all one. To that which may be objected, that 
this viaticum cannot be the same with the Eu- 
charist mentioned in the last part of the canon, 
because this viaticum here is allowed to persons in 
danger of death without any examination, but the 
Eucharist is granted to persons in the same danger 
with this exception, if the Bishop, after examination, 
shall find him fit ; it may be answered, that not- 
withstanding this, the viaticum and the Eucharist 
may be all one, for the canon in the first part, 
where it allows it to persons in necessity without 
examination, speaks only of penitents who had 
already undergone the examination, and had re- 
ceived their penance, and submitted to the Church's 
discipline, and so professed themselves truly peni- 
tents, and were in such necessity, desiring the 
Eucharist, in the judgment of charity supposed fit 
to receive it ; though the Church denied the same 
to them when there was no such necessity, for the 
maintenance of holy discipline, and in terror of 
offenders. But generaliter de quolibet, for every one 
that should desire it, before he had given testimony 
of his repentance, there could not be suflScient 
ground of charity to believe so well ; and therefore 
they were to be examined by the Bishop, or some 
others by his appointment. So then I think the 

c o 

o . o 


canon may be interpreted thus of the holy Commu- 
nion, without any contradiction ; and that it ought 
to be so understood, may, I think, be concluded by 
these testimonies following' : and most clearly by 
St. Cyprian k, "After consultation we have deter- 
mined, that those that have fallen in time of perse- 
cution, and have defiled themselves with unlawful 
sacrifices, should do full penance ; yet, if they were 
dangerously sick, they should be received to peace. 
For Divine clemency does not suffer the Church to 
be shut against them that knock ; nor the succour 
of saving hope to be denied to those that mourn 
and beg it; nor to send them out of the world 
without peace and the Communion." This is ex- 
actly agreeable to that canon of Nice'. What 
Communion that was he tells us soon after : " That 
it was not only absolution, but the holy Eucharist 
besides, as appears by that which follows: For- 
merly we made this rule, that penitents, unless in 
time of extreme sickness, should not receive the 
Communion. And this rule was good, while the 
Church was in peace and quiet ; but now in time 
of persecution, not only to the sick, but to the 
healthful, peace is necessary ; not only to the dying, 
but to the living, the Communion is to be given ; 
that those whom we pei-suade to fight manfully 
under Christ's banner, and to resist even to blood, 

■ Cone. Herb. can. v. torn. iv. p. 1C12. Leonis Constitutiones 
xvii. ap. Nov. Con. Justiniani, p. 32. 
>■ Epist. LVII. p. 116. ' Can. xiU. toni. ii. p. 242. 

c 6 



may not be left naked and unarmed, but be defended 
with the protection of the body and blood of Christ ; 
which for this cause was instituted, that it might 
be a strength and defence to them that receive it. 
How shall we teach them to shed their blood for 
Christ, if we deny them Christ's blood to strengthen 
them? Or how shall we fit them for the cup of 
martjTdom, if we do not admit them to the Com- 
munion of the cup of the Lord ? Upon this very 
ground was it provided, that all dying men might 
have the holy sacrament of the Eucharist, the great 
defence in that dangerous hour, when the devil is 
doing his worst and last." Agreeable to this of St. 
Cyprian is the LXXVIth Canon of the Council of 
Carthage"'. "He that in time of sickness desires 
penance, if haply while the priest is coming to him, 
he falls dumb, or into a phrensy, let them that heard 
his desire bear witness to it, and let him receive 
penance; and if he be like to die speedily, let 
him be reconciled by imposition of hands, and let 
the Eucharist be put into his mouth. If he recovers, 
let him be acquainted with what was done by the 
fonner witnesses, and be subject to the known laws 
of penance. And those penitents which in their 
sickness received the viaticum of the Eucharist, let 
them not think themselves absolved without impo- 
sition of hands, if they shall recover"." And the 

'" Cone. Carthag. IV. can. Ixxvi. torn. ii. p. 1205. 
" Ibid. can. Ixxviii. torn. ii. p. 1206. 

o 6 

O o 


Council of Orange" says the same. "They, that 
after penance set them, are ready to depart out of 
this life, it hath pleased the synod to give them the 
Communion, without the recon cilia tory imposition 
of hands. Which suffices for the reconciling of 
a dying man, according to the definition of the 
Fathers, who fitly called the Communion a viaticum. 
But if they recover, let them stand in the rank of 
penitents, that by shewing the necessary fruits of 
penance, they may be received to the canonical 
communion by the reconciliatory imposition of 

It will not be amiss for the clearer understanding 
of all passages in these canons, to consider the 
Church her discipline in this particular. Holy 
Church, for preserving of holy discipline and deter- 
ring men from sin, did appoint for wasting sins, 
such as adultery, murder, idolatry, and the like, 
severe penance for three or four, six or seven years, 
more or less, according to the quantity and quality 
of the offence. In the Greek Church they had 
several degrees of penance to be gone through in 
this set time. 

I. They were Trpoa-KXaiovres, lugentes, mourners, 
standing without the church porch ; they were to 
beg of all the faithful that entered into the church, 
to pray for them : in this degree they continued a 
year or more, according as their crime desened. 
° Cone. Arausicanum I. can. iii. torn. iii. p. 1448. 

o o 

o ^ 


II. They were a.Kpou>iJ.€voi, audientes, hearers ; 
these might come into the church porch, into a 
place called vdp6-n^, ferula, (so called, because those 
that stood there were subjected to the Church's 
censure or ferula,) where they might stand and 
hear the Scriptures read, and sermons, but were 
not admitted to join with the Church in her 

III. They were inrotriirTovTis, xubsterrientes, the 
prostrate, as we may say ; so called, because they 
were all to prostrate themselves upon their faces, 
and so continued till the Bishop said certain prayers 
over them, and laid his hands upon them. They 
might be present at the sennon and the first service 
of the Catechumens, and then go out?. These were 
admitted into the nave of the church, and to stand 
behind the pulpit. 

IV. :^vvi(rrdfj.evoi, the consistents ; they might 
stay after the rest of the penitents were gone out, 
and pray with the faithful, but not receive the holy 

V. M(T€xot>Tes, communicants; they were re- 
ceived to the participation of sacraments, but were 
still to wear some marks of penance, till by prayers 
and entreaties they had obtained the full commu- 
nion of the Church's favours and honours''. 

These several degrees were poor penitents to go 

p Laodic. Cone. can. XIX. torn. i. p. 1499. 
1 Goar, in Euch. Grtec. p. 22, 23. 


C — — o 


through in the Greek Church, and as much afflic- 
tion in the Latin, unless the Bishop should think fit 
to remit any thing of it, before they were fully 
admitted to the Church's favour: but if any of 
these were desperately sick, holy Church took care, 
that upon their desire they shoidd have the Church's 
peace, by absolution', say the 76th and 78th Canons 
of the 4th Council of Carthage, and the holy Com- 
munion says the same canon, and Cyprians; lest 
they should want that great strengthening and re- 
freshing of their souls in their last and gi'eatest 
necessity. Provided nevertheless, that if they should 
recover, then they should resume their several places 
and degrees of penance they were in before, and go 
through and perfect their task of penance, which 
having done, they should receive ultimam reconci- 
liationem, " their last and highest reconciliation ;" 
a favour which was denied to some that had been 
admitted to the sacrament of the Eucharist, as you 
may see in the second Council of Vaison'. This 
last reconciliation was a solemn absolution from 
all the Church's censures and penances, by the lay- 
ing on of the hands of the Bishop, and some of his 
clergy, says Cyprian". A declaration to all the 
Church, that they were received not only to neces- 
sary viatica, and assisting such as the former abso- 
lution mentioned in the 76th canon of the fourth 

' Tom. ii. p. 1205. 6. • Epist. LVII. p. 117. 

' Can. li. torn. iii. p. 1457. B. " Epist. XVI. p. 37. 

o 6 

o o 


Council of Carthage, and the holy sacrament of the 
Eucharist were ; which they were pennitted to re- 
ceive in case of nee essity ; but also to all the honour, 
and solemnities, and privileges of the faithful, quite 
free from all brands and marks of penitents. They 
were restored legitime communioni,^'^ to the canoni- 
cal and legitimate communion";" they might offer 
with the faithful, and their off"erings be received 
by the Church ; and they might receive the kiss of 
peace, and all other favours of the Church. This 
that hath been said may help us to understand the 
true meaning of the so much controverted Canon 
of the Council of Orange before mentioned, together 
with the Canon of the fourth Council of Carthage, 
Qui recedunt de corpore, &c. " They that after 
penance received are ready to depart out of this 
life, it hath pleased that they shall be received to 
the Communion, without the reconciliatory imposi- 
tion of hands ;" that is, they shall be admitted to 
the Communion without that last, outward, solemn 
absolution in the court of the church, which Balsa- 
mon rightly calls KaraWay^y, the full reconciliation 
to the Church's honours and dignities, i^roi xiviv 
Twv 4iriTifita>v, a loosening of the Church's censures ; 
which those penitents in case of extremity could 
not receive, because, as by the canons appears, they 
were, if they recovered, to return to their several 

' Cone. Arauslcanum I. can. iii. torn. iii. p. 1448. 
» Can. LXXVIII. 

6 o 

o o 

276 coMSirxiox of the sick. 

tasks of penance again, till they had fulfilled them. 
It was enough for them to be reconciled to the altar 
and sacrament by the absolution in foro cceli, " in 
heaven's court," the power of which was granted 
to the Apostles and their successors ; " Whose sins 
ye remit," &c.* Which Balsamon calls x'^P"'> or 
the absolution from sin ; and this they were to re- 
ceive", and after that the holy Eucharist. And this, 
says the canon of the Council of Orange, was 
sufficient for a dying man's reconciliation according 
to the definition of the Fathers. And this the 
Church of England provides for all dying men that 
shall desire it. And infinitely bound to their mother, 
for this her care, are all true sons of the Church. 
For thrice happy souls are they, who shall have the 
happiness at their last and greatest extremity, 
worthily to receive the reconciliation and the holy 
Communion, the bread of heaven, the blood of God, 
our hope, our health, our light, our life. " For if 
we shall depart hence guarded with this sacrifice, 
we shall with much holy boldness ascend to the 
holy heavens, defended as it were with golden arms," 
says St. Chrysostom. 

We have seen the Church's care to provide all 
necessaries for sick persons' salvation : it were a 
happy thing to see in the people an answerable 
diligence in the use of these ghostly offices, that 

' St. John XX. 23. 

• Cone. Carth. IV. can. Ixxvi. torn. ii. p. 1206. 

c 6 



they would, wlien they are sick, send for the priest ; 
not verbally only to comfort them, by rehearsing to 
them comforUible texts of Scripture, whether they 
belong to them or not, (which is not to heal the 
sick, but to tell them that they have no need of the 
spiritual physician, by which means precious souls 
perish for whom Christ died :) but to search and 
examine the state of their souls, to shew them their 
sins, to prepare them by ghostly counsel, and exer- 
cises of penance, for absolution, and the holy Com- 
munion, whereby they might indeed find comfort, 
remission of sins, and the Holy Ghost the Com- 
forter. And this should be done while the sick 
person hath strength and ability to attend and join 
with him in these holy services. There is an excel- 
lent canon to this purjjose ; " By this present decree 
we strictly charge and command all physicians, that 
when they shall be called to sick persons, they first 
of all admonish and persuade them to send for the 
physicians of souls, that after provision hath been 
made for the spiritual health of the soul, they may 
the more hopefully proceed to the use of corporal 
medicine ; for when the cause is taken away, the 
effect may follow ''." That which chiefly occasioned 
the making of this good law, was the supine care- 
lessness of some sick persons, who never used to 
call for the physician of the soul, till the physician 
of the body had given them over. And if the phy- 

*■ Decretal. I. v. tit. xxxviii. cap. xiii. p. 2035. A. 

o o 

o c 


sician did, as his duty was, timely admonish them 
to provide for their soul's health, they took it for a 
sentence of death, and despaired of remedy, which 
hastened their end, and hindered both the bodily 
physician from working any cure upon their body, 
and the ghostly physician from applying any ef- 
fectual means to their soul's health. It is good 
counsel that Ecclus. xxxviii. 9. gives, Avhere we are 
advised, not first to send for the physician, and 
when we despair of his help, and are breathing our 
last, then to send for the priest, when our weakness 
hath made him useless : but first to make our peace 
with God by ghostly offices of the priest, and then 
give place to the physician. Which method our 
Saviour hath taught us also by His method of cure ; 
who, when any came to Him for bodily cures, first 
cured the soul of sin, before He healed the bodily 
infirmity: teaching us, that sin is the cause of 
sickness, and that cure first to be looked after. 
And by thus doing, we may possibly save the body 
without the physician : " Is any sick, let him send 
for the elders or priests of the Church to pray 
over him, and the prayer of faith shall save the 
sick*^ ." But if he fails of that bodily cure by these 
means, yet he may be sure to obtain remission of 
sins by their means. " If he hath committed sins, 
they shall be forgiven him**" by the benefit of abso- 
lution, so the words import. For afiapriai, sins, 

■^ St. James v. 14. * Yet. 15. 

o o 

o o 


being a feminine plural, seems not to agree with 
the verb cupfe-fifferai, it shall be forgiven, of the sin- 
gular number, and therefore this word more pro- 
perly seems to be rendered impersonally thus ; " If 
he hath committed sins, pardon or absolution shall 
be given him ;" and so by this means the sick per- 
son shall be sure, if not to save his body, yet at 
least to save his soul. 

There was an ancient Canon, which that it might 
be duly practised and observed, it must be the Avish 
of all good men. It is, ut qui pro quihuscumque 
culpis in carceribus deputantur, ah Archidiacono seu 
a PrcBposito Eeclesia diebus sirujulis Dominicis re- 
quiranlur, ut necessitas vinctorum, secundum prcB- 
ceplum divinum, misericorditer sublevetur^ ; "that 
all prisoners, for what crime soever, shall be called 
for and visited by the Archdeacon or Bishop of the 
Church every Lord's day, that the necessities, 
bodily and ghostly, of the prisoners, according to 
God's command, may be mercifully relieved." The 
neglect of which duty, how dangerous it is, we 
may read, " Go ye cursed, for I was sick and in 
prison, and ye visited Me not'." The Rubric at 
the Communion of the Sick, directs the priest to 
deliver the Communion to the sick, but does not 
there set down how much of the Communion Ser- 
vice shall be used at the delivering of the Commu- 

• Cone. Aiirel. V. can. XX. torn. v. p. 396. C. 
' St. Matt. XXV. 43. 

6 6 

O— _ 


nion to the sick ; and tlierefore seems to ine to refer 
us to former directions in times past 8^. Now the 
direction formerly was this : 

If the same day (that the sick is to receive the 
Communion) there be a celebration of the holy 
Communion in the church, then shall the priest 
reserve (at the open Communion) so much of the 
sacrament of the body and blood as shall serve the 
sick person and so many as shall communicate 
with him. And as soon as he may conveniently, 
after the open Communion ended in the church , 
shall go and minister the same first to them that 
are appointed to communicate with the sick, if 
there be any ; and last of all to the sick. But 
before the curate distribute the holy Communion, 
the appointed general confession (in the Commu- 
nion Service) must be made in the name of the 
communicants, the curate adding the absolution, 
with the comfortable sentences of Scripture, follow- 
ing in the open Communion immediately, and so 
proceeding in the Communion Service to the end 
of the consecration and distribution : and after the 
Communion ended, the collect is to be used which 
begins, " Almighty and ever-living God, we most 
heartily thank Thee," (Sec. 

But if the day wherein the sick person is to 

« A Rubric in the present office has been inserted. After 
wliich is the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel. The priest shall pro- 
ceed according to the form before prescribed for the holy Com- 
I munion, beginning at these words, " Ye that do truly" &c. 

o 6 

c o 


receive Communion, be not appointed for the open 
Communion in the church, then, upon convenient 
warning given, the curate shall come and visit the 
sick person afore noon. And cutting oflF the form 
of the visitation at the psalm, " In Thee, Lord," 
shall go straight to the Communion ^ ; that is, after 
he hath said the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, there 
directed, he shall go to the Communion Service'. 

The priest meetixo the corpse at the chukch 


singing, "I am the resurrection and the life. ' This in 
triumph over death, " O death, where is thy sting? 
O grave, where is thy victory ?" Thou may est awhile 
hold the corpse, but He that is " the resurrection 
and the life ' will make the dead man alive again. 
Therefore, "thanks be ;o God, who gives this victory 
through Jesus Christ om- Lord." Much after this 
sort did the ancients i : Quid sibi volunt istce lampades 

*• Rubric 3, Communion of the Sick. 

' First King Edward the Sixth. 

' The present Rubrics stand now — 

" Here it is to be noted, that the office ensuing is not to be used 
for any that die unbaptized, or excommunicate, or liave laid vio- 
lent hands upon themselves. 

"The priest and clerks meeting the corpse at the entrance of 
the church-yard, and going before it, either into the church or 
towards the grave, shall say or sing," &c. 

' Hieron. Epist. LXXXIV. ad Ocean, de Fabiola. torn. iv. 
p. 657. Chrysost. Horn. IV. in Hebr. torn. xii. p. 46. 

6 6 

o o 


tarn splendidce P nonne sicut athl.'tas mortuos comi- 
tamur ? quid etiani hymni ? nonne ut Deum yl >ri- 
ficemus, quod jam coronavit discedentem, quod a la' 
boribus liberavit, quod liberatum a timore apud se 
habeat P " What mean the bright burning torches ? 
do we not follow the dead like champions? What 
mean the hymns? do we not thereby glorify Godi 
for that He hath crowned our departed brother, that 
He hath freed him from labours, that He hath him 
with Himself, freed from fear ? All these are ex- 
pressions of joy, whereby we do in a holy valour 
laugh at death," saith Chrysostom there. And this 
is Christian-like, " whereas if we be sad and dejected 
as men without hope," mortevn Christi, qua mors 
superata est, calumniamur ; "we disgrace the death 
of Christ, that hath conquered death :" and hea- 
thens and atheists will deride us, saying. How can 
these contemn death, that cannot patiently behold 
a dead friend ? Talk what you will of the resur- 
rection, when you are out of passion, it is no great 
matter, nor persuades much ; but shew me a man 
in passion of grief for the loss of his friend, playing 
the philosopher, and trumphantly singing to God 
for his happy deliverance, and I will believe the 
resurrection. Of so good use are such triumphant 
hymns at this time ; and of this sort are the three 

When they come to the grave, while the corpse 
is made ready to be laid into the grave, the priest 

o o 

c o 



WOMAN," &c. closing with a most devout prayer 
for grace and assistance in our last hour; a 
prayer very suitable to such a time, and such a 
spectacle before us. 

Then they commit the body to the earth, (not as 
a lost and perished carcass, but as having in it 
a seed of eternity,) in sure and certain hope 

OF THE resurrection TO ETERNAL LIFE. Thls 

is to bury it Christianly; the hope of the resur- 
rection being the proper hope of Christians. Such 
was the Christian's burial of old, that it was ac- 
counted both an evident argument and presage of 
the resurrection ; and an honour done to that body 
which the Holy Ghost had once made His temple 
for the offices of piety'". 

After follows another triumphant hymn. Then 
a Lesson" out of St. Paul to the same purpose; 
then a thanksgiving for that our brother's safe de- 
livery out of misery ; lastly, a prayer for his and 
our consummation in glory, and joyful absolution 

■» Aug. de Civit. 1. i. cap. xiii. torn. vii. p. 13. 

" In the first book of King Edward, instead of Psalms xxxix. 
or xc, there were three others appointed, cxvi. cxxxix. cxlvi. 
And when they were left out at the next review, there were no 
others wliatever ordered in the room of them, till these were 
inserted at King Charles's restoration. 

By the first Common Prayer, both the psalms and lesson with 
the suffrages were to be said in the church, either before or after 
the burial of the corpse. But from that time to the Restoration 
the lesson (the psalms being left out) was appointed to be read 
wherever the grave was, whether in the church or church-yard, 
immediately after the sentence, " I heard a voice," &c. See 
Wheatly on the place. 

6 o 

> o 


at the last day. By all which prayers, praises, and 
holy lessons, and decent solemnities, we do glorify 
God, honour the dead, and comfort the living". 

"Take away these prayers, praises, and holy 
lessons, which were ordained to shew at burials 
the peculiar hope of the Church of the resurrection 
of the dead, and in the manner of the dumb 
funerals, what one thing is there, whereby the 
world may perceive that we are Christians p?" 
There being in those dumb shows nothing but what 
heathens and pagans do, how can any unlearned or 
unbeliever be convinced by them, that either we 
who are present at them do, or that he ought 
to believe any part of Christian religion ? But 
when the unlearned or unbeliever hears us sing 
triumphant songs to God for our victory over death, 
when he hears holy lessons and discourses of the 
resurrection, when he hears us pray for a happy 
and joyful resurrection to glory : by all these he 
must be convinced, that we do believe the resurrec- 
tion, which is a principal article of Christian faith, 
and the same may be the means to convince him 
also, and make him believe the same, "and so fall 
down and worship God." And this is according 
to St.Paul's rule, 1 Cor. xiv. 23 — 25, who thence 
concludes, that all our public religious services 
ought to be done, that the "unlearned or un- 

" At the last review the Apostolical blessing was added. 
F Hooker's Eccles. Polity, b. v. ch. Ixxv. § 4. p. 56G. 


c o 


believer may be convinced, and brought to wor- 
ship God." 

For the due performance of these holy public 
services, a priest, ordained for men in things per- 
taining to God, Heb. v. 1, is required by the Church, 
as it ought to be, and as it was of old "J. 

It was an ancient custom after burial to go to the 
holy Communion, unless the office were performed 
after noon. For then, if men were not fasting, it 
was done only with prayers'. 

Funeral doles were an ancient custom'. 

^jbanfesgfbmg of 212aomcn after ®6tHi=li(tt&, 



The woman, when she comes to give her thanks, 
shall kneel near to the place where the holy table 
stands': but in the Church of Rome, she was to 
kneel at the church door. 

The woman may come to give her thanks when- 

"i S. Chrysost. Horn. IV. in Hebr. torn. xii. p. 38. Ambr. Serm. 
' Cone. Carth. III. can. xxix. torn. ji. p. 1171. 

• Chrysost. Horn. XXX. in Matt. torn. viii. p. 356. 

• The Rubric now is, "The woman, at the usual time after her 
delivery, shall come into the church decently apparelled, and 
there shall kneel down in some convenient place, as hath been 
accustomed, or as the ordinary shall direct. And then," Sec. 

6 6 

Q C 


soever she shall be able"; but if she be likely to 
live, she is required by the civil law, according 
to the tradition of the Church, to forbear the 
coming to partake of the holy mystery forty days 
after the birth. Not for any unholiness in the 
woman, or incapacity of receiving the holy myste- 
ries at that time ; (for if there be fear of death, she 
may receive them, as soon as she please after the 
birth;) but for some secret reasons in the law, 
which are set down''. 

The woman that is to be churched is to have a 
veil ; and good reason : for if, as St. Paul says, 
" Every woman, when she prays in public, ought 
to have a veil or covering on her headV in token 
of her modesty and subjection ; then much more, 
when she is to sit in a more eminent place of the 
church, near to the holy table, apart from the rest 
of her sex, in the public view, ought she to have 
such a veil or covering. Nor can it be deemed 
unreasonable for her at that time to have a' veil or 
habit distinct from others ; that so it may be known 
for whom thanks is then particularly given. 

The Preface following, "forasmuch," &c. is 
left arbitrary to the priest, but the prayers are all 
prescribed '. 

• Gratian. Decretal, pars prima, Distinct. V. can. i. p. 1.5. 
' Con. Leo., xvii. p. 32. ap. Auth. Con. Just. i 1 Cor. xi. 5. 

• The Preface — "Forasmuch." &e. was formerly left to the dis- 
cretion of the priest; for the Rubric was, "And the priest stand- 
ing by her, shall say these words, or much like, as the case shall 

o o 

Q _ O 


Then shall the priest say Psalm oxxi." " I have 


The Church appointing this psalm at this time, 
does not intend to persuade us by this, that this 
psalm was penned for such a particular occasion 
as this ; or that the promises of God's protection 
and assistance there expressed, were directly and 
primarily made to persons in that danger of child- 
birth; but because the psalm at the very beginning 
tells us all, that our help comes from God, it is 
thought seasonable at this time to be used, to mind 
the woman from whom she hath received that 
mercy of deliverance, and to whom she is to return 
the honour due for such a mercy, even to Him from 
whom comes all our help, the Lord that made 
heaven and earth. And this were enough to justify 
the Church's choice of this psalm at this time ; in 
that, part of it is so fit for this business in hand, 
though it were not penned upon this very occasion, 
"for so we find Hezekiah commended, for ap- 
pointing of the Psalms of David and Asaph, to 
set forth the praises of God in the public services, 
2 Chron. xxix. 30, although neither had Hezekiah 
and the Church then the very same occasions to 
use them, which Davjd and Asaph had, nor did 
every particle of those songs so directly and pro- 
perly belong to Hezekiah and the Church then, 
as they did to David and Asaph." But not only 

• At the last review, this psalm was changed for cxvi. or cxxvii. 


o o 


the beginning of this psalm, but even the whole 
body of it, is fit and suitable to this service. And 
those promises of Divine assistance therein ex- 
pressed, though they were primarily, and in their 
first intention, made to the Church of the Jews; 
yet in theii' proportion they do belong to the person 
coming to give thanks, and to every one that shall 
lift up their eyes to the hills, and trust in God. 
For not Israel at large, but Israel lifting up her 
eyes to God, and trusting in God, is the formal and 
true object of this promise ; which therefore be- 
longs to every such person as shall be so qualified, 
so depending upon God. This rule St. Paul hath 
taught us, Heb. xiii. 5, applying there the promise 
made particularly to Joshua, chap. i. 5, to every 
one of us that shall contentedly depend upon God, 
as Joshua was commanded to do in expectance of 
that promise. " Let your conversation be without 
covetousness ; and be content with such things as 
ye have; for He hath said, I will not leave thee 
nor forsake thee. So that we may boldly say. The 
Lord is my helper." 

One verse of this psalm may perhaps at the fii-st 
sight seem not so well expressed ; namely, this, 
"The sun shall not burn thee by day nor 
THE MOON BY NIGHT;" for the moou does not 
bum, but cool. But it is easily cleared, by taking 
notice that to burn is not always taken in the strict 
and proper sense, but usually in a larger ; whereby 

O '- (; 

c — - — — o 


it is the same with to grieve or hurt, as ordinary 
skill in language will inform us ; so the meaning is, 
" The sun shall not hurt thee by day, nor the moon 
by night," whose shine is held to be very hurtful. 

After the Psalm follow the Kyrie or short Litany, 
and the Lord's Prayer, so admirably good and use- 
ful, that there is scarce any public service despatched 
without them : after these follow some verses and 
responds, of which, and the reason of their use, to- 
gether with the antiquity of it, hath been said 
already, and need not be here repeated. But there 
is one thing observable in these responds or answers 
which was not spoken of hitherto, nor was so observ- 
able in some of the former verses and responds 
as in these here : and that is this, that some of 
these answers are not of themselves entire sen- 
tences or petitions, as the others were, but are parts 
or ends of the foregoing verses, the verse and an- 
swer together making up one entire petition ; for 
example : 

O Lord, save this woman Thy servant, 
R. Which putteth her trust in Thee. 

Be Thou to her a strong tower, 
R From the face of her enemy. 

This I observe, because it seems to be the re- 
main of a very ancient custom. For Eusebius'' tells 

"< Hist. Eccl. 1. II. cap. xvii. p. 57. 

o ^ o 


O o 


US, that the primitive Christians in the singing of 
their hymns, had this use ; that one hegan and sung 
in rhyme, the rest hearing with silence; only the 
last part, or aKporeAfuria, the end of the psalm or 
hymn, all the rest joined and sung together with him. 
Agreeable to this, says the author of the Clemen- 
tine Constitutions ■=, was the usage in his time and 
before. After the readings of the Old Testament, 
says he, let another sing the Psalms of David, and 
let the people answer to aKpoa-rixta,, the extremes or 
ends of the verses. What the reason of this ancient 
custom was, I will not peremptorily determine ; 
whether it were only for variety, which much 
pleases and delights, and is a great help against 
weariness ; which those primitive Christians, (who 
continued in sacred exercises from morning to 
night,) had need of: for which cause, says Euse- 
bius, in the place above cited, they used all decent 
and grave variety of rhymes and metres in their 
hymns and psalms. Or whether it were to avoid 
the inconvenience of indecorum and confusion, 
which the people (usually not very observant of 
decency) were guilty of in their joint singing, and 
yet to reserve them a part in these offices, that it 
was so appointed that they should only sing the 
extremes or ends of the verses ; or what else was 
the cause, I leave it to others to judge. 

Lib. II. cap. Ivij. torn. i. p. 265. 


o p 


The prayer following is clearly fitted to the occa- 


MUST OFFEH''. Although oflFerings be always ac- 
ceptable to God, yet some times there are in which 
the Church hath held them more necessary, as 
hath been shewn formerly about offerings: 1. 
when the Church is in want : 2. at the holy Com- 
munion : 3. when we come to give thanks for some 
more than ordinary blessing received : then not only 
in word, but in deed also, to thank God by bringing 
a present to God, Psalm Ixxvi. 10, 11. That this 
is more than an ordinary blessing, a deliverance 
that deserves even perpetual thanks, David tells 
us : " Thou art He that took me out of my mother's 
womb ; my praise shall be always of Thee^." This 
service is to be done betwixt the first and second 
service, as I have learnt by some Bishops' inquiries 
at their visitation ; the reason perhaps is, because 
by this means it is no intemiption of either of these 


This office the Church confesses not to be 
ancient, but appointed instead of an ancient 


^ Rubric after the Thanksgiving. • Psalm Ixxi. 5, 6. 


o^ o 



Church wishes might be restored again. 

Though it be not ancient, yet is it a very useful 
penitential service, either in public or private, con- 
sisting of holy sentences taken out of God's word, 
fit for the work of repentance ; God's holy com- 
mandments, the glass wherein we see our sins; 
holy penitential prayers, taken for the most part 
out of holy Scripture : so that he which prays this 
form, is sure to pray by the Spirit, both for words 
and matter. 

Nothing in it seems to need exposition but the 
Amen, which is to be said after the curses ; which 
being commonly used after prayers, may perhaps 
here be accounted by some a wish or prayer ; and 
so the people be thought to curse themselves. 

For the satisfying of which scrupulosity, it is 
enough to say, that God Himself commanded these 
Amens to be said after these curses, Deut. xxvii., 
and therefore good there may be in saying of them, 
but harm there can be none, if men when they say 
them understand them. Now that we may under- 
stand them when we use them, let us consider that 
Amen is not always a wish or prayer. For it signi- 
fies no more but verily or truly, or an assent to the 
truth of that to which it is added. If that to which 
it is added be a prayer, then this must needs be a 
joining in the prayer, and is as much as so be it ; 
but if that to which it be added be a Creed, or any 

u o 

G O 


affirmative proposition, such as these curses are, 
then the Amen is only an affirmation, as that is to 
which it is annexed. In this place, therefore, it is 
not a wishing that the curses may fall upon our 
heads, but only an affirming with our own mouths 
that the curse of God is indeed due to such sins, as 
the Church here propounds it. The use of it is to 
make us flee such vices for the future, and earnestly 
repent of them, if we be guilty ; since, as we acknow- 
ledge, the curse and vengeance of God doth de- 
servedly follow such sins and sinners. 

Having gone through the several offices in the 
Book of Common Prayer, we will now speak of the 
Rubrics, and other matters, thereunto belonging. 

i3€Dication of &i)\itcl)(^ anl) ©j^apeb 
to ffioD'g ^crbice. 

The public service and worship is to be offered 
up in the Church'. 

And the curate that ministereth in every parish 
church or chapel shall say the same in the parish 
church or chapel. And where may it be so fitly 
done as in the church, which is the house of prayer? 

' Last Rubric of the Preface 

6 O 

o o 


' My house shall be called the house of prayer s.' 
Almighty God always had both persons and places 
set apart for His public service and worship, 
6f)ya,vov Upovpylas 6 va,6s re koI 6 Upeis. A temple 
and a priest are necessary instruments of public 
and holy worship. The priest to offer it up, and 
the church with an altar to offer it upon*". The 
light of nature taught heathens thus miu;h ; and 
they obeyed that light of nature, and dedicated and 
set apart to the worship of their gods, priests and 
temples. The patriarchs, by the same light of 
nature, and the guidance of God's Holy Spirit, 
when they could not set apart houses, being them- 
selves in a flitting condition, dedicated altars for 
God's service. Gen. xxii. 9 ; xxviii. 22, &c. Under 
the Law, God called for a tabernacle, Exod. xxv., 
within which was to be an altar, upon which was to 
be oflfered the daily sacrifice, morning and evening, 
Exod. xxix. 38. David, by the same light of na- 
ture, and the guidance of the Holy Spirit, without 
any express direction from God, (as appears 2 Sam. 
vii. 4 — 17, and also by this, that God did not suffer 
him to build it,) intended and designed a house 
fo God's service and worship ; which (though for 
s ome reasons, viz. because he had shed much blood, 
being a man of war,) God did not suffer him to 
build, yet He accepted it highly from him, and for 

g St. Matt. xxi. 13. 

i" Simeon. Thessal. de Tejnplo, ap. Goar, p. 214. 

6 o 

o ■ o 


this very intention promised to bless liim and his 
for many generations, 2 Sam. vii. But Solomon 
built Him a house, which God accepted, and our 
Saviour owns under the Gospel for His house of 
prayer, whither the Apostles go up to pray. Acts 
iii. 1. 

Afterwards, the Christians set apart, and conse- 
crated with great solemnity of religious rites and 
holy prayers, churches and oratories for the same 
solemn service and worship. Nor can it with rea- 
son be tliought needless or superstitious to use 
solemn religious rites and prayers, at the consecra- 
tion and setting of those houses apart to religious 
uses and services. For, as St. Paul argues in an- 
other case, Doth not even nature teach you, that 
it is unseemly for any man to go about the building 
of a house to the God of heaven, with no other 
appearance than if his end were to rear up a 
kitchen or a parlour for his own use? Did not this 
light of nature teach the patriarchs in the state of 
nature, when they erected altars for God's service, 
to consecrate and set them apart with religious 
solemnities? Gen. xxviii. 18, &c. And did not 
Moses, by the direction of the God of nature, con- 
secrate the tabernacle and altar with the like so- 
lemnities? Exod. xl. And Solomon afterwards con- 
secrated the temple with religious prayers and rites, 
1 Kings viii., without any particular direction from 
God, that we find, only by the light of nature and 

o o 

o o 


right reason, which teacheth, that it is fit that the 
house which is dedicated and given up to God 
should be solemnly surrendered into His possession, 
and by religious rites guarded and defended from 
sacrilegious usurpation. 

Again, nature teaches us by these solemnities, 
that the house so consecrated is to be no more 
used to common and profane employments, but set 
apart to holy and religious services, such as those 
are with which it is consecrated. These things, 
those pious Christians in primitive times did not 
account superfluous. They knew how easily that 
which was meant should be holy and sacred, might 
be drawn from the use whereunto it was first pro- 
vided. They knew how bold men are to take even 
from God Himself; how hardly those houses would 
be kept from impious profanation : they knew, and 
right wisely therefore endeavoured, by such so- 
lemnities to leave in the minds of men that impres- 
sion which might somewhat restrain their boldness, 
and nourish a reverent affection towards the house 
of God, Thus, therefore, they built and set apart 
to God's holy service and worship by religious 
solemnity, churches and oratories, which they 
called dominieas, "the Lord's houses," and basi- 
licas, "royal and kingly houses;" because sacri- 
fices and holy worship were offered up there to the 
great King of all the world. And when persecutors 
at any time destroyed those holy places, as soon as 

o o 

c o 


the storm was over, those blessed souls, the first 
thing they did, rebuilt and rebeautified them', that 
they might worship God, according to the Psalmist's 
rule, " in the beauty of holiness." 

Thus to offer up G od's public service and wor- 
ship in separate and dedicated places, which we call 
churches, is most fit, both for the honour of God 
and our own profit. It is for the honour of God 
to have a house of His own, for His service alone, 
where flesh and blood hath no right or interest, 
where no common or profane thing may be done, 
St. Matt. xxi. 13, therefore called " the habitation 
of His honour^." 

Again ; it is for our profit many ways ; for, first, 
it begets and nourishes in us, dull flesh, a reverence 
and awe to God and His service, to offer it up thus 
in places set apart to that purpose, and so helps 
devotion. Besides, our prayers and public services 
are most readily accepted in such holy separate 
places : "Now mine eyes shall be open, and Mine 
ears attend unto the prayer in this place'." This 
promise of acceptance of our prayer was there, 
indeed, made directly to the house which Solomon 
built, but belongs to any place so dedicated and 
consecrated unto God for His holy service and wor- 
ship : for that is the reason that God gives of His 
gracious readiness to hear the prayer of that holy 

• Euseb. 1. X. cap. ii. p. 370. i" Psalm xxvi. 8. 

' 2 Chron. vii. 15. 



o o 


place : " For now have I chosen and sanctified this 
house, that My name may be there." Now that it 
is dedicated and solemnly set apart by religious 
rites and prayers to My service, " Now have I cho- 
sen," or accepted, " it for Mine," to be called by My 
name, to be for "a house of prayer""," and therefore 
" Mine eyes and My heart shall be there." Then, 
by the rules of logic, a quatetius ad omne valet conse- 
quentia; if because He hath so sanctified this place, 
and accepted it for His, therefore His eyes and 
ears shall be open to the prayer of that place ; by 
the like reason, Avhatsoever place shall be dedicated 
to Him, and accepted by Him, shall have His eyes 
open, and His ear attentive to the prayer of it. 
And God Almighty promises as much : " In all 
places where I record My Name, I will come unto 
thee, and I will bless thee"." In all places dedi- 
cated to Me and My service, and so made Mine, 
'' called by My name," (as Jacob calls his dedicated 
stone " God's house ",") "I will come and bless thee." 
And such are all consecrated churches and chapels. 
And therefore holy Church wisely orders that the 
prayers and public services of God shall be offered 
up there, in " the accustomed place of the church, 
chapel, or chancel." 

■" St. Matt. xxi. 13. » Exod. xx.24. ° Gen. xxviii. 22. 

o o 

o o 


Of &'f)antel^, ill tars, 
dFa^lbton of ®|^urcl)es. 

And the chancels shall remain as they have 
done in times past. 

That we may the better understand the intent of 
this Rubric, it will not be amiss to examine how 
chancels were in times past both for the fashion 
and necessary furniture -, for as they were then, so 
they are to continue still in the same fashion, and 
with the same necessary appendices, utensils, and 
furniture. All this may be, and for aught appears 
to me, must be meant in these words, " The chan- 
cels shall remain as they have done in times past." 

In times past, the fabric of the church, as to the 
nave or body, was built somewhat in the form and 
fashion of a ship, which very figure might mind us 
thus much ; that we were in this world as in a sea, 
tossed and humed with the troublesome waves and 
boisterous winds of divers temptations, which we 
could not be carried safely through, to our haven 
of rest and happiness, but only in the ship of the 

The church of old was parted into two principal 
parts ; nai'is, " the nave or body of the church ;" 
and sacrariwm, " the chancel." The first, the nave, 
was common to all the people that were accounted 

o o 

o — o 


worthy to join in the Church's service ; the chancel 
was proper and peculiar to the priests and sacred 
persons. The nave represents the visible world, 
and the chancel typifies heaven, or, as Simeon 
Thessal. applies it?: 

The whole church is a type of heaven ; Gen. 
xxviii. 17, the house of God is heaven upon earth; 
the nave represents the visible or lowest heaven or 
paradise ; the lights shining aloft, represent the 
bright stars ; the circling roof, the firmament ; the 
priests within the choir beginning the Divine hymns, 
represent the first order of angels that stand before 
God; the deacons, with the readers and singers 
orderly succeeding, the middle order or choir of 
heaven ; the whole company of true believers join- 
ing with the priests and deacons in heart and 
afiection, saying Amen to the Divine hymns and 
prayers, and so inviting and alluring the mercy of 
God, resemble the lowest rank of angels, with 
whom no profane heretic, or imclean notorious 
sinner, is suffered to assemble ; for, " what fellow- 
ship hath light with darkness?" Thus the whole 
church typifies heaven, but the chancel, parted 
and separated from the nave or body of the church, 
so as that it cannot be seen into by those that are 
there, typifies the invisible heaven, or things above 
the heaven, not to be seen by the eye of flesh. 

The nave or body resembles the lowest visible 

p Ap. Goar, p. 216. 

c o 

o -O 


heaven or paradise ; and as man for sin was cast 
out of Eden's paradise into the earth, accursed to 
briers and thorns, there to eat his bread in sorrow, 
and not suffered by the flaming sword to enter 
again, Gen.iii. 17 — 24, till, after much affliction and 
sorrow in this troublesome world, he shall be recon- 
ciled to God by repentance, and so, his peace being 
made, be received, as the thief upon the cross was, 
to our Lord Christ in paradise ; so, in like manner, 
notorious sinners were, by the sentence of excom- 
munication, cast out of that paradise, the body of 
the church, abroad into the church porch, which 
represents the earth, not to be received in again to 
the society of the faithful, till after a wearisome at- 
tendance there in a place called of old narthex or 
ferula, (because those that stood there were under 
the Church' s/ei-M^a or censure,) begging the prayers, 
entreating the tears, hanging upon the knees of all 
that entered into the church, by much spiritual 
affliction and castigation they had made their peace 
and were reconciled. 

In the nave, we shall mention but two things as 
observable here ; first, the doors, called wpaias, the 
beiutiful doors or gate. Acts iii. 2, because those 
that had entered them might see the whole beauty 
of the church ; and the pulpit, &fj.fia)v, which stood 
in the midst or side of the nave*". This signifies the 
stone rolled away from the sepulchre ; and because 

1 Simeon. Thessal. ap. Goar, p. 116. 

o o 

c— c 


the angel, sitting upon it, preached the Gospel of 
the resurrection of Christ to the women, St. Matt, 
xxviii. 6, the priests and deacons, imitating the 
angel's pattern, from this pulpit, publish and pro- 
claim the glad tidings of the Gospel. 

The chancel was divided from the body of the 
church, canceUis, whence it is called the chancel. 
This was, as was said, peculiar to the priests and 
sacred persons. In it were, at least in some princi- 
pal churches, these divisions : chorus cantorum, " the 
choir ;" where was a high seat for the Bishop, and 
other stalls or seats for the rest of the choir: yet 
perhaps this chorus, as also the next, called soleas, 
might be more properly reckoned a part of the 
nave ; and the chancel properly that which of old 
was called Hyioy $rjua, " the sanctuary," which was 
separated from the rest of the church with rails, and 
whither indeed none but sacred persons entered ; 
whereas the laity entered into the other, as will 
appear after ; but account it to which you please, 
such a place there was, and immediately beyond it, 
divided from the choir with boards on the one side, 
and from the sanctuary by the rails of the altar on 
the other side, was a place called soleas, from the 
Latin solium, or throne, because this was Christ's 
lower throne ; His higher or upper throne was the 
altar, where the precious body and blood of Christ 
was consecrated and offered : and this was His 
lower throne, where the Bishop or priest, in Christ 


o o 


His stead, stood and distributed the lioly sacrament 
to tbe people. Beyond this is 0710^ fivfia, " the 
sanctuary," railed in of old, as you may see plainly', 
that it might not be pressed upon by the multitude'. 
At the upper end of this sanctuary or chancel is 
a large arch or apsis ; within that, a seat called 
(Tvvdpovos, a seat or seats built for the Bishop and 
his assistant priests in the celebration ; the middle 
of which is the highest, where the chief Bishop 
sat, which St. Chrysostom in his liturgy calls r)]v 
&VU) KideSpav^. Of this seat is the 56th canon of 
the Council of Laodicea to be understood, " The 
priests ought not to go into the church and sit in 
tribunalibus, before the Bishop be entered, unless 
he be sick, and cannot come"." The Bishop sitting 
in this seat by the altar, (liaviug his assistant 
priests sitting with him,) resembles Christ (with His 
Apostles by Him) instituting the holy sacrament, 
and blessing the prayers offered up at the altar by 
the priest. Right under this seat stood the altar, 
or holy table, the propitiatory, Christ's monument, 
and the tabernacle of His glory ; the seat of the 
great sacrifice x. 

Now that no man take offence at the word altar, 
let him know that anciently both these names, 
altar, or holj/ table, were used for the same things, 
though most frequently the fathers and councils 

' Syn. Calc. Act. i. torn. iv. p. 94. » Euseb. Eccles. Hist. 1. 
X. cap. iv. p. 381. C. ' Goar, p. 58. " Can. Laoclic. LVI. ap. cod. 
can. Eccles. Univ. p. 54. ' Simeon. Thessal. ap. Goar, p. 216. 

c o 

o . o 


use the word altar. And both are fit names for 
that holy thing ; for the holy Eucharist, being con- 
sidered as a sacrifice, in the representation of the 
breaking of the bread, and pouring forth the cup, 
doing that to the holy symbols which was done to 
Christ's body and blood, and so shewing forth and 
commemorating the Lord's death, and offering upon 
it the same sacrifice that was offered upon the 
cross, or rather the commemoration of that sacri- 
fice y, may fitly be called an altar, which again is 
as fitly called a holy table, the Eucharist being 
considered as a sacrament, which is nothing else 
but a distribution and application of the sacrifice to 
the several receivers. 

To put all out of doubt, it is questionless lawful 
and safe to speak the language of the New Testa- 
ment, and to give this holy thing the name which is 
given it there ; now there it is called an altar, " We 
have an altar*;" St. Paul, in the verse before, had 
persuaded that they should not be carried away 
with strange doctrines of Jewish and carnal ob- 
servances, which are grown unprofitable to those 
that walk in them. " For we have an altar " now, 
whereof they that serve at the tabernacle, the 
Jewish priests, have no right to eat, unless they 
will receive the faith of Christ ; our altar is better 
than tlieirs, and theirs was but a shadow of ours ; 

r S. Chrysost. in Heb. x. 9. Horn. XVII. torn. xii. p. 169. 
' Heb. xiii. 10. 

o o 

o o 


the sacrifices of their altar but types of ours ; theirs 
are vanished and ours only continue. And for this 
reason, do you leave strange doctrines of legal ob- 
servances, and Jewish altars, and continue in the 
grace of the Gospel ; whose altar is to continue ; 
" for we have an altar." Again, " WTien thou 
bringest thy gift to the altar*." That precept and 
direction for offerings is evangelical, as is proved at 
large in the office for the Communion b; and if the 
duty there mentioned be evangelical, then altars are 
to be under the Gospel ; for those gifts are to be 
offered upon the altar, so that I hope we may go on 
and call it altar without offence. 

To return then to the appendices of the chancel : 
on each side or wing of the altar, in the transverse 
line, which makes the figure of the cross, stand 
two side tiibles: the one, mensa propositionis, 
rpdne^a irpoQiffiws, a by-Standing table, appointed 
for the people's offerings, which the Bishop or priest 
there standing received from the people, offered 
upon that table in their name, and blessed; and 
though the oblations there offered were not yet 
consecrated, yet were they there fitted and prepared 
for consecration, and were types of the body and 
blood of Christ'. The other was a-KevocpvKaKftov, 
sacnst(B mensa, " the vestry," where the holy books 
and vestments were laid up and kept by the dea- 
cons, who also sat there at the time of the Com- 

St. Matt. V. 23. >> p. 207. « Simeon. Thessal. Goar, p. 216. 


o— o 


m union service, at least, as many of tliem as were 
necessary to assist the Bishop or priest in his min- 
istration. Thence was the same place called also 
diaconicum. These several places, and this furni- 
ture, some principal and cathedral chancels had; 
which I have named, not that I think this Euhric 
does require them all in every chancel, but because 
I conceive the knowledge of them may serve to help 
us in the understanding of some ancient canons 
and ecclesiastical story. But though all chancels 
of old had not all these, yet every chancel had, even 
in rural churches, an altar for the consecrating of 
the holy Eucharist, which they always had in high 
estimation. " The ancients," says St. Chrysostom, 
" would have stoned any one that should have over- 
thrown or pulled down an altar*"." Gregory Nazi- 
anzen commends his mother for that " she never 
was known to turn her back upon the altar«." 
And Optatus' accuses the peevish Donatists of the 
highest kind of sacrilege, because " they broke and 
removed the altars of God, where the people's pray- 
ers were offered. Almighty God was invocated, the 
Holy Ghost was petitioned to descend ; where 
many received the pledge of eternal life, the defence 
of faith, the hope of the resurrection. What is the 
altar, but the seat of the body and blood of Christ ? 

"i S. Chrysost. Horn. LIII. ad pop. Antioch. torn. v. p. 301. D- 
edit. Lat. ' Oral, xviii. in Fun. Patr. torn. i. p. 286. 

' Lib. VL cap. i. p. 90. 

o o 

c o 


and yet your fury hath either shaken, or broken, or 
removed these : every of these is crime enough, 
while you lay sacrilegious hands upon a thing so 
holy. If your spite were at ixs that there were 
wont to worship God, yet wherein had God offended 
you, who was wont to be there called upon ? Wliat 
had Christ offended you, whose body and blood, at 
certain times and moments, dwelt there ? In this 
you have imitated the Jews ; they laid hands upon 
Christ on the cross, you have wounded Him in His 
altars. By this doing you are entered into the list 
of the sacrilegious. You have made yourselves of 
the number of them that Elias complains of, ' Lord, 
they have broken down Thine altars ».' It should 
have sufficed your madness that you had won-ied 
Christ's members, that you had broken His people, 
so long united, into so many sects and factions, at 
least you should have spared His altars." So he, 
and much more to the same pui-pose. 

Many more testimonies to the same purpose 
might be brought ; but this may shew sufficiently 
the respect they had to the altar ; first, the epithets 
they gave it, calling it the Divine, the dreadful, 
altar ; secondly, their bowing and adoring that 
way, turning their faces that way in their public 
prayers, as towards the chiefest and highest place 
of the church ; lastly, placing it aloft in all their 
churches at the upper end, the east. For so both 

S 1 Kings xix. 10. 

o o 

o o 


Socrates and Nicephorus tell us*", the altar was 
placed ad orientem, " at the east," in all Christian 
churches, except in Antiochia Syriae, in Antioch. 
And so they stood at the east in the church of 
England till Queen Elizabeth's time, when some of 
them were taken down, indeed, upon what grounds 
I dispute not ; but wheresoever the altars were 
taken down, the holy tables, which is all one, were 
set up in the place where the altars stood by the 
Queen's Injunctions, and so they continued in most 
cathedral churches ; and so ought to have conti- 
nued in all ; for that was enjoined by Queen 
Elizabeth's Injunctions, forbidden by no after 
law that I know, but rather confirmed by this Ru- 
bric, " For the chancels are to remain as in 


'STj^e ISibhic ^crbtce mag ie gai'D 

We have seen the reason of the Church's com- 
mand, that the holy service should be offered up in 
the church or chapel, &c. But what if a church 
cannot be had to say our office in ? shall the 
sacrifice of rest, the holy service, be omitted ? By 

'' Lib. XII. cap. xxxiv. torn. ji. p. 297. 

c o 

O o 


no means. If a church may not be had, " The 
for God's worship must not be neglected or omitted 
for want of a circumstance. It is true, the church 
is the most convenient place for it, and adds much 
to the beauty of holiness. And he that should 
neglect that decency, and despising the church 
should offer up the public worship in private, 
should sin against that law of God that says, 
" Cursed is he that having a better lamb in his 
flock, offers up to God a worse:" for God Almighty 
must be served with the best we have, otherwise 
we despise Him. He that can have a church, and 
will offer up the holy service in a worse place, let 
him fear that curse : but if a church cannot be had, 
let him not fear or omit to offer up the holy service 
in a convenient place in private, having a desire to 
the church, and looking toward the temple in prayer, 
2 Chron. vi. 29 ; for it will be accepted according to 
that equitable rule of St. Paul, " If there be a will- 
ing mind, God accepts according to that a man 
hath, and not according to that he hath not''." 

Agreeable to this command of holy Church, we 
find it directed in the Clementine Constitutions', 
" If, O Bishop or priest, you cannot go to the church 
because of infidels or persecutors, gather a congre- 
gation in a private house ; but if you cannot be 

1 Rubric 2. k 2 Cor. viii. 12. 

1 Lib. VIII. cap. xxxiv. Cot. Patr. torn. i. p. 420. 

o o 

o o 


suffered to meet together, no not in a private house,' 
psallat sibi unusquisque, "let every man say the 
office in private by himself." Let every layman say 
this morning and evening office, his psalter, leaving 
out that which is peculiar to the priest, absolution, 
and solemn benediction ; and let him know that 
when he prays thus alone, he prays with company, 
because he prays in the Church's communion, the 
Common prayer and vote of the Church. But let 
not the priest, of all others, fail to offer this service 
of the congregation. This public worship, this 
savour of rest, though by himself in private looking 
towards the temple, " lifting up his hands toward 
the mercy-seat of the holy temple ;" that is, having 
in his " soul a desire and longing to enter into the 
courts of the Lord""," praying with David, that he 
may " go unto the altar of God, the God of our joy 
and gladness," to offer up His service there, and it 
will be acceptable. 

©f ti)c C?rnamcnt0 to ht useD in 
33Hjtnc 5etfalcc. 

The Minister in time of hts ministration 
shall use such ornaments as were in 

" Psalm Ixxxiv. 2. 

o o 

o o 


USE IN THE second of Edward VI. °, viz. a surplice 
in the ordinary ministration, and a cope in time 
of ministration of the holy communion, in cathedral 
and collegiate churches: Queen Elizabeth's Articles" 
set forth the seventh year of her reign. This ap- 
pointment of decent sacred vestments for the priest 
in his holy ministration, is according to God's own 
direction to Moses, " Thou shalt make holy raiments 
for Aaron and his sons, that are to minister unto 
Me, that they may be for glory and beauty." And 
good reason : for if distinct habits be esteemed a 
beauty to solemn actions of royalty and justice, so 
that princes and judges appear not without their 
robes, when they appear in public to do those 
solemn acts ; shall they not be esteemed a beauty 
likewise to solemn religious services? Or shall it 
be thought necessary to preserve respect and awe 
to royalty and justice, and shall it not be counted 
as necessary to preserve an awful respect to God's 
holy service and worship ? And if such respect to 
God's service be indeed necessary, then cannot 
sacred distinct vestments, nor sacred separate 
places be thought unnecessary : for by these and 
such like decencies, our awe to religion is pre- 
served; and experience teaches, that where they 
are thrown off, religion is soon lost. 

" White garments in holy services were anciently 

" Rubric 2. " Sparrow's Collection of Articles, p. 124. 
P Exod. xxviii. 2. 


c o 


used "J;" and they suit fitly with that lightsome aflfec- 
tion of joy, wherein God delights when the saints 
praise Him, Psalm cxlix. 1 ; and lively resemble the 
glory of the saints in heaven, together with the 
beauty wherein angels have appeared to men. Rev. 
XV. 6 ; St. Mark xvi. 5 ; that they which are to ap- 
pear for men in the presence of God as angels, if 
they were left to their choice and would choose, 
could not easily devise a garment of more decency 
for such a service, says excellent Master Hooker'. 

Of tfn foorD ^tie^t 

The Greek and Latin words which we translate 
priest, are derived from words which signify holy : 
and so the word priest, according to the etymology, 
signifies him whose mere charge and function is 
about holy things : and therefore seems to be a 
most proper word to him who is set apart to the 
holy public service and worship of God : especially 
when he is in the actual ministration of holy things. 
Wherefore in the Rubrics which direct him in his 
ministration of tliese holy public services, the word 
priest is most commonly used, both by this Church 

1 S. Chrysost. Horn. LX. torn. v. p. 313. edit. Lat. 
■■ B. V. ch. xxix. § 5. vol. ii. p. 170. 

6 — o 

o o 


and all the primitive Churches, Greek and Latin, 
as far as I can find ; and I believe it can scarce be 
found, that in any of the old Greek or Latin 
liturgies, the word presbyter was used in the 
Rubrics that direct the order of service, but in the 
Greek Up^vs, and in the Latin sacerdos, which we 
in English translate priest, which I suppose to be 
done upon this ground, that this word priest is the 
most proper for him that ministers, in the time of 
his ministration. 

If it be objected, that, according to the usual 
acception of the word, it signifies him that offers 
up a sacrifice, and therefore cannot be allowed to 
a Minister of the Gospel, who hath no sacrifice to 

It is answered, that the ministers of the Gospel 
have sacrifices to offer; "Ye are built up a spi- 
ritual house, a holy priesthood to offer up spiritual 
sacrifices'" of prajer, praises, thanksgivings, &c. 
In respect of these the ministers of the Gospel 
may be safely, in a metaphorical sense, called 
priests, and in a more eminent manner than other 
Christians are ; because they are taken from among 
men to offer up these sacrifices for others. But 
besides these spiritual sacrifices mentioned, the 
ministers of the Gospel have another sacrifice to 
offer, viz. the uubloody sacrifice, as it was anciently 
called, the commemorative sacrifice of the death 

• 1 St. Peter u. 5. 

6 ( 

o o 


of Christ, which does as really and truly shew forth 
the death of Christ, as those sacrifices under the 
Law did foreshewit; and in respect of this sacrifice 
of the Eucharist, the ancients have usually called 
those that offer it up, priests. And if Melchisedek 
was called a priest, (as he is often by St. Paul to 
the Hebrews,) who yet had no other oflfering or 
sacrifice that we read of but that of bread and wine, 
"he brought forth bread and wine';" and, "or," 
for (the Hebrew word bears both) he was a priest, 
that is, this act of his was an act of priesthood, 
for so must it be refen-ed, " he brought forth bread 
and wine," for he was a priest ; and not thus, and 
he was a priest, and blessed Abraham, (for both 
in the Hebrew and Greek there is a full point after 
these words " and, or, for he was a priest.") If, I 
say, Melchisedek be fi-equently and truly called a 
priest, who had no other offering that we read of 
but bread and wine, why may not they, whose office 
is to bless the people as Melchisedek did, and besides 
that to offer that holy bread and wine, the body 
and blood of Christ, of which his bread and wine 
at the most was but a type, be as truly and without 
offence called priests also ? 

If it be again objected, that the word priest is a 
Jewish name, and therefore not to be used by 
Christians : 

I. It is answered, first, that not every thing that 

' Gen. xiv. 18. 

o o 

o o 


was Jewish is become unlawful for Christians to 
use. I find, indeed, that those things amongst the 
Jews that were shadows of things to come, are 
abolished now that Christ is come, Col. ii. 16, 17, 
and therefore to Use them, as still necessary and 
obliging to performance, is unlawful under the 
Gospel, for it is virtually to deny Christ to be come : 
" an entangling ourselves again in the yoke of bond- 
age, from which Christ hath set us free"." And 
therefore St. Paul tells the Colossians there, that 
he was afraid of them for their superstitious ob- 
servation of sabbaths, which were shadows of things 
to come : and in that chapter to the Galatians, 
he does denounce damnation to them that " en- 
tangle themselves again in that yoke of bondage." 
But that other things, rites or usages of the Jews, 
which were no such shadows, should be unlawful 
to Christians if they were used without such an 
opinion of necessity as we formerly spake of, I 
cannot persuade myself can ever be proved by 
either direct Scripture, or necessary inference from 
it It will not therefore follow, that the name of 
priest, (which is no shadow of things to come,) 
though it were Jewish, would become unlawful to 

II. The names of those rites and ceremonies 
which were most Jewish, and are grown damnable 
to Christians, may still be lawfully used by Chris- 

» Gal. V. 1. 

O O 

O Qi 


tians in a spiritual and refined sense. St. Paul, who 
tells that the circumcision of the Jews is become 
so unlawful, that if it be used by Christians (with 
an opinion of the necessity aforesaid) it forfeits all 
their hopes of salvation by Christ, Col. ii. 2, uses 
the word circumcision frequently, particularly in 
that very chapter, verse 1 1 , " In whom ye " Chris- 
tians " are circumcised." Seep. 137. 

III. The word priest is not a Jewish name, that 
is, not peculiar to the Jewish ministry. For Mel- 
chisedek, who was not of Aaron's order or priest- 
hood, is called a priest by St. Paid to the Hebrews 
often: and our Saviour is a priest after the order 
of Melchisedek : and the ministers of the Gospel are 
called priests by the Prophet Isaiah, ch. Ixvi. 21 ; 
Jer. xxxiii. 18; where they prophesy of the times 
of the Gospel, as will appear by the context and 
ancient exposition. Lastly, St. Paul, where he 
defines a minister of the Gospel, as well as of the 
Law, as hath been proved, (p. 62. of the Rationale,) 
calls him priest, Heb. v. and viii. To sum up all 
then ; that name which was not Jewish, but common 
to others ; that name which was frequently and 
constantly used by primitive Christians ; that name 
by which the Prophets foretell that the ministers of 
the Gospel shall be called ; lastly, that name by 
which St. Paul calls them ; may not only lawfully 
but safely, without any just gfround of offence to 
sober men, be used still by Christians, as a fit name 

o — ^ ■ o 

[o o 


for the ministers of the Gospel ; and so they may 
be still called, as they are by the Church of England 
in her Rubric, priests. 

Of tl)t translation of tf)c i^galmjS in 
ti)t 33oo& of ©ommon ^tager. 

The Psalms in our English Liturgy are accord- 
ing to the translation set forth in the latter part of 
King Henry the Eighth's reign, after that Petrxis 
Gelatinus had brought in the pronouncing and 
writing the name Jehovah, never before used or 
heard of in any language; which is used in this 
our translation. Psalm xxxiii. 12; Ixxxiii. 18. 

The Bishop's Bible, (set forth in the beginning 
of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and used in churches 
till the new translation under King James,) though 
a much different translation from the former in 
other parts, yet retains the same Psalms without 
any alteration. And therefore whereas it hath 
notes upon all the rest of the books both of the 
Old and New Testament, it hath none at all upon 
the Psalms, not so much as references to parallel 

o o 

O o 


The reason hereof, I suppose, was to avoid offend- 
ing the people, who were used to that translation, 
and to whom tlie Psalms were more familiar than 
any other part of the Bible. As St. Jerome, in his 
edition of the Latin Bible, retained the psalms of 
the old Latin translation out of the Septuagint, 
though himself also had translated them juxta He- 
braicam veritafem, as they are extant at the end of 
the eighth tome of his works. 

This our translation was doubtless out of the 
Hebrew. And though it ties not itself so strictly 
to the letter and words of the Hebrew as the later 
translations would seem to do, but takes the liberty 
to vary a little for the smoothing of the language ; 
yet it holds to the sense and scope more than some 
suppose it doth, and many times much more than 
those who would seem to stick so close to the 

Some have had a conceit that this translation 
was out of the Septuagint, or (which is all one in 
effect) out of the vulgar Latin. But the contrary 
is evident, and will appear to any man that shall 
compare them but in any one psalm. 

In one case indeed this translation may seem to 
follow the Seventy and vulgar Latin against the 
Hebrew, namely, in addition of some words or 
clauses, sometimes whole vei-ses, not found in the 
Hebrew. But this case excepted, where it once 
agrees with the Seventy and vulgar Latin against 

o — o 

Q O 


the Hebrew, it forty times agrees with the Hebrew 
against them. 

And for these additions : 

I. They were made to satisfy them who had 
missed those words or sentences in the former 
English translations, finding them in the Greek or 

II. In that edition, 1540, they were put in a 
different character from the rest, and in some later 
editions betwen two hooks [ ], of which there are 
even still some remainders, though now for the most 
part neglected. 

III. Neither does this our translation always 
follow the Seventy and vulgar Latin, even in addi- 
tions. As for example : 

Not Psalm i. 5, in the repetition of the words 
ovx oSrws. 

Not Psalm Ixviii. 5, Tapax&VCOfTat airh irpocrd-n-ov 

Not Psalm cxxv. 3, Kvpios. 

Not Psalm cxxxviii. 4, Trdvra. 

Not Psalm cxlv, in the verse put in between 13 
and 14, nitrrbs Kvpios 4v iraai rdis K6yois avrov, koI 
iffios iv iraffi to7s ipyois avrov, though it may seem to 
be wanting in our present Hebrew copies, all the 
rest of the verses of this psalm going in order of 
the alphabet, and this verse, which should begin 
with (3) only wanting in our present copies, but 

See the Preface to the English Bible in folio, 1540. 



o o 



found, or supposed by the Seventy, to begin with 

IV. The additions are not very many wherein 
it doth follow them. The chiefest which I have 
observed are these : 

" From the face of the earth," Psalm i. 5. 

"Unto Him," ii. 11. 

" Right," ii. 12. 

" His," iii. 2. 

" And oil," iv. 8. 

" Strong and patient," vii. 12. 

" The poor," xi. 5. 

" Yea, I will praise the name of the Lord most 
Highest," xiii. 6. 

" No, not one," xiv. 4. 

" Their throat is an open sepulchre, ^c. before 
their eyes," xiv. 5 — 7. 

" Even where no fear was," xiv. 9. 

"My," xix. 12. 

" Alway," xix. 14. 

"Look upon me," xxii. 1. 

"My," xxii. 31. 

" The heavens," xxii. 32. 

" Thy," xxiii. 6. 

" His neighbour," xxiv. 4. 

" Neither destroy me," xxviii. 3. 

" Bring young rams unto the Lord," the Hebrew 
words D vK 03 twice translated, xxix. 1 . 

" From me," xxx. 7. 

o o 

. Q O 


" Unto Him," xxxiii. 3. 

"And casteth out the counsels of princes," 
xxxiii. 10. 

" All," xxxvi. 12. 

" The unrighteous shall be punished," xxxvii. 29. 
edit. 1540. 

" His place," xxxvii. 37. 

" Even mine enemies," xxxviii. 16. 

" God," xxxviii. 22. 

"And needy," xli. 1. 

" And Amen," xli. 13^. 

" That trouble me," xlii. 12. 

" Wrought about with divers colours," xlv. 10. 

" God," in the Latin only, not in the Greek, 
xlv. 12. 

" Our," xlvii. 6. 

" Of the earth," xlviii. 3. 

"Wickedly," 1.21. 

"Great," li. 1. 

" Peradventure," Iv. 13. 

" Lord," Iv. 25. 

" In Jemsalem," Ixv. 1. 

"And be merciful unto us," Ixvii. 1. 

" That I may sing of Thy glory," Ixxi. 7, 

" I said," Ixxiii. 12. 

" In the gates of the daughter of Sion," Ixxiii. 27. 

" Our," Ixxviii. 3. 

" Concerning me," Ixxxv. 8. 

y " And Amen" is not in the version of our present Liturgy. 

c o 

X t 

o o 


" Of the house," xcii. 12. 

" The Lord," xcv. 7. 

" My heart is ready," repeated, cviii. 1 . 

" Praise the Lord for the returning again of Ag- 
geus and Zachary the Prophets," cxi. 11. edit. 1540. 

" Thou house of," cxv. 9. 

" That He is gracious and," cxviii. 2. 

" Lord," cxix. 97. 

" Neither the temples of my head to take any 
rest," cxxxii. 4. 

"Now," cxxxiv. 1. 

" Even in the courts of the house of our God," 
cxxxiv. 2. 

"O give thanks unto the Lord of lords: for 
His mercy endureth for ever," heiug in the Latin 
only, not in the Greek, cxxxvi. 27. 

"Thee, O," cxxxvii. 1. 

"OLord," cxlv. 15. 

" And herb for the use of men," cxlvii. 8. 

" He spake the word, and they were made," 
cxlviii. 5. 

For Psalm Iviii. 8, " Or ever your pots," &c. I 
conceive our translation to agree very well both 
with the sense and letter of the Hebrew. Neither 
doth it go alone -. but so translated both Pagnin a 
little before, and Castellio since ; who both keep 
as close to the sense of the Hebrew, and Pagniji to 
the letter also, as any that I have observed. 

C ; 

O — ( 


Pagnin, (whom Vatablus follows). Antequam 
sentiant lehetes tvstri ignem rhamni : sicut euro 
cruda, sic ira ut turbo perdat eum. 

Castellio. Ac veluti si cujus oU<b spinas [Annot. 
ignem qui fieri solet ex spinis] nondum senserint : 
sic illi tanquam crudi per iram vexentur. [Anaot. 
Pereant aetate immatura, ut si carnes ex oUa extra- 
hantur semicrudae''.] 

See also Calvin in Loo. 

For Psalm cv. 28, "They were not oLedient," &c. 

Herein our translators follow the Seventy, who 
(supposing this to be spoken of the Egyptians) 
translate the Hebrew words V"im TIN YSO vh'\ G^^v- 
ing out the negative particle) aal irapeirlKpavav robs 
\6yovs avTov, et exacerbaverunt sermones ejtis, (or, 
according to another reading, 'on irapeiriKpavav, qttia 
exacerbaverunt,) which is all one with our English, 
" They were not obedient," that is, they rebelled, 
or were disobedient, mO and yyo exchanging signi- 

And this reading is also followed by the Syriac, 
the Arabic, and the Ethiopic translations. 

Only (which is strange) the vulgar Latin, which 
usually in the Psalms is a mere translation of the 
Seventy, yet here differs from them, and puts in 
the negative particle according to the Hebrew. 

' Critici Sacri, in loc. 

o — — o 

O . o 


And in three other things in the same hemistich it 
differs not only from the Seventy, but also irom the 
Hebrew, and from St. Jerome, and from all other 
translations that I have seen, viz. altering the verb 
from the plural number to the singular. II. Sup- 
posing Deus to be the nominative case to it. And 
so, III. making the pronoun affixed to be reci- 
procal. Et non exacerbavit sermones suos. 

See Mr. Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity % where 
he defends this our translation thus far at least, 
that it does not contradict tlie present Hebrew, as 
(it seems) was objected. 

The Epistles and Gospels in our Liturgy seem to 
follow Coverdale's Translation, printed 1540. 

" Here ends the Book of Common Prayer, truly 
so called, being composed by the public spirit, and 
prescribed by the public authority of the Church, 
for the public service and worship of God, to be 
offered up to Him, in the name and spirit of the 
Church, by those who are ordained for men in 
things pertaining to God, to which every person 
of the Church may, according to St. Paul, say 
Amen with underetanding, because he knows be- 
forehand to what he is to say Amen. Jlimfs M rh 
avrh iv rp irpwreuxf? irpocrepxiffOey /J-ia Sfrjffts fffrw 
KOLvii, fh yovs. " Come all together to the same 

B. V. ch. xix. § ii. vol. ii. p. 82. 


o o 


prayer, let there be one Common Prayer, one and 
the same mind and spirit''." 


I will pray with the Spirit, and I will pray with 
the understanding also. 

Obsecrationum sacerdotalium Sacramenta respici- 
amus, qxuB ah Apostolis tradita in toto orbe, afquein 
otnni Catholica Ecclesia uniformiter eelebrantur, ut 
legem credendi, lex statuat supplicandi'^. 

•> Ignat. ad Magnesianos, torn. II. ii. p. 308. 
' Gennad. Eccles. Dogm. XXX. p. 16. 


o o 

In a Clause of an Act for a public Thanksgiving 
every year on the Fifth day of November, for 
Deliverance from the Gunpowder Treason. 3 Jac. 
I. Reg. cap. i. Statutes at Large, vol. iii. p. 37. 

After setting forth the great Blessings this Kingdom 
then enjoyed, 

The Treason is thus expressed : 

" The which manymalignantand devilish Papists, 
Jesuits, and seminaiy Priests, much envying and 
fearing, conspired most liorribly, when the King's 
most excellent Majesty, the Queen, the Prince, and 
all the Lords spiritual and temporal, and Commons, 
should have been assembled in the upper house of 
Parliament, upon the fifth day of November, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand six hundred and five, 
suddenly to have blown up the said whole house 
with gunpowder: an invention so inhuman, barba- 
rous, and cruel, as the like was never before heard 
of, &c., and Avhich would have turned to the utter 
ruin of this whole kingdom, had it not pleased 
Almighty God, by inspiring the king'smost excellent 
Majesty with a Divine Spirit, to interpret some dark 

o o 

o o 


phrases of a letter shewed to his Majesty, above 
and beyond all ordinary construction, thereby mi- 
raculously discovering this hidden treason not many 
hours before the appointed time for the execution 
thereof &c. [Then ascribing all the glory to God 
for this infinite blessing :] And to the end this un- 
feigned thankfulness may never be forgotten, but 
be had in a perpetual remembrance, that all ages 
to come may yield praises to His Divine Majesty 
for the same, and have in memory this joyful day 
of deliverance. 

" Be it enacted, &c. That all and singular min- 
isters in every cathedral and parish church, or other 
usual place for Common Prayer within this realm 
of England and the dominions of the same, shall 
always, upon the fifth day of November, say morn- 
ing prayer, and give unto Almighty God thanks for 
this most happy deliverance, and that all aud every 
person and persons shall alway upon that day dili- 
gently and faithfully resort to the parish church or 
chapel accustomed, or to some usual church or 
chapel, where the said morning prayer, preaching, 
or other service of God shall be used, and then and 
there to abide orderly and soberly, during the time 
of the said prayers, preaching, or other service of 
God, there to be used and ministered, Sec. That 
public notice be given by the Minister in every 
church the Sunday before every fifth day of No- 
vember, and then and there read the Act." 

o — o 

o o 


Anno 3 Jac. I. Keg. cap. ii. " Divers persons are 
attainted of High Treason, for conspiring to blow 
up with gunpowder the Parliament Houses, in 
which statute the Treason is again rehearsed, as 
followeth," viz. — 

" That Guy Fawkes, and others there named, did 
undertake the execution of the most wicked, bar- 
barous, execrable, and abominable Treason that 
ever could enter into the heart of the most wicked 
man, by blowing up with gunpowder the house of 
Parliament, at such time as your most excellent 
Majesty, and your dearest consort the Queen, and 
the most noble Prince Henry, together with the 
Lords spiritual and temporal, the Judges of the 
realm, and tlie Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses of 
Parliament should be in the said Parliament house 
assembled, (for which most traitorous and bar- 
barous purpose there were secretly laid in a vault 
or cellar under the Parliament house thirty-six 
barrels of gunpowder or thereabouts,) to the utter 
overthrow and subversion of the whole state of this 
flourishing and renowned kingdom, if God of His 
infinite mercy had not most miraculously, by youi- 
Majesty's blessed direction discovered the same, in 
finding out the said barrels of gunpowder in the said 
vault or cellar but few hours before the time ap- 
pointed for the execution thereof: all which most 
heinous, horrible, and damnable treasons are most 
manifest and apparent by the voluntary confes- 

o o 

c o 


sions and acknowledgments of the offenders them- 
selves "*," &c. 

In a Clause of an Act entituled, An Act for the 
attainder of several persons guilty of the 
horrid murder of his late sacred Majesty 
King Charles I. 12 Car. II. cap. xxx. Stat, 
at Large, vol. iii. p. 185. 

The King's Martyrdom is thus set forth. 

" That the horrid and execrable murder of your 
Majesty's royal father, our late most gracious 
sovereign Charles the First, of ever blessed and 
glorious memory, hath been committed by a party 
of wretched men, desperately wicked and hardened 
in their impiety, who having first plotted and con- 
trived the ruin and destruction of this excellent 
monarchy, and with it of the true reformed Pro- 
testant religion, which had been so long protected 
by it and flourished under it, found it necessary, in 
order to the carrying on of their pernicious and 
traitorous designs, to throw down all the bulwarks 
and fences of law, and to subvert the very being 
and constitution of Parliament, that so they might 
at last make their way open for any further at- 

'' See more 3 Jac. I. Regis, chap. iv. and v. 

o o 

o o 


tempts upon the sacred person of his Majestj' him- 
self; and that for the more easy effecting thereof, 
they did first seduce some part of the then anny 
into a compliance, and then kept the rest in sub- 
jection to them, partly for hopes of preferment, 
and chiefly for fear of losing their employmei^^s and 
arrears, until by these, and other more odious arts 
and devices, they had fully strengthened themselves 
both in power and faction, which being done, they 
did declare against all manner of treaties with the 
person of the king, even then while a treaty, by 
advice of both houses of parliament, was in being, 
remonstrate against the houses of Parliament for 
such proceedings, seize upon his royal person while 
the commissioners were returned to the house of 
Parliament with his answer, and when his conces- 
sions had been voted a ground for peace, seize 
upon the House of Commons, seclude and imprison 
some members, force out others, and there being 
left but a small remnant of their own creatures, 
(not a tenth part of the whole,) did seek to shelter 
themselves by this weak pretence under the name 
and authority of a Parliament, and in that name 
laboured to prosecute what was yet behind and un- 
finished of their long intended treason and conspi- 
racy. To this purpose they prepared an ordinance 
for erecting a prodigious and unheard-of tribunal, 
which they called an High Court of Justice, for 
trial of his Majesty ; and having easily procured it 

c— o 

o o 


to pass in their House of Commons as it then stood 
moulded, ventured to send it up from thence to the 
Peers then sitting, who totally rejected it, where- 
upon their rage and fury increasing, they presume 
to pass it alone as an act of the Commons, and in 
the name of the commons of England, and having 
gained the pretence of law, made by a power of 
their own making, pursue it \vith all possible force 
and cruelty, until at last, upon the thirtieth day of 
January, one thousand six hundred forty and eight, 
his sacred Majesty was brought imto a scaffold, and 
there publicly murdered before the gates of his own 
royal palace ; and because by this horrid action the 
Protestant religion hath received the greatest wound 
and reproach, and the people of England the most 
insupportable shame and infamy that it was pos- 
sible for the enemies of God and the King to bring 
upon us, whilst the fanatic rage of a few miscreants 
(who were as far from being ti-ue Protestants as 
they were from being true subjects) stands im- 
puted by our adversaries to the whole nation : we 
therefore, your Majesty's said dutiful and loyal sub- 
jects, the Lords and Commons in Parliament as- 
sembled, do hereby renounce, abominate, and pro- 
test against that impious fact, the execrable murder 
and most unparalleled treason committed against 
the sacred person and life of our said late sovereign 
your Majesty's most royal father, and all proceed- 
ings tending thereunto : and do beseech your most 

o — o 

O o 


excellent Majesty that it may be declared, and be 
it hereby declared, that by the undoubted and fun- 
damental laws of this kingdom, neither the Peers of 
this realm, nor the Commons, nor both together, in 
Parliament or out of Parliament, nor the people 
collectively or representatively, nor any other per- 
sons whatsoever ever had, have, hath, or ought to 
have, any coercive power over the persons of the 
Kings of this realm. And for the better vindi- 
cation of oureelves to posterity, and as a lasting 
monument of our otherwise inexpressible detesta- 
tion and abhorrency of this villanous and abomin- 
able fact, &c. Be it hereby enacted, that every 
thirtieth day of January, vinless it falls out to be 
upon the Lord's day, and then the day next follow- 
ing shall be for ever hereafter set apart to be 
kept and observed in all the churches and chapels 
of these your Majesty's kingdoms of England and 
Ireland, dominion of Wales, and town of Berwick 
upon Tweed, and the isles of Jersey and Guenisey, 
and all other your Majesty's dominions, as an anni- 
versary day of fasting and humiliation, to implore 
the mercy of God, that neither the guilt of that 
sacred and innocent blood, nor those other sins by 
which God was provoked to deliver up both us 
and our King into the hands of cruel and unreason- 
able men, may at any time hereafter be visited 
upon us or our posterity," &c. 

C D 

o o 


King Charles II. his Birth and Return. 

" Forasmuch as Almighty God, the King of 
kings, and sole disposer of all earthly crowns and 
kingdoms, hath by His all-swaying providence 
and power, miraculously demonstrated in the view 
of all the world His transcendant mercy, love, and 
graciousness, towards his most excellent Majesty, 
Charles the Second, by His especial grace, of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, King, 
defender of the true faith, and all his Majesty's 
loyal subjects of this his kingdom of England, and 
the dominions thereunto annexed, by his Majesty's 
late most wonderful, glorious, peaceable, and joy- 
ful restoration, to the actual possession and exercise 
of his undoubted hereditary sovereign and regal 
authority over them, (after sundry years forced 
extennination into foreign parts, by the most trait- 
orous conspiracies, and armed power of iisurjiing 
tyrants, and execrable perfidious traitors,) and that 
without the least opposition or effusion of blood, 
through the unanimous cordial loyal votes of the 
Lords and Commons in this present Parliament 
assembled, and passionate desires of all other His 
Majesty's subjects, which inexpressible blessing (by 
God's own most wonderful dispensation) was com- 
pleted on the twenty-ninth day of May last past, 

O D 

o— o 


being the most memorable birth-day not only of 
his Majesty both as a man and prince, but like- 
wise as an actual king, and of this and other his 
Majesty's kingdoms, all in a great measure new 
born and raised from the dead on this most joyful 
day, wherein many thousands of the nobility, gen- 
try, citizens, and other his lieges of this realm, 
conducted his Majesty unto his royal cities of Lon- 
don and Westminster, with all possible expressions 
of their public joy and loyal affections, in far greater 
triumph than any of his most victorious prede- 
cessors, kings of England, returned thither from 
their foreign conquests, and both his Majesty's 
Houses of Parliament, with all dutiful and joyful 
demonstrations of their allegiance, publicly received 
and cordially congratulated his Majesty's most 
happy arrival and investiture in his royal throne, 
at his palace of Whitehall ; upon all which con- 
siderations, this being the day which the Lord 
Himself hath made and crowned with so many 
public blessings and signal deliverances, both of 
his Majesty and his people, from all their late 
most deplorable confusions, divisions, wars, devas- 
tations, and oppressions, to the end that it may be 
kept in perpetual remembrance in all ages to come, 
and that his sacred Majesty, with all his subjects 
of this realm, and the dominions thereof, and their 
posterities after them, might annually celebrate the 
perpetual memory thereof, by sacrificing their un- 

c O 

o o 


feigned, hearty, public thanks thereon to Almighty 
God, with one heart and voice, in a most devout 
and Christian manner, for all these public benefits 
received and conferred on them upon this most 
joyful day. Be it therefore enacted, &c. That all 
and singular Ministers of God's Word and Sacra- 
ments in every church, chapel, and other usual 
place of Divine service and public prayer, which 
now are, or hereafter shall be, within this realm of 
England and the respective dominions thereof, and 
their successors, shall, in all succeeding ages an- 
nually celebrate the twenty-ninth day of May, by 
rendering their hearty public praises and thanks- 
givings unto Almighty God, lor all the foremen- 
tioned extraordinary mercies, blessings, and deliver- 
ances received, and mighty acts done thereon, and 
declare the same to all the people there assembled, 
and the generations yet to come, that so they may 
for ever praise the Lord for the same," &c. 

Every Minister shall give notice publicly in the 
church, the Lord's day next before every such 
twenty-ninth day of May, and then read the Act at 
large, 12 Car. II. cap. xiv. Statutes at Large, vol. 
iii. p. 165. 

o o 

c ^ o 

To your Liturgical demands I make as good return 
to you as I am able, on this wise : 

In the Preface ^e. 

Commemorations were the recital of the names of 
famous martyrs and confessors, patriarchs, bishops, 
kings, great orthodox writers, munificent bene- 
factors : which recitation at the Altar took up much 
time, and those names were anciently wont to be 
read out of dyptics, or folded tables ; and tedious 
quarrels have been anciently about dispunging some 
names out of the dyptics, which have run into 

II. Synodals were Synodical constitutions, such 
as are in Linwood, wont to be read on Sundays in 
time of service, to the great waste of time; and 
you may remember that our canons of anno 1604, 
are appointed to be read at least once a year in all 

III. The Pye, I should suppose, did come from 
vlva^, or irivaKiSioy. A table of order, how things 
should be digested and performed. But the Latin 
word is pica, which perhaps came from the igno- 
rance of friars, who have thrust in many barbarous 
words into Liturgies. I have heard some say it 
came from litera picata, a great black letter in 

c —o 

o o 


the beginning of some new order in the prayer, and 
among the printers that term is still used, the Pica 
letter, as I am informed. 

IV. No wonder the use of Sarum, York, Lincoln, 
Hereford, Bangor are mentioned. For the Missals 
and Breviaries of the Eoman Church were of divers 
models in several countries and several dioceses. 
The Tridentine Council first endeavoured to bring 
thein all into one shape, yet that order was not 
obeyed till anno 1568, under Pope Pius the Fifth, 
yet is not observed to this day ; the Spaniards in 
some places keeping the Mozarahiqtie form, the 
PrcBmonstratenses another, and sundry besides. 
Nay, that Church hath altered the Breviaries of 
Pius the Fifth, and new corrections have come 
forth under Clement the Eighth, 1598, and what 
have been done since I know not. But why the 
use of those five Churches? Perhaps that was 
accidental, that the diversities of them were more 
signal than others. (Some historians mention 
Osmundus, the Bishop of Salisbury and Chan- 
cellor, for the compiler of the use of Sarum, about 
anno 1070, or after,) yet since we read of no use of 
Canterbury, Winchester, Ely, perhaps those places 
observed the true Boman Breviaries, and the other 
five mentioned, were discrepant dialects from the 
original Breviary. However, they are called uses 
and customs, not appointments, from provincial 

o o 

o 9 


V. The division of the whole Bible into several 
sections hath varied infinitely : it was a long time 
parted into titles ; for St. Matt. 355, for St. Mark 
335, for St. Luke 343, St. John 332, &e.» Some 
have thought that the present distinction of chap- 
ters, generally now used, was by Lanfranc, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 1060, because sooner you 
shall not meet with it; and after him all commen- 
tators and schoolmen use it; and Rabbi Kimchi 
and other learned Jews from that time usurp the 
same partition of chapters on the Old Testa- 
ment: you may read in Godwin, that Lanfranc 
took much care to procure sound and uncorrupt 
copies of the Bible. Look more for this in Pos- 
seviiie's Bibliotheca. Yet (according to Jo. Bale) 
Stephen Lancton, Archbishop of Canterbury, di- 
vided the Bible into chapters about anno 1224. But 
for the deduction of all chapters into verses, I am 
sure it was the work of Robert Stephens, anno 1550, 
so his son, Henry Stephens, testifies in his Epistles 
before the Greek Concordance. See also Sir Henry 
Spelman •>. 

VI. p]mber Weeks. The reason of the name is 
very uncertain. Some derive Ember from vnepai, 
b was interposed as from 7|^l.ipa neffriixPpla ixta-rifi- 
^pkvis. As Lent, a fast of weeks, so these, a fast of 
days. I believe it a Saxon word. Surely I have 

* See for this Sixt. Senen. Bibl. Sanct. 1. III. p. 175. 
^ Gloss, in Verb. Heptat. p. 335. 

c o 

o o 


read it in Gower or Chaucer, our old poets. Some 
think it betokens fasting. But after my small skill 
in Saxon terms, etn is a brother, bert is noble, or very 
worthy ; this put together is hebdomada embert, 
" the week of the noble or worthy brothers." But 
look better into it. 

VI L A faldistoiy is the Episcopal seat or throne 
within the chancel, for in the barbarous language 
of that middle age, /aZda is "a place shut up, a 
fold," and faldistorium is Cathedra Episcopi intra 
septa cancelli; so I find in many, particularly in 
Sir Henry Spelman^ 

VIIL WTiat should a Canticle be but the praise 
of God, not only to be read, but sometimes to be 
sung.' By the order of the codex canonum'^, the 
Laodicean Fathere appointed an hymn or canticle 
interserted between the lessons, Te Deuiii, Magni- 
ficat, &c. 

IX. One direct answer cannot be rendered what 
priests and clerks together are : 1. The chief rector 
of a parish (called the cardinal priest of old, quia 
incardinatus in beneficio) was b Upevs, and the rest 
under him his clerks. 2. Wliere there were cantores, 
the Laodicean Council*, called Kcwovucgl \lia\ral, who 
only till our Eeformation were to sing in the church, 
and none else; these were the priest his clerks. 
3. Where there were chantries, as there were in 

' Gloss, p. 247. * Can. CXXI. can. Eccles. p. 51. 

• Can. CIX. Codex, can. Eccles. p. 51. 

o o 

o o 


most churches of England, their assisting the rector 
of the church made up that form of speech, the 
priest and clerks. 

X. You tell me news, that a Latin copy of our 
service book, printed in the second year of the reign 
of Elizabeth', hath in it an office for a communion 
at burials, {celebratio CceruB Domini in funebribus, 
Sec.) It is a translation of some private pen, not 
licensed by authority, as I guess ; communions, by 
the direction of our service, are joined with morn- 
ing prayers; burials are mostly in the afternoon: 
offertories at burials did last to be frequent (if they 
were considerable fimerals) to the middle of King 
James his reign, the ministers of parishes keeping 
up the profit of oblations as long as they could; 
and these offertories at funerals are spoken of in 
the first Liturgy of King Edward the Sixth. 

This is as much as comes into my head at pre- 
sent ; inquire of them that are more skilful, but none 
shall be more willing to observe you, &c. 

f In Bishop Sparrow's Collection of Articles there is a copy of 
this office, p. 199. 

o o 

The Bishop of £X0iV^5f 



dFal^e i3octritte, 

In a Sermon to his Diocese at TRURO 

in CORNWALL at his Primary 


' Confusion of tongues." 

Gen. xi. 7, 8. 


Printed for George and Blanch Pawlet, at 

the Bible iu Chancery Lane, near 

Fleetstreet, 1684. 



When I see so many false teachers subtly 
insinuating themselves into the afl'ections of 
the people, and busily enticing them by 
many artifices from the steadfastness of their 
faith, and allegiance to God in His Anointed 
and His Church ; the care of the Diocese 
committed to my charge, and the remem- 
brance of the account which I must give to 
God for your souls, sets me not only to my 



c o 


prayers, but to my study too, to prevent 
your ruin ; and I know no better way to do 
it than by performing the Watchman's part, 
Ezek. iii. 17, giving you warning to avoid 
the temptations, and encouraging you to 
stand fast in the Lord ; and I could not 
find any way to do that but by making my 
advice 'so public that all who listed might 
receive it. And because that counsel and 
advice is most acceptable when it is put 
into the dress of a sermon, I resolved to 
make use of that method which was most 
likely to instil effectually this caution. When 
I had determined this, I resolved further to 
present it as short and plain as might be, 
that it might be the more serviceable to 
those who most needed it; those, namely, 
who have least time to read, and least 
ability to understand. But withal I have 

o o 

o o 


endeavoured in this short piece to dehver 
all necessary cautions with as clear evidence 
and demonstration out of Scriptures as I 
could. It was not possible for me to cau- 
tion against every particular error or false 
doctrine spread amongst you ; there be so 
many that it would have required a volume 
to recount and refute them, and few would 
have given themselves the trouble to read 
so large a discourse ; nor was it necessary, 
for it is more easy, and as safe, to secure 
from the danger of all, by some general 
rules and prescriptions, which if they be ob- 
served, will certainly preserve you from all 
damnable doctrines, and keep you steadfast in 
the holy faith. I shall heartily desire you 
to beheve that this caution is given you by 
him who loves you as his own soul, and can 
with the greatest sincerity say of you, as 

o o 




St. Paul said of his Thessalonians, "What is 
my hope or joy, or crown of rejoicing ? Are 
not even ye in the presence of the Lord? 
Ye are our glory and joy." 1 Thess. ii. 19, 20. 
" If any of you shall draw back and fall from 
the steadfastness of the faith, my soul shall 
have no pleasure in him." Heb. x. 38. But, 
" Now I live, if you stand fast in the Lord." 
1 Thess. iii. 8. 

o o 


1 Thessalonians hi. 8. 
'•^Now we live, if you stand fast in the Lord." 

St. Paul having lately converted the Thessa- 
lonians to the Christian faith, was called to preach 
the Gospel in other parts ; in this his necessary 
absence he still retains a tender fatherly affection 
for his children : " We being taken from you for a 
short time endeavoured the more abundantly to see 
your face with great desire ; wherefore we would 
have come unto you once and again, I Paul 
especially, but Satan hindered us"." He had put 
upon St. Paul a necessity of staying where he was, 
to settle some unseasonable disputes and contro- 
versies with the Stoics and Epicureans, raised by 
this great enemy of souls, on purpose to divert the 
blessed Apostle from his charitable design towards 
the Thessalonians. When St. Paul found himself 

1 Thess. ii. 17, 18. 



o o 


thus hindered, he sends Timothy with a commis- 
sion, in his name, to visit his Thessalonians, to 
stablish his new converts, to comfort them, and 
to know their faith, "lest by some means the 
tempter hath tempted you, and our labour be in 
vain"." When Timothy had finished his visitation 
he returns to St. Paul, to give an account of his 
inquiries and proceedings, and brought these good 
tidings, that he had found the Thessalonians finn 
and steadfast in the faith which St. Paul had taught 
them ; at the hearing of this good report, St. Paul 
breaks out into this rhetorical expression of his 
joy and contentment in the message, " Now we 
live," &c. 

I am come hither on the very same errand, to 
know your faith ; and though I cannot but hope 
that after so long profession of the holy faith ye 
are well rooted and grounded in it, yet I cannot 
but know that there are amongst us many busy and 
cunning tempters who use various and subtle arts 
to withdraw you from the holy faith ; and I have 
reason to fear, as St. Paul did, lest by some means 
the tempter hath prevailed upon some ; and there- 
fore could no longer forbear to come and know 
your faith, and if I shall find you, like these Thessa- 
lonians, strong and steadfast therein, I shall say, 
with the same sincerity that the Apostle did, " Now 
I live, if you stand fast in the Lord." 

«> 1 Thess. iiL 5. 

o -o 

O ( 


And that you may continue constant and stead- 
fast in the holy faith which our Lord hath delivered, 
I shall briefly and plainly set before you such rules 
and directions out of the Holy Scriptures and 
ancient writers, as by God's assistance upon your 
hearty prayers shall undoubtedly preserve you. 

I. RULE, Is to make a serious and hearty reso- 
lution of believing and adhering to this Christian 
faith, whatsoever it may cost. This is that which 
our Saviour advises, " Which of you intending to 
build a tower, sits not down first and counteth the 
cost, whether he hath sufficient to finish it, lest 
haply after he hath laid the foundation, and is not 
able to finish it, all that behold him begin to mock 
him"^." It will be no less ridiculous for any man 
to profess himself a disciple of Christ and His Holy 
doctrine, that doth not first consider the cost he 
may be at, and resolve to go on with it. And the 
cost may be great, the loss of father and mother, 
and whatsoever is nearest and dearest to us. " If 
any man come to Me and hate not father and 
mother, and wife and children, and brethren and 
sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be My 
disciple"!;" he cannot be steadfast in the profession 
of the holy faith, which may and sometimes will 
put him upon this cost. Let no man so far mis- 
take our Lord, as to think that He teaches disohe- 

' St. Luke xiv. 28. ■< Verse 26. 

o o 

o o 


dience to parents, whose first commandment with 
promise is, " Honour thy father and mother ;" or 
that He teaches us to hate our children, who by 
His Apostle St. Paul tells us that they are worse 
than infidels who provide not for their family, 1 Tim. 
V. 8 ; or that He teaches us to hate ourselves, who 
hath summed up His commandments into these two 
grand precepts, " LoVe God above all, and thy 
neighbour as thyself*." St. Luke's phrase of hating 
father and mother, &c. is best expounded by St. 
Matthew, " He that loves father and mother more 
than Me'." He that prefers father and mother 
more than Me and My doctrine, and will renounce 
that or any part of it to save them or his own life, 
and whatsoever is dearest to him in this world, is 
not worthy of Me. The sincere resolution of pre- 
fen-ing God and His holy truth before all worldly 
advantages, is that which makes the honest and 
good heart, which affords depth of earth for the 
seed of God's Word to root in, and bring forth fruit 
to life eternal, St. Luke viii. 15. Let us therefore 
retire to our closets, and frequently renew this 
honest purpose and resolution, especially when we 
come to the holy Eucharist, that we may get it 
sealed and confirmed there by the grace of Thy 
Holy Spirit ; let not the cost we may be at affright 
us ; the rich pearl of the holy faith (the end of 
which is the salvation of our souls, 1 Peter i. 9.) is 

« St. Matt. xxii. 40. • Ibid. x. 37. 

6 o 

o o 


not dearly bought, though we sell all that we have 
to purchase it, St. Matt. xiii. 46. 

This resolution will not continue steadfast, unless 
we purge out of our hearts all such violent lusts 
and passions as will ravish our wills from the holy 
faith which we have believed ; let us therefore be 
careful to cast out them, especially those which are 
most dangerous to the steadfastness of the faith : As, 

I. The inordinate love of this present world; 
this made Demas forsake St. Paul, after he had 
been a long time his fellow labourer in the preach- 
ing of the Gospel, 2 Tim. iv. 10. There be too 
many such, who follow Christ's doctrine for gain, 
who make great profession of this holy faith when 
it fills their baskets, St. John vi. 14, who run away 
from it as fast, to any impertinent, nay, damnable 
error, which appears more advantageous : if we 
have hearts exercised with covetous designs, we 
shall certainly forsake the right way, as Balaam did 
for the wages of unrighteousness, 2 Peter ii. 15. 

II. Ambition and vainglory ; Diotrephes, who 
loves to have the pre-eminence, receives not the 
Apostles nor their doctrine, 3 St. John ver. 9, nay, 
slights their doctrine, vilifies their persons, prating 
against them with malicious words, ver. 10, and all 
this to get himself a name and esteem amongst the 
credulous vulgar. This hath made most of the 
heretics and schismatics in elder times, as Epipha- 
nius and others have observed ; when they thought 

c o 

o o 


their worth and merit not enough rewarded, when 
they could not be so great or powerful as they 
affected to be ; when they could not obtain by the 
regular and just ways of preferment, such places 
and dignities, such esteem and repute as their am- 
bition made them covet, and think themselves to 
have deserved ; then they broached new doctrines, 
and invented new disciplines, to draw parties after 
them of the weaker sort, that they might be in a 
faction, what they could not be in the Church, 
chiefs and leaders. Nor doth this ambition appear 
only in the leaders, but every little member of 
the most ridiculous sect is swoln with the same 
tumorous vainglory, each party affecting to be called 
the godly. Where this wind of ambition blows, 
no wonder if it carries them away to divers and 
strange doctrines, Heb. xiii. 9. How can we 
believe, receiving or catching at glory one of 
another ! St. John v. 44. When the teachers court 
the people, and they again the teachers, for applause 
and reputation, when vainglorj' is the end of the 
design, how can men be steadfast ? for when the 
holy faith becomes, as oftentimes it does, vile and 
contemptible in the eyes of the people, such men 
must needs forsake it, and profess any new though 
damnable doctrine, that grows popular. Besides, 
no man can hope to stand steadfast in the faith 
without the assistance of God's grace, who resists 
the proud, and gives His grace only to the hum- 

o o 

o o 


ble, St. James iv. 6. If we will be constant dis- 
ciples of Christ, we must be, like Him, lowly in 
spirit, Matt. xi. 29. 

III. There is in our nature a softness or ten- 
derness, that is apt to betray our constancy. As 
many as desire to make a fair show to the flesh, 
deKovTfs fvirpo(Ta>irrj<Tai, that would appear with a 
fair face without a scar, renounce their Christianity 
and turn Jews : " only lest they should suffer per- 
secution for the Cross of Christ s." This tenderness 
made the Apostles, St. Peter and all, once forsake 
their Lord ; and the same hath made too many 
forsake the Lord's holy truth. It may not perhaps 
be thought needful to urge this any further at this 
time, when, God be thanked, there is no present 
danger of suffering persecution for the faith of 
Christ, it being now defended by the Defender of 
the Faith : but though confessors of the faith and 
doctrine of our Lord be not persecuted by the 
sword of authority, it is, at least some part of it, 
cursedly persecuted by the spears and arrows and 
sharp swords of slanderous tongues, who, like the 
Douatists of old, cry out of persecution, even then 
when they are thus sharply persecuting those who 
profess the holy truth and faith of Christ. To 
instance in a few particular's, let any man preach 
or practise decency and order in the service and 

e Gal. vi. 12. 

O : O 

o o 


worship of God, which is a direct command in 
Christ's holy doctrine, 1 Cor. xiv. 40 ; let him 
preach or practise loyalty and obedience to the 
King and his laws, which is part of the same holy 
doctrine, Eora. xiii. 5; 1 Peter ii. 13; let him 
preach or practise obedience to the Church, ac- 
cording to our Lord's direction. Matt, xviii. 17, 
and submission to the g-uidance of those who by 
God and man's laws are set over us to watch for 
our souls, Heb. xiii. 17, and he shall soon find the 
truth of that which I have said ; his doctrine slan- 
dered, and his person reproached and persecuted 
by malicious tongues. The fear of this persecution, 
we see, hath made some who are too tender, follow 
our Lord's doctrine, as St. Peter did his Master, at 
a distance ; it is not amiss to remember what the 
Holy Ghost hath observed for our instruction in 
St. Peter, that soon after he drew back and followed 
at a distance, he forsook, nay, forswore his Lord, 
Matt. xxvi. 58, 74. From all which we may cer- 
tainly conclude that we shall never stand steadfast 
in the doctrine and faith of our Lord, unless we 
endeavour to harden our faces, and strengthen our 
foreheads against all such fear of the looks or 
tongues of men, Ezek. iii. 8, 9. 

IV. As there is a tenderness, so there is a fickle- 
ness and love of change in oui corrupted nature. 
St. Paul calls it childishness, Eph. iv. 14, loving 
much but not long, delighting in change, not only 

O : 

) o 


in ordinary matters, dresses, and fashions, but even 
in religion too ; new prayers, new doctrines, new 
governments ; many men having itching ears heap 
to themselves teachers, 2 Tim. iv. 3, after their own 
lusts, such as may rub their ears, and gratify their 
lusts and several humours with doctrines suitable, 
and please their childishness with novelties ; new 
revelations, new truths are by many much affected, 
and daily expected; I pray God we come not to 
the Jews' innovation, new gods which our fathers 
never heard of, Deut. xxxii. 17. We seem weary 
of the old gannent, the old religion, and love to 
put new pieces to it, though thereby we make 
it much worse, Luke v. 36. Nothing can be more 
directly opposite to our steadfastness in the truth 
than this love of change ; since the holy faith and 
Christian truth is like Jesus Christ who taught 
it, the same yesterday and to-day, the same for 
ever, Heb. xiii. 8. Let us labour, therefore, to 
correct this childishness, to quit ourselves like men, 
and earnestly contend for that faith which was once, 
and but once, delivered, Jude 3. By the means 
aforesaid we may, by God's grace, secure ourselves 
against om^selves, that our own hearts shall not 
mislead us. But though our hearts be sincere, our 
understandings may be weak, and we may be daily 
in danger of being seduced by the various arts and 
subtleties of cunning and busy seducers, who lie in 
wait to deceive ; and therefore I shall offer this 

o o 

o-^ o 


second caution, which our blessed Lord hath 
taught us, Matt. vii. 15. 

II. Beware of false prophets or false teachers, as 
St. Peter calls them, 2 Peter ii. 1 ; and you will 
readily grant the caution to be most seasonable 
and necessary, if you will consider the crafts they 
use to deceive you, and your own danger if you be 
deceived ; " inwardly," says our Saviour, " they are 
ravening wolves," whose aim and design is no less 
than the ruin and damnation of our souls. What 
danger can be greater? This cruel and malicious 
design they hide under sheep's clothing, soft and 
fair pretences of meekness and humility, professors 
of extraordinary holiness, great care of souls, sin- 
gular love of God's glory, to which they add good 
words, kind and flattering speeches. Bom. xvi. 18, 
and (which is the masterpiece of cunning) they 
promise them liberty, 2 Peter ii. 19. Simon Magus, 
Basilides, Carpocrates of old, taught their disciples 
to live as they listed, and to do whatsoever they 
pleased; Marcion taught his disciples to believe 
that Christ came into the world to deliver men 
from the service of the Creator; Meletius gave 
his followers a licence to live without fear, and 
to be ruled and governed by none. I might in- 
stance in many more such false teachers of the 
same leaven, but I need not, since St. Peter in the 
place aforesaid assures us that it is the wont of I 

o o 

o o 


false teachers of what sort soever, to promise their 
followers liberty : this sweet promise of liberty, or 
rather licentiousness, being the most catching argu- 
ment in the world to entice itching ears and lustful 
hearts to their part. It is not unworthy of our ob- 
servation, that St. Peter says they promise them 
liberty, but indeed they neither do nor can by these 
means make them free, for "whosoever committeth 
sin is the servant of sin." What liberty then can it 
be to be exposed and tempted to the deadly slavery 
of error and sin ? 

False teachers having all of them such malicious 
designs of ruin, and such cunning artifices to deceive, 
it behoves us very much to remember our Lord's 
caution, " Beware of false prophets." But how shall 
we discern them to be such ? their inward designs 
we cannot see, and their outward appearance is 
innocent and harmless, fair and plausible, sheep's 
clothing: "by their fruits you shall know them,'' 
says our Saviour ; they may act the sheep for a 
while, but if you heed and mark them well, you 
shall see the wolf appear, " by their fruits you shall 
know them." When you see some creeping into 
houses, and instilling doctrines into the weaker sort, 
by this you may have just cause to suspect them for 
false teachers ; 2 Tim. iii. 6; "of this sort are they 
which creep into houses, from such turn away." 
" There shall be false teachers among you, who pri- 
vily shall bring in damnable doctrines," 2 Peter ii. 1 ; 

o o 

o o 


when they shall oflFer themselves to be your teach- 
ers, shall forsake the lawful and public assemblies 
established by just authority in the houses of 
prayer, by this fruit you may know them. " Be- 
loved, remember the words which were spoken 
before, of the Apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
how that they told you there should be in the last 
time mockei's''" or deceivers. These be they who 
separate themselves; beware of such therefore, by 
these fruits you shall justly suspect them to be 
false teachers ; but there is one character or mark 
by which you shall undoubtedly know them, St. 
Paul, St. Peter, St. Jude, and all, tell us for certain, 
those are false teachers, by all means to be avoided, 
who despise government, and speak evil of dignities ; 
when, therefore, you hear any teachers blaspheming 
and reviling their governors, civil or ecclesiastical, 
when you see them contemning their laws, con- 
fronting their authority, refusing to come at Moses' 
and Aaron's call, to the assemblies appointed by 
their laws; and setting up meetings, gathering 
assemblies against Moses and Aaron, the civil and 
ecclesiastical authority ; " come not near, lest ye 
perish in their sin," Numb. xvi. It is God's own 
caution there, ver. 26, and in the like case too ; 
for what else was the sin of Korah, Dathan, and 
Abiram, but refusing to come at the call of Moses 

h Jude 17, 18. 

c— o 

o o 


and Aaron, "We will not come up'," and the 
"gathering congregations against them''." And 
certainly to gather congregations contrary to the 
laws and commands of Moses and Aaron, is to 
gather against them, for it is the authority that 
makes the king and the priest, Moses and Aaron, 
so sacred that no man must rise against them. 
When therefore you see or hear any so gathering 
congregations contrary to the laws, depart from 
them ; when you hear any teachers thus despising 
dominion, remember that the Apostles have told 
us, they are false teachers, and forget not our 
Lord's own caution, " Beware of false prophets :" 
if any man after all this monition will still be bold 
to receive such, because they come in sheep's 
clothing, he deserves more blame than pity, if he 
be ruined and devoured. 

III. Obey your spiritual guides, and submit 
yourselves to their conduct and direction, Heb. 
xiii. 17. This rule is given us to this very pur- 
pose, that we may stand fast in the faith. For 
after the Apostle had forewarned us, " Be not car- 
ried about with divers and strange doctrines'," he 
prescribes this as the best prevention of such giddi- 
ness and lightness, to " obey them that have the rule 
over us," and " submit ourselves to them who watch 

' Numb. xvi. 12. ^ Ibid. 19. ' Heb. xiii. 9. 


o o 


for our souls." Almighty God, in infinite goodness 
to man, knowing the weakness of the people's 
understanding, together witli the want of time and 
means for the study of truth, hath provided " some 
pastors and teachers for the perfecting of the saints, 
for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the 
body of Christ'" ;" " that we henceforth be no more 
children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with 
every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and 
cunning craftiness of men, whereby they lie in 
wait to deceive"." God hath, you see, appointed 
you pastors and teachers to keep you from being 
deceived by false teachers, and if you will not sub- 
mit to their direction, you expose yourselves to the 
danger of being deceived, and frustrate the merciful 
intendment of God's goodness towards you, to keep 
you steadfast in the truth. I know not what excuse 
any man can make why he doth not readily submit 
to the guidance of these Pastors and Teachers, but 
only this: "That first he does not certainly know 
whom Christ hath appointed for his guides now, 
since the Apostles themselves are dead long since." 
" And if he does know them, yet he cannot con- 
fidently rely upon their guidance, since they are not 
infallible in their doctrines, as the Apostles were, 
and therefore may possibly be deceived themselves, 
and deceive him that submits to them." 

>" Ephes. iv. 11, 12. " Ibid. U. 

o ■ ^ o 

o o 


To the first I answer : 

I. You may as certainly know who are your spi- 
ritual guides, as who are your civil governors ; 
namely, by the laws of Church and Kingdom, and 
their solemn investiture in their several places and 
charges; which is a greater and surer evidence 
than any man can have of his natural parent, 
whom you cannot otherwise know than by the 
common repute of the neighbourhood and the tes- 
timony of your mother, who is bound in reputation 
to call her own husband your father: since God 
hath commanded you, upon pain of damnation, to 
obey him, who is thus reputed your father, why 
should you not fear the same penalty for disobey- 
ing your guides of souls, whom God hath equally 
commanded you to obey, and given you a greater 
evidence and assurance of their authority over you ? 

To the second scruple I answer ; that I assert no 
infallibility in your spiritual guides. They are men, 
and may be deceived ; they may be cunning men, 
and " lie in wait to deceive." And may not those 
be such whom you heap to yourselves, and so 
willingly run after ? Those who are set over you 
are restrained by the laws and accountable to their 
superiors, so that they cannot publish dangerous 
errors without their own danger, and the censures 
of the laws, if they be discovered; and being 
allowed to preach only in the Church, cannot pro- 
mise themselves any safety from secrecy. And it 

o :: O 

3 a 

o o 


is not so probable that they will willingly deceive 
you, who are in danger to lose by their fraud, as 
they who by false doctrines make parties to their 
no small advantage. Besides, God always assists 
His own institutions, and blesses His own appoint- 
ments. God hath forewarned you to avoid strangers, 
to heap to yourselves teachers, 2 Tim. iv. 3, and 
who can reasonably expect God's assistance in dis- 
obedience? It is just with Him to suffer us to be 
deceived by those whom He hath warned us to 
avoid; but it is most reasonable to expect His 
blessing and assistance in obedience to His own 
order. He hath commanded us to submit to them 
who are set over us, and will not suffer us to perish 
by obedience. If we shall be misled by our own 
guides into small errors, He will graciously accept 
our obedience, and not impute those eiTors to our 
condemnation ; and He will never suffer us to be 
led by them into damnable errors, unless it be our 
own fault. " God is faithful, who will not suffer 
you to be tempted above that you are able ; but ^vill 
with the temptation also make a way to escape"." 
This promise would fail, if, having commanded us 
to be guided by them. He should not either cer- 
tainly withhold them from teaching damnable doc- 
trines, or else afford us some means for the avoid- 
ance and discovery, if we be watchfiil, and not wil- 
fully refuse them. 

» ] Cor. X. 13. 

c o 

o o 


1 . Obseive this nile of our Saviour, " Search the 
Scriptures p," acquaint yourselves with the plain 
and evident texts which need no interpretation, 
and if your teachers commend any doctrine to you 
contrary to those, believe them not. It is an old 
observation, and daily experience confirms it, that 
false teachers use to build their doctrines upon 
some few hard and obscure texts, that under the 
colour of the Holy Text they may obtrude upon 
their unwary disciples their own pernicious glosses, 
interpretations, and inferences ; so that their disci- 
ples' belief rests only upon the interpretation of 
the preacher, who may be deceived, or (which is 
worse) may endeavour to deceive. But when the 
sober and wary Christian grounds his belief upon 
the evident texts, which are so plain that they can- 
not be more plainly expressed or interpreted, he 
relies undoubtedly upon God's own word, who can- 
not deceive or be deceived. This is the best way to 
secure ourselves against the damnable doctrines of 
your own false teachers ; as for example, when you 
are by any of them taught to rebel against the king, 
or to oppose his laws, to contemn the Church, and 
separate from her communion ; guard your faith 
against their crafty insinuations of rebellion by 
pretence of obscure Scriptures, by such plain texts 
as these, " Let every soul be subject to the higher 

r St. John v. 39. 

o o 

O— o 


powers," to him that bears the sword not only for 
wrath, but also for conscience sake, and whosoever 
resists shall receive damnation, Rom. xiii. " Be 
subject to every ordinance of man for the Lord's 
sake, whether it be to the king as supreme, or uuto 
governors who are sent by him<>." Which are 
words as plain as can be spoken, and cannot admit 
of any other interpretation. These are enough to 
secure you against the damnable doctrine of rebel- 
lion, and against contempt of the Church, and 
schismatical separation from her Communion : take 
these plain texts ; " He that will not hear the Church, 
let him be to thee as an heathen man and pub- 
lican r." " Keep the unity of the Spirit in the 
bond of peace"." "Not forsaking the public as- 
sembling of ourselves*." "According to the com- 
mands of those who are our governors"." 

If it be objected that all these texts do suppose 
the king's and the Church's commands to be law- 
ful, otherwise I may, nay, I must refuse to obey 
the king, I must not hear the Church, I must for- 
sake those assemblies if unlawful : the answer is 
easy; that I cannot be safe in going contrary to 
these plain texts, till I can find that those particu- 
lar commands of my superiors, and those assem- 
blies, be as plainly forbidden in some other texts. 

1 1 Peter ii. 13, 14. ' St. Matt, xviii. 17. • Eph. iv. 3. 
' Heb. X. 25. ° Heb. xiii. 17. 

6 o 

o o 


It is uot safe to say, I will not obey the king nor 
hearken to the Church, nor frequent those public 
assemblies, because I think, and some powerful 
preachers tell me, these ordinances and assemblies 
are unlawful. 

Remember, it is God who commands in those 
plain texts before mentioned, and none but Him- 
self can discharge my obedience ; and therefore 
you must obey till you find the particular com- 
mands of your superiors forbidden by as plain texts 
as those which in general require you to obey. If 
you observe this rule, you cannot be cheated into 
rebellion and schism ; and if you do not, it is your 
own fault that you are deceived. 

This rule is certain, but perhaps not large enough 
to secure us from all damnable errors, there being 
some such which may not seem flat contrary to 
the express words of Scripture ; the necessary truths 
of which those errors are destructive, not being de- 
livered in express terms in the holy Scriptures, yet 
sufficiently contained therein, and may be un- 
doubtedly proved out of them by comparing of 
texts, observing the context and scope of the text, 
and other rules of art ; which the people not being 
so well able to do, let them observe this second 

II. Keep steadfast in the faith of all such truths 
as the Catholic Apostolic Church hath believed 
and delivered as necessary ; and believe not your 

o o 

o o 


particular guide, when he teaches contrary to these. 
The Church is the ground and pillar of truth, 
1 Tim. iii. 15; intoher bosom and registry the Apo- 
stles committed all necessary truths, as our Lord 
commanded them, " Go, teach all nations to ob- 
serve all things whatsoever I have commanded 
you*." They knew their Lord's commands, and 
were true to their trust in teaching them accord- 
ingly. These necessary truths thus laid up in the 
treasury of the Church are domestic household doc- 
trines, which all of that family should hold fast, 
and not be carried about with every wind of 
strange or foreign doctrine, Heb. xiii. 9. These 
necessary truths, committed by the Apostles to the 
Churches of their own plantation, God hath pro- 
mised (Matt, xxviii. 20.) should be delivered down 
through all succession to the end of the world, 
"Lo, lam with you" (namely, in the teaching all 
that I have commanded) " to the end of the world." 
What therefore hath been constantly delivered and 
believed as commands of Christ, by the " general 
testimony of the universal Church" in all ages, 
ought to be firmly believed, upon the same con- 
sentient testimony we receive and believe the ca- 
nonical Scriptures to be the Word of God; and 
why should we not be satisfied with the same tes- 
timony of all other necessary truths ? " But how 

' Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. 

c o 

o o 


shall the people be able to know which truths are 
so generally delivered from the first ages till now?" 
They cannot themselves search and find them, and 
perhaps their own teachers may tell them that their 
errors are such. 

I answer ; you may find and know these neces- 
sary truths "by the public doctrine of our own 
Church, delivered in her Liturgy and Articles of 
Religion" by the unanimous consent of "all your 
spiritual guides." Acquaint yourselves throughly 
with that public doctrine, and adhere to that, and 
if your own teacher teach otherwise believe him 
not. If to these directions here given you care- 
fully attend, adding your constant humble prayers 
to that merciful God who would have no man to 
perish, but that all should come to the know- 
ledge of the truth, 1 Tim. ii. 4, He will certainly 
preserve you from all damnable errors, and keep 
you steadfast in the holy Faith ; that Faith which 
is the ground and foundation of the lively hope of 
" an inheritance incorruptible and undetiled, and 
that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you^;" 
that Faith by which, through " the power of God, 
ye are kept unto salvation';" that Faith which, 
being preserved tinn and steadfast after it hath 
been tiied by "manifold temptations, will be found 
unto praise, and honour, and glory, at the ap- 

1 1 Peter i. 3, 4. ' Ibid. 5. 

c o 





pearance of Jesus Christ';" that Faith which 
makes us here in this life to " rejoice with joy 
unspeakable and full of glory''," and in the end 
brings us to " the salvation of our souls <=," which 
God of His infinite mercy grant us all for Jesus 
Christ's sake, to whom with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost be all honour and glory, world without 
end. Amen. 

1 Peter i. 6, 7. 

•• Ibid. 8. 

Ibid. 9. 





Gabr. Albaspinaei, Episcopi Aurelianensis, Observa- 

tiones de veteribus Ecclesiae ritibus. Paris. 1623. 

Ambrosii, A.D. 374, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1686. 
Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester. Sermons. 

London, 1641. folio. 
Pet Arcudii De Concordia Eccles. Occident. Paris. 

1626. folio. 
Athanasii, A.D. 330, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1698. 
Augustini, A.D. 398, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1679. 
Theodor. Balsamon. Commentarius in Canones Apo- 

stolorum et Conciliorum. Par. 1620. folio. 
Basilii Magni, A.D. 370, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 

Bemardi, A.D. 1115, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1690. 
Bemo. Augiensis De quibusdam rebus ap. De officiis 

Cath. Eccles. Paris. 1624. 
Gul. Beveridge. Synodicon. Oxon. 1672. folio. 




o o 


Joseph Bingham's Works, 9 voll. London, 1829. 
Bibliotheca Patrum, 15 voll. Col. 1618. 
Bibliotheca Patrum, 9 voll. Paris. 1589. 
Canones Apostolici, ap. Cotelerium. A.D. 250. 
Joan. Cassiani, A.D. 424, Opera. Atreb. 1628. folio. 
Pet. Chrysologi, A.D. 430, Opera. Paris. 1614. 
Joan. Chrj'sostomi, A.D. 398, Opera, ed. Bened. 
Paris, 1718. 

edit. Lat. Van. 1583. 

Codex Canonum Ecclcsiaj Universae. Paris. 1661. 

Conciliorum Collectio. Paris. 1672. 

Confession of the Faith of all Christians, &c. London, 

Constitutions and Canons of the Church of England. 

Oxford, 1815. 
Joan. Cotelerii Patres Apostolici. Amst. 1724. folio. 
Critici Sacri in Biblia. Amst. 1698. folio. 
Cypriani, A.D. 250, Opera. Oxon. 1682. folio. 
Cyrilli Alexandrini, A.D. 412, Opera. Paris. 1638. 
Cyrilli Hierosol., A.D. 350, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 
Dionysii Areopag. A.D. 362, Opera sub ipsius nomine. 

Paris. 1644. 
Gul. Durantis sive Durandi, A.D. 1285, Rationale 

Divinorum Officiorum. JjUgd. 1584. 8vo. 
Steph. Duranti De Ritibus Ecclesiae Catholicse. Romae, 

Edward the Sixth's Prayer Book. London, 1549. 
EIKHN BA2IA1KH. Hague, 1649. 
Epiphanii Opera. Colon. 1682. folio. 
Euchologium Graecorum cum notis Goar. Paris. 1647. 

o — ^o 

o o 


Eusebii Caesariensis, A.D. S-hO, Historia Ecclesiastica. 

Mogiuit. 1682. 
Fulgentii Ruspensis, A.D. 507, Opera. Venet. 1742. 
Gemma Animae, De Antique Ritu Missae, ap. De 

Officiis Eccles. Cathol. Paris. 162 K folio. 
Gennadii Massiliensis, A.D. 495, De Dogmatibus Eccle- 

siasticis. Hamb. 1614. 
Thomas Goodwyn's Moses and Aaron. London, 1672. 
Gratiani Monachi, A.D. 1130, Decretum. Paris. 1561. 
Gregorii Magni, A.D. 509, Opera, 4 voll. Antv. 1615. 
Gregorii IX., A.D. 1227, Decretales. Paris. 1561. 
Gregorii Nazianzeni, A.D. 370, Opera. Paris. 1630. 
Gregorii Nysseni, A.D. 370, Opera. Paris. 1615. 
H. Grotii Annotationes in Nov. Test Paris. 1646. 
Hammond's Works. London, 1674. 
Hieronymi, A.D. 378, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1704. 
Hooker's Works, ed. Keble. Oxford, 1836. 
Irenaei, A.D. 167, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1734. 
Justini Martyris, A.D. 140, Opera. Venet. 1747. folio. 
Justiniani, A. D. 527, Authenticae Constitutiones. 

Antverp. 1575. folio. 
Leges Anglo- Saxonicje. Lond. 1721. 
Leonis Magni Papae, A.D. 440, Opera. Paris. 1614. 
Melancthonis Opera. Witteberg. 1562. 
Micrologi, A.D. 1080, De Eccles. Observationibus, ap. 

De Officiis Eccles. Cathol. Paris. 1624. 
Musculi Comment, in Psalmos. Basil. 1599. folio. 
Nicephori Calisti, A.D. 806, Eccles. Hist. Paris. 1630. 
Nicholls on the Com. Prayer. London, 1712. folio. 
Optati, A.D. 368, De Schismate Donatist. Antv. 

o O 





Origenis, A.D, 230, Opera, ed. Bened. Paris. 1733. 

edit. Lat. Basil. 1620. 

Jac. Paraelii Liturgica. Colon. 1519. 

Patres Apostolici, 2 voll. ed. Jacobson. Oxen. 1838. 

Ruffini, A.D. 393. in Symb. ap. Cyp. Opera, ed. Fell. 

Ruperti Tuitensis, A.D. 1111, De Divinis Officiis, ap. 
De Officiis Eecles. Cathol. Paris. 1624. folio. 

Sixti Senensis Bibliotheca Sancta. Lugd. 1575. 

Socratis, A.D. 439. Histor. Eecles. Mogunt. 1677. 

Sozomeni, A.D. 440, Histor. Eecles. Mogunt. 1677. 

Bp. Sparrow's Collection of Articles. London, 1671. 

Sir H. Spelman's Concilia. London, 1639. 

• Archseologus. London, 1626. folio. 

Tertulliani, A.D. 192, Opera. Paris. 1641. folio. 

Theodoriti, A.D. 430, Opera omnia. Hal. 1769. Svo. 

Herbert Thorndyke Of Religious Assemblies. Cam- 
bridge, 1642. Svo. 

Wheatly on the Common Prayer. 

Oxford, 1819. Svo. 





With the dates of the year in which they were held. 

A.D. 563. 
A.D. 451. 

Agathense. Agde in Gallia. A.D. 506. 

Antissiodorense. Auxerre in Gallia. A.D. 578. 

Arausicanum I. Orange in Gallia. A.D. 441. 

Aurelianense I. Orleance in Gallia. A.D. 511. 

Aurelianense III. A.D. 538. 

Aurelianense V. A.D. 549. 

Bracarense II. Braga in Hispania. 

Calcedonence Generale in Bithynia. 

Carthaginense III. A.D. 397. 

Carthaginense FV. A.D. 399. 

Carthaginense V. A.D. 401. 

Constantinopolitanum, Vulgo Trullanum, sive Quini- 

sextum. A.D. 692. 
Eliberitanum in Hispania, A.D. 305. 
Florentinum. A.D. 1438. 
Ilerdense. Lerida in Hispania. A.D. 524. 







Laodicenum in Phrygia. A.D. 361. 

Matisconense II. Mascon in Gallia. A.D. 585. 

Milevitauum I. A.D. 402. 

Milevitanum II. A.D. 416. 

Nicaenum I. Generale. A.D. 325. 

Taurinense. Turin in Pedemont. A.D. 400. 

Toletanura II. Toledo. A.D. 531. 

Toletanum III. A.D. 589. 

Toletanum IV. A.D. 633. 

Toletanum XI. A.D. 675. 

Toletanum XII. A.D. 681. 

Turonense II. A.D. 567. 

Vasense sive Visionense. Vaison in Gallia. A.D. 529. 








Gen. i. . . 
iii. 17 

— 19.. 
iv. 4. . . 
xiv. 18 . 
xviii. 1, 2 
XX. 7 . . 
xxii. 9 . 
XXV. 5, 6 
xxviiL 17 
_ 18 . . 

— 22 . . 
Exod. xii. . . 

xiv. . , . 
xix. . . . 


. p. 166 

. 314 

294, 298 

XX 6, 298 

XXV 294 

— 2 207 

xxviii. 2 . . . 311 
xxix. 38, 39, 42—45 
pp. 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11,294 
XXXV. 4. . . . 209 

xl. . . 

Levit. x. 1 . 

xii. 4 . 

xvi. 17 





Levit. xxiii. . 

— 15. . 

— 34. . 

— 36. . 
Numb. vi. 22- 

X. 35 . . 
xvi. . . . 
xxviii. 6. 
Deut X. . . . 
xvi. 16 . 

— 1, 18. 
xxvii. . . 
xxxii. 17 

Joshua i. 5. . 
Judges xii. 6 
Ruth ii. 4 . . 
ISam.ii. 29, 31 

XV. 22. . 
2 Sam. vii. 4 — 

xi. 1. . . 

1 Kings viii . 

xix. 10.. 

2 Kings ii. . 
1 Chron. xvi. . 

xxii. 9 . 
xxix. 14 















2 Chron. vi. 29 
vii. 6 . . 

— 15. . 
xxix. 30 

Nehem. viii. 5 

— 4—8. 


— 10. 

Psalms i. 5. 

— 11, 12 
iii. 2. . . 
iv, 8. . . 
vii. 12. . 
viii. 1 . . 
xi. 5 . . 
xiii. 6 . . 
xiv. 4, 5, 
XV. . . . 
xix . . . 

— 12, 14 
XX. 9 . . 
xxi. . . . 
xxii. 1 . 

— 17, 18 

— 31, 32 
xxiii, 6 . 
xxiv. . . 

— 4. . . 
xxvi. 6 . 

xxvii. 2 . 

— 3. . . 

— 9. . . 
xxix. 1 . 
XXX. 5 . 

— 7. . . 
xxxiii. 3, 10 

— 12. . . . 



319, 320 


149, 152 



Psalms xxxiii.l6 — 20. p. 59 

xxxiv 201 

XXXV. 19 . . . 155 

xxxvi. 12. . . 321 

xxxvii. 29, 37. 321 

xxxviii.16,22. 321 

xli. 1, 13 . . . 321 

xlii. 12 ... . 321 

xlv 162 

— 3, 5 93 

— 10, 12. . . 321 

— 13, 14. . . 255 

— 16 187 

xlvii 163 

— 6. . . . 42, 321 
xlviii. 3. . . . 321 

1. 21 321 

li 195 

— 1 321 

— 10, 11. . . 59 
Iv. 13 321 

— 14 60 

— 25 321 

Ivii 132 

Iviii. 8 322 

Ixv. 1 321 

— 7 109 

Ixvi. 18. . . . 13 

Ixvii 44 

— 1 321 

Ixviii. 17 . . . 150 

— 18 153 

Ixix. 5, 22 . . 155 

Ixxi 266 

— 5,6 291 

— 7 321 

Ixxii 155 

Ixxiii. 12, 27 . 321 
Ixxvi. 11.207,209, 291 




Psalms Ixxviii. 3 

p. 321 Psalms cxlv .... 

p. 163 

Ixxxiii. 18 . 

317 — 15 


Ixxxiv. 2 . . 

310 cxlvii. 8. . . . 


Ixxxv. . . . 

93 cxlviii. 5 . . . 


— 7 

59 cxlix. 1 . . . . 


— 8 

321 Eccles. v. 2 ... . 


— 10, 11. . 

94 ix. 8 


Ixxxix. 5 . . 

95 Isaiah vi. 3 . .31, 


xcii. 12. . . 

322 vii. 10, 17 . . 



26 ix. 1, 8 . . . . 


— 7 




xcvi. 8 . . . 


1. 5 


xcviii. . . . 


Iviii. 5 . . . . 




Ix. 1 


cv. 28. . . . 

. 323 

Ixi. 10 


cviii. 1 . . . 




ex. 3 .... 


Ixiii. 1 . . . . 



. 133 

Ixvi. 21 ... . 


— 11 ... . 


Jerem. xxiii. 5. . . 




xxxiii. 18. . 




Ezek. iii. 8, 9 . . 


cxv. 9. . . . 


— 17. . . . 




xxxiii. 14, 15 


cxvm. . . . 


Dan. x. 13. . . . 


— 2 


xii. 1 . . . . 




Hosea xi. 1 ... 


cxix. 37. . . 


Joel ii. 15 . . . . 


— 97 ... . 


— 17. . . . 



287, 289 

Zech. viii. 19 . . 


cxxvn. . . . 


i ix. 9 . . . . 


cxxviu. . . . 


Mai. i. 6 . . . . . 


CXXXll. . . . 


1 iii 


— 4 

. 322 

1 — 1—6. . . 


— 9 


Wisdom i. 5, 6, 7 


cxxxiv. 1, 2. 

. 43, 322 

Ecclus. X. 2 . . . 


cxxxvi. . . 


xviii. 2, 3. . 


— 27 ... . 


xxxviii. 9. . 


cxxxvii. 1. 

. 322 

1. i9, 21 . . 


cxli. 2 . . 

9 St. Matt. i. 18. . 

. 101 

3 c 





St. Matt. i. 21 . 
ii. 1 . . . . 

— 2. . . . 

— 11. . . 

— 13. . . 

— 15... 
iii . . . . 

— 16. . . 
iv. 1. . , 
V. 19 . . . 

— 23 

— 23, 24. 
vi. 13 


— 15.. 

vii. 15. . 
viii. 1 . . 

— 2,25 

— 23. . 
ix. 15. . 
X. 7. . . 

— 13. . 

— 32. . 

— 37. . 

. p. 94 






167, 189 


114, 118 


200, 203, 305 



109, 263 





xi. 2 92, 179 

— 29 353 

xii. 7 243 

— 50 45 

xiii. 24 ... . 110 

— 35 155 

— 46 351 

xiv. 1 189 

XV. 21 122 

xvi. 19 ... . 16 
xviii. 17 . . 354, 364 

— 19 8 

XX. 1 112 

xxi. 1 90 

— 13. 294,297, 298 

— 42 134 

St. Matt. xxii. 34. p. 177 

— 40 350 

xxiii. 34 . . . 98 

XXV. 13. . . . 103 

— 34, 35. . . 266 

— 40 265 

— 43 279 

xxvi 125 

— 30 41 

— 38 103 

xxvii 125 

— 1 194 

— 57 128 

xxviii. 6 . . . 302 

— 7 .... . 132 

— 19, 20. . . 366 
St. Mark x. 13 . . 231 

xiii. 35 ... . 194 

xiv 125 

XV 125 

XV. 25 196 

xvL 5 312 

— 14 156 

StLukei, 14,19,36,57. 189 

ii. 1—15 ... 95, 96 

— 15 102 

— 20 96 

— 22 184 

— 41 107 

iii. 1—23. . . 106 

V. 36 355 

vi. 12 103 

viii. 4 112 

— 15 350 

x.5,6 . . 73, 262 

xi 23 

— 14 122 

28 45 

xiv. 17, 24 . . 224 







St. Luke xiv. 26, 28 p. 
xvi. 9 . 
xviii. 9 

— 31. 
xix. 42, 44 
xxi. 25 

— 28. 
xxii. 1 

— 29 . 
xxiii. . 
xxiv. 6, 34 

— 44. . 
St. John i. 1 . 

— 19. . 

— 40, 42 
ii. 1—12 . . 106, 
iii. 1 . 

— 3, 5 

— 13. . . .149, 
iv. 2 . 
V. 14 . 

— 39. 

— 44. 
vi. 1 . 

— 14. 

— 54. 
viii. 46 
X. 11 . 
xiv. . . 

— 2. . 

— 15. . . . 147, 
XV. 25 

— 26, 27 

— 27. 
xvi. 1 — ; 

— 1—4. 

— 5. 

— 7. . 157, 248, 

— 16 


St, John xvi. 23. pp. 65, 147 

— 33 118 

xviii. 28 . . . 194 

xix 125, 127 

XX. 1 135 

— 19 ... . 142, 228 

— 21 5 

— 22 16 

xxi. 19 ... . 98 

Acts i. 1 156 

— 5 251 

— 8 248, 251 

11. , . 



1—13 . 


1 . . . . 


3 . . . . 



13. . . 


15. . . 


22 ... . 




34. . . . 



36 ... . 


38, 39. . 


41 . . . 


42 ... . 



1 . . . . 



8, 31 . . 


11. . . . 



5, 8 . . . 



.55 ... 



viii. 14 — 17. 



17. . . . 




38. . . . 



15 ... . 



34. . . . 



44. . . . 







Acts X. 47 . . . 
xi. 18 . . . 
xiii. 3 . . . 

— 33 , . . 
xix. 1 — 21 

— 6. . . . 
xxi. 24 . . 

Rom. iv. 8. . . 

— 25 . . . 
V. 18, 19 . 


VI . . 

— 9. 

viii . , 

— 17 


26 30, 74 













X. 10 


— 1,6, 16 

— t. . . . 

— 5. . . . 

— 11 . . . 
XV. 4 . . . 

— 6. . . . 
xvi. 18 . . 

1 Cor. i. 4 . . . 

iv. 1 92, 178 

V. 7 130, 223 

ix. 24 112 

— 25 129 

X. 13 

— 16. 

— 17 

— 18 

— 23 

— 34 
xi. 5. 

— 16 


125, 126 



. 5, 220 



1 Cor. xii. 4 , . pp 

— 8, 9, 29 

— 13. 
xiii. 1 . 
xiv. . . 

— 15. 

— 23— 

— 40 . 
XV. 14,1 

— 20. 

2 Cor. ii. 16 

V. 18 . 
vi. 1. . 
viii. 12 
xi. 2. . 

— 19. 
Gal. iii. 26, 27 

iv. 1. . 

— 4, 5 

— 19. 

— 21 . 
V. 1 . . 
vi. 12 . 

Ephes. i. 20, 
iii. 1. . 
iv . . . 

— 1— 

— 3. 

— 8. 

— 11. 

— 12, 

— 14 
v. 1 . 

— 5. 

— 25 

— 32 
vi. 16 

Phil. ii. 3 

— 5. 




5, 354 


150, 153 

354, 360 

230, 260 

260, 261 









Phil. ii. 9, 10 ... p. 151 

— 12 265 

iv. 4 92 

Coloss. iL 2, 11 . . 316 

— 15 loi 

— 16, 17. . . 315 
iii. 1 135 

— 9 348 

— 12 110 

— 16 41 

1 Thess. ii. 17, 18. 347 

— 19, 20. . . 346 
iii 8 ... . 346, 347 
i>. 1 122 

1 Tim. I. 16 ... . 184 

— 18 10 

ii.l, 2,5,10,68,69, 194 

— 4 367 

— 15 368 

iii. 15 366 

V. 8 350 

2 Tim. iii. 6 . . . . 357 

iv. 2 11 

— 3 355, 362 

— 10 351 

— 22 53 

Titus iii. 4—9 ... 95 

— 5 248 

Heb. i. 1 93 

— 14 190 

iii. 13 215 

V. 1. 62, 80, 285, 316 
vi. 1,2. 248,249, 253 

— 4 160 

vii. 7 71 

viii. 3, 4, 5. . 62, 316 
ix. 11 123 

— 16 125 

X. 1 125 

— 19, 20 . . 149, 153 

Heb. X. 25. 
— 38 . 
xiii. 5 . 

—9 . . 352, 359, 

— 10 

— 17 . 354, 359, 
St. James i. 17 . . 


iv. 6. . '. . . i09, 
V. 1 

— 14, 15 . . . 

— 16 

1 St. Peter i. 3— 9.367, 

— 9 

ii. 5 

— 11 

— 13, 14. .354, 

— 19 

iii. 17 

— 21 

iv. 7 

2 St. Peter i. 4 . . 

— 20 

ii. 1 356, 

— 15 

— 19 

1 St. John i. 1 . . . 

iii. 1, 2 ... . 
iv. 6 

— 12, 13. . . 
v. 4 142, 

3 St. John 9, 10 . . 
St. Jude 3 

17, 18 .... 

Rev. iv. 1 

xiv. 1 

XV. 6 

xix. 8 

— 10 







Absolution by the priest alone standing, why, 14. 

19. 20. remission of sins by the priest ; what it is not. 

15. 16. what it is, 16. three parts of repentance, 17. 
Absolution, the several forms of it in the service, 18. 

all in sense and virtue the same, 19. 
Advent Sundays, 90. 
Altar, 303. 

"Afj-fiuvofthe Church, what, 301. 
Answers of the people in public prayers, why, .59. 
Apocryphal books may be read in the Church, 40. 
Ash-Weduesday, 116. — caput jejunii, ib. dies cinerum. ib. 

the solemnity then used upon sinners, 117. 
Ascension-day, 149. hath proper Lessons and Psalms, 

150. the antiquity thereof, 156. 

Baptism, 228. St. John iii. 3. expounded, 229. benedic- 
tion or consecration of the water in baptism, used 
only for reverence and decency, not for necessity, 230. 
not thought necessary by the Church, 231. infants to 



O o 

384 INDEX. 

be baptized, ib. &c. interrogatories at baptism ancient 
and reasonable, 233, 236. ancient abrenunciations in 
baptism, 234, &c. abrenunciation not absolutely ne- 
cessary to baptism, 238. ancient exorcisms, what, ib. 
observed uniformiter in universo mundo, 239. names 
given at baptism, why, ih. susceptores, godfathers, 237. 
their promises bind the child, ih. dipping or sprinkling 
sufficient in baptism, 239. thrice dipping of old to 
signify the mystery of the Trinity, 240. why after- 
wards but once, ih. See Fovt. Sign of the cross 
used in baptism, and in the forehead, and why, 241. 
necessity and efficacy of baptism, 229. guardians con- 
tract for pupils, 237. he that is baptized may baptize 
in case of necessity, 242. 

Baptism ministered by the ancients at Easter. See Easter. 

Baptism is janiia sacramentorum, 268. 

Baptism, private, 242. in case of necessity in any decent 
place, ib. justified against objections, 243, &'c. 

Bidding of Prayers, 203. ancient, 205. no prayer before 
sermon but the Lord's Prayer, 203. nothing said before 
sermon of old but gemina salutatio, 203. restraint of 
private prayers in public necessary, 204. 205. bid- 
ding of prayers practised by Bishops Latimer, Jewel, 
&c. 206. 

Blessing, by whom to be pronounced, 71- how to be 
received, 72. God blesseth by the mouth of His 
minister, ih. the priest giving the blessing comes down 
from the altar, and why, 228. 

Burial and the rites thereof, 281, &c. ancient custom 
after burial to go to the holy communion, 285. funeral 
doles an ancient custom, ih. 

6 o 

o— — o 

INDEX. 385 


Candlemas, 184. procession peculiar to it, 185. antiquity 
thereof, 186, 

Chorus Cantorum, what, 302. soleas, ayiov $ri/jLa, the 
sanctuary, what, 302. apsis, avi/Qpovos, altar, 303, 
&c. Tpoire^o npodtcxeus, what, 305. (rKevo(pvXdKeioy, 
what, ib. diaconicum, what, 306. the respect given to 
altars, ih. 

Christmas- day, 93. proper psalms for it, 93, 94. frame of 
the Church Service that day admirable, 95. antiquity 
of the day ; and upon the 25th of December, 96. 

Chrysomes, what, 143. 

Churches, chapels dedicated to God's service, 293. 
chancels, and the fashion of churches, 299. divided 
into the nave and chancel, 299, 300, 301, 302. nave, 
what it is, 300. chancel, why so called, 302. vipQj)^, 
what, wpaias, what, &^oiv, what, 301. 

Church, mother, why so called, 240. description of the, 70. 

Churching of Women, and the rites thereof, 285, 286. 
of Psalm cxxi. and a doubt about one expression 
therein cleared, 287, 288. women to be churched must 
offer, 291. to be veiled, and why, 286, &c. 

Collects, why so called, 63. called of old missee, blessings, 
sacramenta, and why, 64. by whom composed, 65. 
object of them, ib. their form and proportion, 66. the 
matter of them, 67. for peace, 68. for grace, 69. for 
kings, ib. for the Church, 70. from Septuagesinia to 
Easter, 128. from Trinity to Advent, 168. 
Commandments repeated at the Communion Service, 193. 
Commination, 291. Amen in the commination, and what 
it meaneth, 292. 

3 D 



386 INDEX. 

Common Praj'ers set and prescribed, andwhy, 1, 2. but one 
and the same in the whole national Church, 2. public 
prayers of the Church called the Apostles' prayers, 
why, 5. essentials only of public worship appointed 
under the Gospel, 4. public service more acceptable 
than private, 8. and why, ib. accepted of God not 
only for the present, but absent also on just cause, 9. 
strange worship, what, 7. Divine service may be said 
privately. See Service. 

Communion Service, 191. second service, ib. to be read 
at the holy table, ib. the Church by reading the 
second service there keeps her ground, ib. why so 
called, 192. much of the order of the Communion 
Service set forth out of Dionysius, Eccles. Hierar. 199, 
200, 201. the thrice holy triumphant song, 216. the 
consecration of the holy Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper, in what words it consists, 216, 217. the bread 
and wine common before the consecration, 217. the 
Priest to receive the sacrament first, 218. the sacra- 
ment to be delivered to the people in their hands, ib. 
kneeling, ib. Amen to be said by the communicant, 
and the reason of it, 220. the sacrament of old deli- 
vered to the people at the rails of the holy table, ib. 
thrice a year every parishioner to commimicate, at 
Easter by name, 221. in the primitive church they 
communicated every day, ib. how they failed, 222. 
care of the Church to reduce the primitive order, 223. 
why at Easter, ib. bread and wine remaining after the 
consecration, how to be disposed of, 225. the Angeli- 
cal hymn, when simg and why, 226, 227. it was made 
of old by ecclesiastical doctors, the penalty of refusing 

o^ _ o 

o_ o 

INDEX. 387 

it, 227. Eux^ dirtaOdfifiwyos, why so called, 228. 
washing of hands before the consecration, why, 201. 
this sacrament to be received fasting, 218. 

Commmiion of the Sick, 266. that the communion is 
not to be denied to persons dangerously sick, appears 
by the 13th Can. Con. Nice, 267. the several degrees of 
penance for wasting sins in the Greek Church, 272, 
273, &c, TlpooKKalovres, 272. 'AKpo<i>fj.evoi, 'Tiroiri- 
TTTovTes, who, 273. 'SvvicTTdfj.fvoi, Mirexoyrfs, who, 
ib. Nap9i7|, ferula, what, ib. KaraWayi), Xdpis, what, 
275, 276. how much of the Communion Service shall 
be used at the delivery of the communion to the sick, 
in case there had been that day a communion, 280. 

Confession by Priest and people with an humble voice, 
12, 13. service begins with it, and why, 13. 

Confirmation, when to be administered, and why then, 
244, 245. a godfather to witness the confirmation, 246, 
confirmation the act of the Bishop, ib. imposition 
of hands the most ancient and apostolical rite of con- 
firmation, 248. benefit of confirmation, 249, &c. to 
continue in the Church while militant, 253. a fimda- 
mental, ib. 

Consecration of churches and chapels. See Dedication. 

Creed, Apostles', upon what occasion made, 47. to be 
said daily twice, morning and evening, 48. by Priest 
and people, why, 50. standing, why, 51. 

Creed, Athanasius', 51, when used, and why, 52. 

Creed, Nicene, why so called, 198. called also the Con- 
stantinopolitan, and why, ib. when begun to be used 
at the Communion Service, ib. why read after the 
Epistle and Gospel, ib. 

O O 

O o 

888 INDEX. 

Cross in the forehead used in baptism, 241. 

Curates, what meant by, 70. 

Dedication of churches and chapels to God's service, 293. 
reasons why, 295, &c. advantage of having our services 
performed in such places, 297, 298. that service may 
be said privately, and why, 308. 

Dominica in Albis, or post Albas rather, why so called, 

Dominica refectionis, 122. 

Dominica Vacat, or Vacans, which, and why so called, 

Doxology, or " Glory be to the Father," &c. 25. 31. 77- 

Dyptics, 200. 


Easter-day, special hymns instead of the usual invitatory, 
130. proper psalms for it, 132. and proper lessons, 
135, &c. antiquity thereof, 136. contention in the 
Church when to be kept, 137. determination of the 
Nicene Council about it, ib, how to find out Easter, 

Easter- week, Monday and Tuesday in, why kept, 139. 
Easter solemnized of old fifty days together, ib. bap- 
tism ministered anciently at no times but the eves of 
Easter and Whitsuntide, 141. the new baptized come 
to church in white vestures, with lights before them, 
ib. baptism ministered all times of the year, 142. 
KvpiaKri Kajxirpa, Easter, 161. 

Ejaculations commended by St, Augustine, 59. 

Ember Weeks, 118. which they are, 119. why Wednes- 
day, Friday, and Saturday, observed in them, ib. 

o _o 

o— o 

INDEX. 389 

Epiphany used of old for Christmas-day, 105. mistakes 
upon the identity of the word, 1 06. in Latin Epiphanise, 
why, ib. antiquity thereof, 107. Sundays after the 
Epiphany, ib. &c. 

Epistles, 85. antiquity and fitness of the Epistles and 
Gospels, 85, 86. Epistles from Trinity to Advent, and 
the reason of their choice, 170, &c. 

Exorcisms used in baptism, 238. 

Fast See Lent, Good- Friday, &c.; if a fast for a holy- 
day fall upon a holyday, then the fast is to be kept 
the day before that, 105. 

Feast of Circumcision, or New Year's Day, 101. of alater 
institution, ib. great solemnities have some days after 
them in prorogationem festi, ib. 

To feast on Friday is not to hold communion with the 
Catholic Church, but with the Turks, 81. week of 
fasts, which, and why so called, 124. some feasts have 
fasts before them, why, 102. others none, why, 104, 

Festivals ; St. Andrew, 183. Conversion of St. Paul, ih. 
why kept rather than the day of his death, 184. St. 
Philip, 186. St. James, 188. the Apostles in the pri- 
mitive times, had not several days of solemnity, saith 
Durandus, 187. not probably though, one day for all, 
ib. in the Latin Church the Calends or first of May, 
in the Greek the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, ib. 
no fast on St. Philip and St. James, why, 188. St. 
John Baptist his birth celebrated, and why, 189. his 
beheading, ib. St. Michael and all Angels, why a feast 
then, 190. tutelar Angel of the Church of the Jews, 

o o 

o o 

390 INDEX. 

and so of the Christians, ib. All Saints, why kept, ib. 
St. Stephen, St. John, and Holy Innocents, 97, 101. 
ohservations of Saints' days ancient, 99. days of Saints' 
deaths kept rather than their births or baptism, why, 
99, 100. Purification of St Mary, 184. 
Font, baptism to be at the font, 240. why so called, ib. 
placed in the church porch significantly, ib. after, in 
churches, but not all ; but only in the city church, 
hence called the mother church, ib. in high venera- 
tion, 241. 


Glory be to the Father, &c. is both hymn and creed, 25. 
a fit close for any religious services, ib. Glory be to the 
Father, &c. said at the ends of psalms ; never quar- 
relled at by any till Arius, 32. Glory be to the Father, 
&c. in the Litany, 77. 

Glory be to Thee, O Lord, reason of saying it when the 
Gospel is named, 196. Thanks be to God for this 
Gospel, used to be said after the Gospel, and the reason 
of it, 198. 

Godfathers, 237. 

Good-Friday, a most strict fast, why so called, 127. Gos- 
pel out of St. John, why upon that day, ib. antiquity 
thereof, 128. 

Gospel, rites used at the reading of the Gospel, 196, &c. 
standing at the Gospel, 197. to kiss the book the 
fashion in some places, 198. 

Gospels, and the reason of their choice, 85. reason of 
saying Glory be to Thee, O Lord, at the Gospel, 197, 
&c. the Gospels from Trinity to Advent, 169. 

o — — o 

C Q 

INDEX. 391 


Holydays, 82. are either fasting days or festivals, ib. of 
excellent use, 83. particular festivals, 83, 84, 85. See 

Holy Table, so called considering the Eucharist as a 
sacrament, 304. the Altar, so called considering the 
Eucharist as a sacrifice, ib. and so it is called Heb. xiii. 
10. and St. Matt v. 23. 304. Altars always had in 
high estimation, 306. Holy Tables set where the 
Altars stood, ib. 

Holy week, which, and why so called, 124. called also 
great week, 123. 

Hymns, the antiquity of them, 41. most properly to be 
sung, 42. and why, ib. the profit of it, ib. standing 
the proper posture of hymns, 43. why, ib. Te Deum 
framed miraculously by St. Ambrose and Augustine, 
44. why, hymns after lessons, ib. and why those ap- 
pointed, ib. Magnificat, Nunc dimittis quarrelled at, ib. 
answered, 45. 


Lent, the antiquity thereof, 113. in imitation of Moses, 
Elias, and our Saviour, 114. why not kept immediately 
after Christ's baptism, 114, 115. why called Lent, 115. 
in Lent, the glory of the Altar hid, why, 46. Benedi- 
cite then used, ib. Te Deum, Benedictus, Magnificat, 
Nunc dimittis, may be said more often, excepting in 
Lent and Advent, why, 46. 

Lessons, of the choice of them out of the Old and New 
Testament, 33, 38. mingling services of divers sorts a 
wise constitution of the Church, why, 34. at the reading 
of the Lessons the Minister is to turn to the people, 34, 

o o 

o o 

392 INDEX. 

35. the Prophet Isaiah read last before Christmas, and 
why, 39. a several course in reading lessons; ordi- 
nary, 38. for Sundays 39. for Saints' days, ib. 

Let us pray, often used, and why, 55, 56. 

Litany, 73. used in processions, why, 74. used at the 
commiuiion, ordinations, &c. ib. probably derived 
from the Apostles' times, ib. donum precum, 75. of 
the Litany of our Church, ib. the sum of it, 76. 
the nature of it ; short ejaculations, 76. the former 
part of the Litany may be said by a Deacon, as in 
cathedral and collegiate churches; the latter peculiarly 
by the Priest, and why, 78, 79. secreta, what they are ; 
the reason of them, 79. the Litany, when to be said, 
and why then, 81. the Litany a distinct service, 192. 

Lord's Prayer, 22. frequent use thereof, why, ib. dox- 
ology omitted in the Lord's Prayer, why, 23. " But 
deliver us from evil. Amen," said by the people, when 
and why, ib. " Give us this day our daily bread," un- 
derstood by the Fathers of the Eucharist, 221. 222. 
no prayer before sermon but the Lord's Prayer, 203. 

Salutations : " The Lord be with you," of the use of 
them, 53. " And with Thy Spirit," ib. excellent 
incentives to charity, 54. 

Lord have mercy, &c. a short Litany, frequently used in 
ancient liturgies, 56. seasonably at all parts of the 
service, 57. set before the Lord's Prayer; why, 58. 

Marriage, three ends of it, 254. contract of marriage 
called by St. Augustine voforum solennitas, ib. the 
bride given by father or friend, why, 255, &c. the 
ring a pledge of fidelity, 256. why upon the fourth 

6 ^ O 

o — o 

INDEX. 393 

V finger of the left hand, ib. " With my hody I thee 
worship," the meaning of it, 256. Psalm cxxviii. the 
epithalamium used by the Jews at nuptials, 259. de- 
vout prayer and the Holy Communion very useful and 
highly Christian at marriages, 259. the Jews' religious 
solemnities at marriages ib. the primitive Christians 
used the like solemnities at marriages which we do, ib. 
which the Church received from the Apostles, 260. 
Maunday Thursday, dies mandaii, why so called, 125. 
practice of the Church upon that day, and form of 
reconciling penitents, 126. 
Missa catechumenorum, 193. 

Morning Prayer, Litany, and Communion Service, three 
distinct services, 194', &c. the several places and times 
of the performance of them, ib. nine in the morning 
the usual hour for the Communion Service, and why, 
195. morning and evening prayer to he said daily, 
3. public prayers of the church called the Apostles' 
prayers, why, 5. 

Nave of the church, what, 300. 
N<£peijf of the church, what, 301. 
New-year's day. See Festivals. 

Octave of Christmas, 101. 

Octave or utas of high feasts observed by our forefathers, 
142. upon which, some part of the service of the 
feast, repeated, ib. why eight days allowed at high 
feasts, 214. how the prefaces for those eight days can 
be properly used on each of them, 215. See Prefaces. 
Offerings, Oblations, a high part of God's service, 206. 

o o 

3 E 

O — o 

394 INDEX. 

a duty of the Gospel, proved, 207, 208, &c. when 
most necessary, 208, 209. 

Offerings at the churching of women, 291. 

Ornaments to be used in time of Divine service, why, 310. 

Penance for wasting sins, in the Greek Church. See 

Praying with the Spirit. A man may safely use David's 
forms, as being composed by the Spirit, 29, 30, 31- 
donum precum peculiar to the Apostles' times, 75. of 
bidding of prayer, 204, 205. 

Prefaces proper for some great days, 212. an argument 
that the Church intends the prorogation and continu- 
ance of those feasts, 213. how this prorogation is to 
be understood, 213, 214. 

Priests are the Lord's remembrancers, 9, 10. bound to 
say daily morning and evening prayer, 3. reason of the 
Priest's sometimes kneeling and sometimes standing, 
61. giving the blessing, came down from the Altar, why, 
228. what the word signifies, 312. it may be applied to 
the Ministers of the Gospel, reasons why, 313. not a 
Jewish name, why, 316. Ministers of the Gospel called 
Priests by the Prophet Isaiah, ih. 

Psalms read over every month, why, 27, 28, &c. fit for 
every temper and time, 29. sung or said by course 
by Priest and people, why, 31. standing why, ib. trans- 
lation of the Psalms in our English liturgy, 317- 
objections against some passages in the translation 
of the Psalms, 317, &c. 


Remission and Repentance. See Absolution. 

o o 

o o 

INDEX. 395 

Rogation days, service and procession formerly appointed, 

Rogation week, why so called, 147. litanies and fasting, 
then, ib. the fast then is voluntary, 148. no fast 
betwixt Easter and Whitsunday, ib. 
Sanctuary of the Church, what, 302. 
Secreta, what they are ; the reason of them, 79. 
Sermon, when, 201. usually an exposition of part of the 
Epistle or Gospel, &c. of the day, ib. not above an 
hour long, 203. preachers in their expositions appointed 
to observe the Catholic interpretation of the old Doc- 
tors, 202. golden canons about preachers, ib. no 
prayer before the sermon but the Lord's Prayer, 203. 
Divine service may be said privately, and the reason 
why, 308. 
Sunday, Passion, why so called, 123. 

Palm, why so called, ib. 

Low, why so called, 143. 

Rogation, why so called, 147. 

Septuagesima, so called, a consequentia nume- 

randi, 111. 
Sundays, Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima, 
preparatives to Lent: Regulars fasted those weeks, 
111, 112. 
Surplice used in holy ministrations, 311. 


Trinity Sunday, the octave of Pentecost, or dominica 

vacans, 165. how ancient, ib. proper lessons, 166. of 

the Sundays after Trinity, till Advent, 168. the last 

Sunday after Trinity, a preparative to Advent, Lath 

o -o 

O ■ o 

396 INDEX. 

therefore an Epistle purposely chosen out of the Pro- 
phet Jeremiah, prophesying of Christ's Advent, 173, 


Venite, an invitatory psalm, 26. 

Verses or Versicles and responds ; the reason of placing 
the verses after the confession, &c. and before the 
psalms, 24. 

Versicles and answers by Priest and people, a holy emu- 
lation, 59. answers of the people, the benefit of them, 
ib. versicles and responds, 289. some of the answers 
are not entire sentences, but parts or ends of the fore- 
going verses, the reason why, ih. 

Vestry, why so called, 305. 

Viaticum, applied to more things beside the Eucharist, 
267. only the Eucharist is ullimum viaticum, ib. 

Vigils turned into fasts, why, 103. 

Visitation of the sick, 262. orders of the Church about 
and at it, &c. ib. examination of the faith of the sick 
person, 262. and of his life and conversation, 263. no 
true repentance without restitution, ib. the sick per- 
son to be admonished to settle his estate, 264. and to 
be liberal to the poor, 265. sick persons to send for 
the Priest, 276. to what purpose, 277. prisoners 
anciently visited by the Archdeacon or Bishop, 279. 
Whitsunday, 157. appointed'of old for solemn baptism, 
159. why called Pentecost, ib. and Whitsunday, 160. 
and why, ib. KvpiaK^i Ao^uirpo, Easter, 161. Whit- 
sunday hath proper lessons and psalms, ib. of the 
antiquity of it, 164.